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BHG I: PENYELESAIAN PERTIKAIAN ALTERNATIF (Alternative Dispute Resolutions) FEM 4123 DR MUSLIHAH HASBULLAH BHG I: PENYELESAIAN PERTIKAIAN ALTERNATIF (Alternative Dispute Resolutions) FEM 4123 DR MUSLIHAH HASBULLAH

PENDEKATAN TRADISIONAL TERHADAP PERTIKAIAN Pertikaian personal atau komersil biasanya melibatkan perasaan berikut: marah sedih, PENDEKATAN TRADISIONAL TERHADAP PERTIKAIAN Pertikaian personal atau komersil biasanya melibatkan perasaan berikut: marah sedih, kecewa, tidak pasti, bimbang dan keinginan untuk tidak mahu dipersalahkan. Perasaan ini jika tidak ditangani akan mengaburi konflik yang sebenar di mana yang menjadi isu kini bukan lagi wang atau gantirugi tetapi ‘prinsip’ peribadi.

Sambungan Individu akan menyakinkan diri bahawa dialah yang betul dan mula melihat pihak yang Sambungan Individu akan menyakinkan diri bahawa dialah yang betul dan mula melihat pihak yang satu lagi sebagai penipu, musuh dan perancang masalah tanpa memberi peluang untuk perbincangan. Pihak yang satu lagi juga akan mempunyai pandangan yang sama. Pertikaian yang sebegini akan berlanjutan dan tiada kesudahan serta merosakkan hubungan di masa hadapan.

Sambungan Amalannya, khidmat guaman akan digunakan bagi membawa pertikaian/konflik ke mahkamah untuk diselesaikan secara Sambungan Amalannya, khidmat guaman akan digunakan bagi membawa pertikaian/konflik ke mahkamah untuk diselesaikan secara adversari. Walaupun keputusan mahkamah mungkin adil tetapi kemungkinan melibatkan kos yang tinggi, mengambil masa yang lama dan hanya berpihak kepada satu pihak tetap ada.

Sambungan Pendekatan penyelesaian konflik secara menang-kalah di mahkamah akan menyebabkan pihak yang kalah mengalami Sambungan Pendekatan penyelesaian konflik secara menang-kalah di mahkamah akan menyebabkan pihak yang kalah mengalami kekecewaan. Pihak yang menang juga mengalami kerugian dari aspek masa yang dihabiskan dan kos yang perlu ditanggung.

PENDEKATAN ALTERNATIF Menyedari kelemahan sistem adversari ini, kaedah penyelesaian alternatif diperkenalkan: ü Mediasi ü PENDEKATAN ALTERNATIF Menyedari kelemahan sistem adversari ini, kaedah penyelesaian alternatif diperkenalkan: ü Mediasi ü Arbitrasi ü Negosiasi ü Perbicaraan Mini ü Ombuds ü Konferen Penyelesaian

MEDIASI Mediasi adalah satu proses persendirian di mana pihak ketiga yang neutral akan membantu MEDIASI Mediasi adalah satu proses persendirian di mana pihak ketiga yang neutral akan membantu pihak yang terlibat berbincang mengenai pertikaian mereka. Pihak yang terlibat mempunyai peluang untuk menjelaskan isu, kepentingan, kefahaman dan perasaan masing.

Sambungan Mereka juga akan berkongsi maklumat -maklumat yang relevan dan cuba bertolak ansur dan Sambungan Mereka juga akan berkongsi maklumat -maklumat yang relevan dan cuba bertolak ansur dan bersama-sama memikirkan penyelesaian terbaik terhadap pertikaian mereka. Penyertaan pihak terlibat dalam proses mediasi adalah secara suka rela dan mediator tiada kuasa untuk membuat keputusan terhadap pertikaian.

Sambungan Tugas mediator: membantu pihak terlibat melihat pertikaian mereka secara konstruktif supaya keputusan yang Sambungan Tugas mediator: membantu pihak terlibat melihat pertikaian mereka secara konstruktif supaya keputusan yang adil dan boleh diterima oleh kedua-dua pihak dicapai. Mediator mendengar, memberi peluang pihak terlibat meluahkan perasaan, melakukan eksplorasi isu, membina kepercayaan di antara pihak terlibat dan beri galakan di mana perlu. Aspek kerahsiaan diberi perhatian – without prejudice.

