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Brand Definition and Valuation Prof. Atul Tandan Director MICA E-mail: [email protected] ac. in
What is a Brand? “ A brand is name, term, sign, symbol, or design, or a combination of them, intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competition. ” American Marketing Association (AMA) Source: Competing for choice: developing winning brand strategies by Lars Finskud
What is a Brand? “ A brand is a complex symbol, it is the intangible sum of a products attributes, its name, packaging, and price, its history, reputation, and the way it is advertised. A brand is also defined by consumers’ impression of the people who use it, as well as their own experience. ” Advertising guru David Ogilvy, 1955 Source: Competing for choice: developing winning brand strategies by Lars Finskud
What is a Global Brand? • Global brand is basically the same product or service everywhere, with only minor variation (as Coca-Cola and Guinness) • Global brand has the same brand essence, identity and values (as Mc. Donald’s and Sony do) • Global brand uses the same strategic principles and positioning (as Gillette does) • Global brand employs the same marketing mix as far as possible Source: Branding by Geoffrey Randall
Brand Rating Definitions Rating Definition AAA Extremely strong AA Very strong A Strong BBB Average BB Under-performing B Weak CCC Very weak CC Extremely Weak C Failing Note: In some instances the ratings are altered by the addition of a plus (+) or (-) Sign to reflect their more detailed positioning in comparison with the general rating group Source: Sri Lankan’s most valuable brands. LMD the voice of business. Vol. 13(8), March 2007, p. 102.
Brand Value/Power Bases • • • Growth rates Market share History Price premiums Brand awareness Brand’s ability to earn Source: Sri Lanka’s leading brands. Retrieved May 31, 2007 from http: //www 2. singer 1. com/singer/events/brand_league. html
India’s 100 Most Valuable Brands • • • Image & perception Brand awareness Brand loyalty Brand association Brand preferences Source: 4 Ps Business and Marketing Vol. 2, Issue No. 8, 25 May – 7 June 2007, p. 88.
Brand Iceberg Brand experience externally Brand experience internally Name Advertising Logo Brand Equities Environment Products and Services Brand Values Management - control structures Internal Communications Business Process Investor Relations Customer Relations Training Quality Staff Motivation Knowledge Management Recruitment Policies HR Policies & Processes Technology Source: http: //www. brandchannel. com/images/papers/bankonthebrand. pdf
Thank You Email: [email protected] ac. in