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Описание презентации British History The Beginnings • People по слайдам
The Beginnings • People probably arrived in the British Isles about 300, 000 years ago. • New settlers from Europe arrived in Britain about B. C. 4000 • In about B. C. 3000 these people started using stone as building material.
The Celts, tribes originally from Central Europe, arrived in Britain after B. C.
The Celts They were expert metal workers and made iron tools, weapons, helmets and armours. With bronze and gold they created coins, mirrors, ornaments, small statues and beautiful jewellery. They often decorated their work with birds, animals, and interlacing abstract patterns, which are still popular.
The Celts Celtic bronze mirror
The Romans • Romans invaded Britain twice: in B. C. 55, and in A. D. 43. • Britain became part of the Roman Empire and was called Britannia, after the name of one of the Celtic tribes (Britons). • Romans brought their language, their culture, they built roads and beautiful villas, they founded important towns.
The Romans Roman and Celtic culture mixed: for example Romans built new public baths in Aquae Sulis (the modern town of Bath) and dedicated them both to the Roman goddess Minerva and to the Celtic goddess Sulis.
The Romans Roman baths in Bath
The Romans • The Picts, people from the North, did not accept Roman rule. They attacked Romans. • To hold them back, Emperor Hadrian built a system of fortifications that crossed England “coast to coast”. • It still exists and is known as Hadrian’s Wall
• During the last period of Roman rule Christianity was introduced to the British Isles • About A. D. 410 Romans left Britain: the Empire was collapsing. • After a short time Germanic tribes invaded Britain.
Angles, Saxons and Jutes
• Celts escaped to Scotland, Wales, and Cornwall, where their language still exists. • They fought against the new invaders. One of the Celtic leaders who fought against Anglo-Saxons became the figure of a legend: King Arthur But Celts were defeated. • Britannia became Angles’ Land: England
Angles, Saxons and Jutes They founded seven kingdoms. Three of them gave the name to present day counties: Kent, Sussex, and Essex.
Angles, Saxons and Jutes • They brought with them their culture • They were fine craft workers, as Celts were. • Most of what we know about Anglo-Saxon art comes from the burial ship of Anglo-Saxon king Redwald, which was found in 1939 at Sutton Hoo, in the South of England.
Sutton Hoo Treasure King Redwald’s Helmet (7 th century)
Sutton Hoo Treasure Purse Lid gold — animal decorations
Sutton Hoo Treasure A necklace, a buckle, a shoulder clasp
Angles, Saxons and Jutes • They also brought their dialects, which are collectively known as Old English. • Old English is very different from modern English. For example Old English had letters which no longer exist
The Vikings Viking Longship England was unified under one crown. In the 9 th century peoples from Norway and Denmark invaded Britain Anglo-Saxons fought back. Vikings were defeated by King Alfred the Great They were called Vikings