ARBITRASI Proses persendirian di mana pihak bertikai bersetuju seorang/beberapa individu akan membuat keputusan selepas ARBITRASI Proses persendirian di mana pihak bertikai bersetuju seorang/beberapa individu akan membuat keputusan selepas mendengar pembuktian dan hujah daripada kedua-dua pihak. Proses seakan-akan perbicaraan. Perbezaaan: lebih cepat dan kurang formal, arbitrator tidak perlu merujuk undang-undang tertentu dalam membuat keputusan.

NEGOSIASI Proses suka rela dan tidak formal di mana pihak bertikai mengenalpasti dan melakukan NEGOSIASI Proses suka rela dan tidak formal di mana pihak bertikai mengenalpasti dan melakukan eksplorasi isu, cuba mencapai persetujuan bersama dalam menyelesaikan isu yang timbul. Pihak bertikai boleh diwakili oleh peguam. Perbezaan dengan mediasi – tiada individu neutral yang membantu pihak bertikai bernegosiasi.

PERBICARAAN MINI Proses persendirian di mana peguam kedua pihak membentangkan kes seperti dalam perbicaraan. PERBICARAAN MINI Proses persendirian di mana peguam kedua pihak membentangkan kes seperti dalam perbicaraan. Selepas pembentangan penasihat neutral dan wakil kedua pihak (biasanya eksekutif kanan) cuba menyelesaikan pertikaian.

Sambungan Jika gagal: penasihat neutral atas permintaan pihak bertikai boleh menjadi mediator dan memberi Sambungan Jika gagal: penasihat neutral atas permintaan pihak bertikai boleh menjadi mediator dan memberi pandangan tentang keputusan yang mungkin dibuat jika kes ke perbicaraan.

OMBUDS Pihak ketiga yang dilantik oleh institusi contohnya, universiti, hospital, agensi kerajaan untuk menyiasat OMBUDS Pihak ketiga yang dilantik oleh institusi contohnya, universiti, hospital, agensi kerajaan untuk menyiasat aduan oleh pekerja, pelanggan atau wakil rakyat. Pihak ketiga ini akan menyiasat aduan secara bebas dan adil. Proses suka rela, persendirian dan non -binding.

KONFEREN PENYELESAIAN Pihak yang bertikai bersama hakim yang ditugaskan akan berjumpa dan cuba menyelesaikan KONFEREN PENYELESAIAN Pihak yang bertikai bersama hakim yang ditugaskan akan berjumpa dan cuba menyelesaikan kes sebelum perbicaraan. Hakim seorang yang neutral dan bantu pihak bertikai melihat pilihan-pilihan penyelesaian. Proses biasanya singkat, kurang penglibatan pihak bertikai dan isu biasanya isu legal.

BENEFITS OF ADR Speed Cost-effectiveness Confidentiality Control Commercial Focus Positive Relationship BENEFITS OF ADR Speed Cost-effectiveness Confidentiality Control Commercial Focus Positive Relationship

CASES SUITABLES FOR ADR The cost of litigaton is expected to be disproportionate to CASES SUITABLES FOR ADR The cost of litigaton is expected to be disproportionate to the claim. The parties are deadlock in settlement negotiations. Complexity of law, facts or relations are likely to protract/prolong particularly susceptible to appeal. There are multi-actions involving common parties.

Continue The issues are highly complex and involve multi-parties. The issue involved sensitive or Continue The issues are highly complex and involve multi-parties. The issue involved sensitive or require the disclosure of sensitive information. The parties do not wish for any publicity.

CASES NOT SUITABLE FOR ADR When a legal, commercial or other precedent needs to CASES NOT SUITABLE FOR ADR When a legal, commercial or other precedent needs to be set. Where summary judgement is available quickly and efficiently. Parties require emergency injunction or other protective relief. Where publicity is actively sought. Where there is no real interest of settlement.

