Alexander Nevsky by Dmitriy Karabanov.ppt
- Количество слайдов: 15
By Karabanov Dmitry
Alexander Nevsky (30 May 1220 - 14 November 1263) was a Russian Prince, and later a Saint of the Russian Orthodox Church. Nevsky was a deft military tactician and an emphatic leader who rose to legendary status on account of his military victories over the German and Swedish invaders. He became Grand Prince of Vladimir in 1252 and chose to pay tribute to the powerful Golden Horde, this alliance keeping the medieval Russia from being a Mongolian target.
Family Born in Pereslavl -Zalessky, Alexander was the second son of Prince Yaroslav Vsevolodovich and Rostislava Mstislavna, daughter of Kievan Rus' Prince Mstislavich the Bold. Alexander seemed to have no chance of claiming the throne of Vladimir. Marriage and children According to the Novgorod First Chronicle, Alexander married first a daughter of Bryacheslav Vasilkovich, Prince of Polatsk and Vitebsk, in 1239. They had five children: -Vasily Alexandrovich, Prince of Novgorod (c. 1239– 1271). -Eudoxia Alexandrovna. Married Konstantin Rostislavich, Prince of Smolensk. -Dmitry of Pereslavl (c. 1250– 1294). -Andrey of Gorodets (c. 1255 – 27 July 1304). -Daniel of Moscow (1261 – 4 March/5 March 1303). He married a second wife named Vasilisa or Vassa shortly before his death. They had no known children.
“Without the command of God there would not have been this prince. ” -“Fight me if you have the courage, for I am already here and I am taking your land. ” -“The power of God is not in numbers, but in truth. ”
Great victories Three main military victories: -Swedes to the north on the Neva River -Teutonic Knights (Livonian Brothers of the Sword) -Lithuanians
The Neva Battle After the Swedish army had landed at the confluence of the rivers Izhora and Neva, Alexander and his small army suddenly attacked the Swedes on 15 July 1240 and defeated them. The Neva battle of 1240 saved Rus' from a full-scale invasion from the North. Because of this battle, 19 -year-old Alexander was given the sobriquet "Nevsky" (which means of Neva).
The Battle on the Ice ("Battle on Lake Peipus“) After Pskov had been invaded by the Germans and Estonians, the Novgorod authorities sent for Alexander. In spring of 1241 Nevsky gathered an army, and drove out the invaders. Nevsky faced the enemy on the ice of the Lake Peipus and defeated the German knights and Estonian infantry during the Battle of the Ice on 5 April 1242.
Political Victories -Battle of Neva and his revenge on the Swedes -Peace Treaty after Livonian invasion -Treaty with the Golden Horde -Grand Prince of Vladimir
Politician After the Livonian invasion, Nevsky continued to strengthen Russia’s Northwest. He sent his envoys to Norway and, as a result, they signed a first peace treaty between Russia and Norway in 1251. Alexander led his army to Finland successfully routed the Swedes, who had made another attempt to block the Baltic Sea from the Russians in 1256. Nevsky proved to be a cautious and far-sighted politician. He dismissed the Roman Curia’s attempts to cause war between Russia and the Golden Horde, because he understood the uselessness of such war with the Tatars at a time when they were still a powerful force.
Grand Prince of Vladimir Thanks to his friendship with Sartaq Khan, Alexander was installed as the Grand Prince of Vladimir (i. e. , the supreme Russian ruler) in 1252.
Legacy Veneration of Alexander Nevsky as a saint began soon after his death. The remains of the prince were uncovered in response to a vision, before the Battle of Kulikovo in the year 1380. He was glorified (canonized) by the Russian Orthodox Church in 1547. His principal feast day is 23 November. By order of Peter the Great, Nevsky’s relics were transported to the Alexander Nevsky Lavra in St. Petersburg where they remain to this day. A second feast day was instituted on 30 August in commemoration of this event. He is also commemorated in common with other saints of Rostov and Yaroslavl on 23 May. -Unselfish defender of Russia and its people -Victory against the Swedes, the Lithuanians, and the Teutonic Knights -Modus vivendi with Mongolian overlords
Alexander Nevsky Lavra, Saint Petersburg
Hymns Troparion (Tone 4) Christ revealed you, O Blessed Alexander As a new and glorious worker of wonders; A man and a prince well pleasing to God And a divine treasure of the Russian Land. Today we assemble in faith and love To glorify the Lord by joyously remembering you. He granted you the grace of healing, Therefore entreat Him to strengthen your suffering spiritual children, And to save all Orthodox Christians. Kontakion (Tone 8) We honor you as a most radiant, spiritual star, Rising up from the east; going down in the west! As you enriched the Russian people with good works and miracles, So now enlighten us who remember you in faith, O Blessed Alexander. Today as we celebrate your falling asleep, we ask you to beseech the Lord That He may strengthen his suffering servants and save all Orthodox Christians!
Alexander's proverbial phrase, "Whoever will come to us with a sword, from a sword will perish, " has become a slogan of Russian patriots. Alexander Nevsky's fame has spread beyond the borders of Russia, and numerous cathedrals and churches are dedicated to him, including the Patriarchal Cathedral in Sofia, Bulgaria; the Cathedral church in Tallinn, Estonia. Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Sofia Mosaic of Nevsky on the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Tallinn.
Alexander Nevsky's helmet sword