KESIMPULAN Penyelesaian pertikaian alternatif memberi peluang dan ruang kepada pihak bertikai untuk berbincang dan KESIMPULAN Penyelesaian pertikaian alternatif memberi peluang dan ruang kepada pihak bertikai untuk berbincang dan bertolak ansur – penyelesaian cara baik. Pendekatan gain-gain. Jika gagal, pihak bertikai masih boleh membawa kes ke mahkamah kecuali jika proses berbentuk binding arbitration.

KESIMPULAN Penglibatan peguam bergantung kepada jenis penyelesaian pertikaian alternatif yang dipilih. Peguam biasanya terlibat KESIMPULAN Penglibatan peguam bergantung kepada jenis penyelesaian pertikaian alternatif yang dipilih. Peguam biasanya terlibat jika pihak bertikai diarah menggunakan ADR oleh pihak mahkamah. Biasanya peguam berperanan sebagai penasihat atau advokat.

KESIMPULAN “Discourage litigation. Persuade your neighbour to compromise whenever you can. Point out to KESIMPULAN “Discourage litigation. Persuade your neighbour to compromise whenever you can. Point out to them how the nominal winner is often really a loser…in fees, expenses and waste of time. As a peacemaker, the lawyer has a superior opportunity at being a good man. There will still be business enough” (Abraham Lincoln, 1850)

BHG II: MEDIASI UNDANG KELUARGA BHG II: MEDIASI UNDANG KELUARGA

MEDIASI KELUARGA Kaedah mediasi ini sebenarnya bukanlah satu kaedah baharu dalam menyelesaikan pertikaian. Kaedah MEDIASI KELUARGA Kaedah mediasi ini sebenarnya bukanlah satu kaedah baharu dalam menyelesaikan pertikaian. Kaedah ini telah lama digunakan di kebanyakan budaya timur seperti China, Jepun, Korea, India dan Malaysia sendiri. Malah dalam Islam telah wujud lebih 1400 tahun yang lepas. Arus permodenan menyebabkan sistem tradisi ini kurang berfungsi.

SAMB… Islam amat menggalakkan sebarang pertikaian di selesaikan dengan cara baik bagi mengelakkan permusuhan SAMB… Islam amat menggalakkan sebarang pertikaian di selesaikan dengan cara baik bagi mengelakkan permusuhan di antara pihak yang bertikai. Terdapat banyak ayat-ayat Quran yang menerangkan tentang prinsip penyelesaian pertikaian melalui kaedah perundingan.

SAMB… Surah An Nisa’: 114 “Tidak ada kebaikan pada kebanyakan bisik-bisikan mereka, kecuali (bisik-bisikan) SAMB… Surah An Nisa’: 114 “Tidak ada kebaikan pada kebanyakan bisik-bisikan mereka, kecuali (bisik-bisikan) orang yang menyuruh bersedekah, atau berbuat kebajikan atau mendamaikan di antara manusia. Dan sesiapa yang berbuat demikian dengan maksud mencari keredhaan Allah, tentulah Kami akan memberi kepadanya pahala yang amat besar”.

PRINSIP NILAI MEDIASI ‘Memaafkan itu amat mulia’. Konsep mediasi atau sulh yang dianjurkan oleh PRINSIP NILAI MEDIASI ‘Memaafkan itu amat mulia’. Konsep mediasi atau sulh yang dianjurkan oleh Islam dapat mengelakkan pihak yang bertikai menyimpan dendam antara satu sama lain. Hubungan kemanusiaan yang produktif di masa hadapan dapat dipelihara.

MEDIASI DAN KONFLIK KELUARGA Konflik keluarga melibatkan kes-kes seperti perkahwinan, perceraian, penjagaan anak dan MEDIASI DAN KONFLIK KELUARGA Konflik keluarga melibatkan kes-kes seperti perkahwinan, perceraian, penjagaan anak dan pembahagian harta. Banyak kajian lepas yang telah membuktikan perceraian memberi kesan negatif kepada kesejahteraan ahli keluarga terutamanya anak-anak. Dengan kaedah mediasi pasangan yang bercerai akan melalui proses perceraian secara baik (positive divorce).

SAMBUNGAN Nilai seperti hormat menghormati antara satu sama lain, kepercayaan, tolak ansur, cuba memahami SAMBUNGAN Nilai seperti hormat menghormati antara satu sama lain, kepercayaan, tolak ansur, cuba memahami dan yang penting cuba mencari penyelesaian untuk kebaikan bersama diberi perhatian. Pasangan yang bercerai masih boleh menjadi sahabat dan menjalankan tanggungjawab sebagai ibu dan bapa walaupun mereka tidak lagi tinggal sebumbung.

MEDIASI DAN MAHKAMAH Court-attached/assisted mediation telah lama diamalkan di Amerika Syarikat, Australia dan United MEDIASI DAN MAHKAMAH Court-attached/assisted mediation telah lama diamalkan di Amerika Syarikat, Australia dan United Kingdom. Di Asia Tenggara, Mahkamah Keluarga Singapura merupakan yang pertama menggalakkan kaedah alternatif ini. Sejak 1995, kebanyakan kes di Mahkamah Keluarga Singapura diselesaikan secara mediasi dan konsiliasi.

SAMB… Untuk kes perceraian yang ditentang (contested divorce cases), kurang 0. 5% kes yang SAMB… Untuk kes perceraian yang ditentang (contested divorce cases), kurang 0. 5% kes yang meneruskan prosiding perbicaraan di mahkamah. Litigation is therefore, used as a last resort after all attempts to settle the case amicably have failed.

MEDIASI UNDANG-UNDANG KELUARGA DI MAHKAMAH SYARIAH MALAYSIA Proses mediasi atau sulh setakat ini telah MEDIASI UNDANG-UNDANG KELUARGA DI MAHKAMAH SYARIAH MALAYSIA Proses mediasi atau sulh setakat ini telah dijalankan di Selangor (2002) dan Melaka. Penguatkuasaan sulh di Selangor berdasarkan seksyen 47 dan 48 Enakmen keluarga Islam 2003, seksyen 99, 94, 131 Enakmen Kanun Prosedur Mal Syariah Selangor (2003) dan Kaedah Tatacara Mal (Sulh) Syariah Selangor 2001.

SAMB… Negeri-negeri lain sedang dalam proses mendraf prosidur proses sulh ini dalam enakmen keluarga SAMB… Negeri-negeri lain sedang dalam proses mendraf prosidur proses sulh ini dalam enakmen keluarga masing. W. Persekutuan sudah ada tetapi belum dikuatkusakan. Mahkamah Syariah akan menasihatkan pihak yang terlibat supaya berunding dahulu (proses sulh) secara baik bagi mencapai persetujuan terhadap penyelesaian pertikaian.

IMPAK PERCERAIAN TERHADAP KANAK-KANAK Kes-kes yang digalakkan untuk proses sulh termasuklah pertikaian berkaitan harta IMPAK PERCERAIAN TERHADAP KANAK-KANAK Kes-kes yang digalakkan untuk proses sulh termasuklah pertikaian berkaitan harta pusaka, penjagaan anak, perceraian, nafkah anak, muta’ah dan harta sepencarian. Daripada 307 kes sulh yang didaftarkan di antara Mei hingga Julai 2002, hanya 38 kes menggunakan kaedah penyelesaian di mahkamah.

SAMB… Pada tahun 2003, 90% kes sulh berjaya diselesaikan (Berita Harian). Mediasi undang-undang keluarga SAMB… Pada tahun 2003, 90% kes sulh berjaya diselesaikan (Berita Harian). Mediasi undang-undang keluarga (sulh) tidak dinafikan telah berjaya membantu mahkamah syariah dalam mengurangkan jumlah kes-kes tertunggak.

KAJIAN LEPAS BERKAITAN MEDIASI KELUARGA Research studies across a number of countries have emphasized KAJIAN LEPAS BERKAITAN MEDIASI KELUARGA Research studies across a number of countries have emphasized that family lawyers tend to take a conciliatory and cooperative rather than adversarial approach to practice (Hunter, 2003). Mediatory approaches and negotiated outcomes are less costly in economic and emotional terms than courtassisted outcomes, particularly where children are involved and provide better basis for continuing parental responsibility following divorce.

SAMB… Court professionals are not trained to handle emotionally-charge litigants in dealing with very SAMB… Court professionals are not trained to handle emotionally-charge litigants in dealing with very private, family related matters (Beck, 1999). The proponent of family law mediation state that mediation combines the personal/relational and legal aspects of divorce by offering parties a confidential and cooperative problemsolving process (Folberg & Milne, 1988).

SAMB… The central quality of mediation lies in its capacity to re-orientate the parties SAMB… The central quality of mediation lies in its capacity to re-orientate the parties toward each other, not by imposing rules on them, but by helping them to achieve a new and shared perception of their relationship, a perception that will direct their attitudes towards one another (Fuller, 1971).

SAMB… Beck and Biank (1997) describe the process of divorce mediation as one that SAMB… Beck and Biank (1997) describe the process of divorce mediation as one that 'empowers and supports' the divorcing couple both during and after the divorce. The opportunity to develop or maintain a constructive parental relationship and a belief that agreements are workable and fair under the existing circumstances (Emery & Wyer 1987, Pearson & Thoennes 1984)

RUMUSAN Menangani pertikaian dari perspektif yang konstruktif membuka ruang kepada penyelesaian yang mengambil kira RUMUSAN Menangani pertikaian dari perspektif yang konstruktif membuka ruang kepada penyelesaian yang mengambil kira kebaikan bersama. Penyelesaian cara baik amat penting dalam menangani pertikaian keluarga kerana hubungan keluarga adalah hubungan yang suci lagi berkekalan. Berakhirnya ikatan perkahwinan tidak menamatkan tanggung jawab seseorang sebagai ibu dan bapa

BHG III: REKONSILIASI & TRIBUNAL PERKAHWINAN RECONCILIATION AND MARRIAGE TRIBUNAL BHG III: REKONSILIASI & TRIBUNAL PERKAHWINAN RECONCILIATION AND MARRIAGE TRIBUNAL

RECONCILIATION Steps at reconciliation must be taken by the parties to a marriage. S. RECONCILIATION Steps at reconciliation must be taken by the parties to a marriage. S. 55(1) Law Reform (Marriage & Divorce) 1976 : before presentation of a petition for divorce, the petitioner should have recourse to the assistance and advice of such persons or bodies…for the purpose of effecting reconciliation.

CONTINUE S. 55(2): if there is reasonable possibility of a reconciliation, the court may CONTINUE S. 55(2): if there is reasonable possibility of a reconciliation, the court may adjourn the proceedings for such period as it deems fit to enable attempts for reconciliation. S. 57(2): every divorce petition must clearly state that steps had been taken to effect reconciliation. S. 106 exempts this requirement for divorce under ss. 51 (conversion to Islam) and 52 (mutual consent).

CONTINUE S. 106(1) other exemptions: 1. Petitioner has been deserted. 2. Respondent residing abroad. CONTINUE S. 106(1) other exemptions: 1. Petitioner has been deserted. 2. Respondent residing abroad. 3. Respondent failed to attend reconciliation. 4. Respondent is imprisoned for a term of 5 yrs or more. 5. Respondent suffering from incurable mental illness. 6. Court satisfied that reference to conciliatory body impracticable.

CONCILIATORY BODY A council set up for the purpose of reconciliation by the appropriate CONCILIATORY BODY A council set up for the purpose of reconciliation by the appropriate authority of any religion, community, clan or association. A Marriage Tribunal – a unit in the Department of National Registry. Any other body approved by the Minister in charged of the registration of marriages. If conciliatory body failed to reconcile the parties – refer to Marriage Tribunal for the area in which the parties reside. If parties are living in different area – the Marriage Tribunal for the area they last reside together.

CONTINUE The conciliatory is given 6 months to resolve the matrimonial difficulty. Parties cannot CONTINUE The conciliatory is given 6 months to resolve the matrimonial difficulty. Parties cannot be represented by lawyers. Family members may represent the parties. Any other person must get the leave from conciliatory body to represent parties. Fail to reconcile: issue certificate to the effect. May append recommendation regarding to maintenance, division of matrimonial property and custody of infant children, if any.

PROBLEMS AND DIFFICULTIES FACED BY CONCILIATORY BODY Familial ties – parties seek help from PROBLEMS AND DIFFICULTIES FACED BY CONCILIATORY BODY Familial ties – parties seek help from family members. Failed: consult lawyer who will advise on procedures, requirements, implications relevant to divorce proceeding. Decision to go ahead with petition for divorce – signals the absence of any likelihood of reconciliation. So, reference to conciliatory is a waste of time and resources.

WEAKNESSES OF MARRIAGE TRIBUNAL The members of conciliatory are strangers – parties hesitant to WEAKNESSES OF MARRIAGE TRIBUNAL The members of conciliatory are strangers – parties hesitant to disclose private details of their marriage. Presumption of bias, judgmental, unhelpful, prejudice, impartial. Frequent postponements of hearing due to difficulty in securing attendance of all members on the appointed dates. Delay aggravate tense and unfortunate situation of the parties.

The members of conciliatory body are not experts on the issues. – unable to The members of conciliatory body are not experts on the issues. – unable to perform duty efficiently. Appointment of member to the Marriage Tribunal is not permanent – could not make decision because members are transferred to other department. Attendance to conciliation process in not compulsory. Lack of coordination, standardization and direction (Nora, 2005).

BHG IV: SULH AND TAHKIM BHG IV: SULH AND TAHKIM

SULH Literal: termination of a dispute. Terminology: an agreement entered into by the disputing SULH Literal: termination of a dispute. Terminology: an agreement entered into by the disputing parties for the purpose of settling once and for all the dispute between them. Process of restorative justice and peacemaking. Process of resolving dispute amicably.

TAHKIM z Literal: to make someone as an arbitrator (hakam) and to authorise him TAHKIM z Literal: to make someone as an arbitrator (hakam) and to authorise him to make judgement. z Terminology: an appointment by the disputing parties of someone (hakam) to judge between them. z Hakam is like a judge who has the power to give judgement. z A form of sulh.

AUTHORITIES OF SULH z Can be found in several places in the Qur’an. Eg: AUTHORITIES OF SULH z Can be found in several places in the Qur’an. Eg: Al Hujurat: 9, A; Nisa’: 35, 114, 128, Al Baqarah: 178, 182, 224, 228. z “If you fear a breach between them (husband wife) appoint two arbiters, one from his family and the other from hers. If they wish for peace, Allah will cause their conciliation, for Allah hath full knowledge, and is acquainted with all things” – Al Nisa’: 35

Continue z Hadith: “Sulh is permissible among Muslims except the one which makes the Continue z Hadith: “Sulh is permissible among Muslims except the one which makes the unlawful as lawful and which makes the lawful as unlawful. Muslims are bind by their promises except promises that permit the unlawful as lawful and the lawful as unlawful” – narrated by Kathir bin Abd Allah. z Sunnah: the setting of Hajar Aswad during the reconstruction of Ka’bah.

SULH IN FAMILY DISPUTE z Matters: relating to property rights, non-property rights or rights SULH IN FAMILY DISPUTE z Matters: relating to property rights, non-property rights or rights that arise either during the marriage or after divorce. z Hakam or mediator is under a duty to render justice in his judgement. z “Whoever judge between two disputing parties (by way of tahkim) and both of them agree with the arbitrator whereas he does not do justice between them, Allah will curse him. ” – hadith Prophet Muhammad s. a. w.

DISTINCTION BETWEEN SULH AND TAHKIM: SULH: Voluntary and parties consented. Hakam plays the role DISTINCTION BETWEEN SULH AND TAHKIM: SULH: Voluntary and parties consented. Hakam plays the role of a Mediator facilitate the judge - excluding the discussion of the issues in formal procedure. dispute. Hakam make the decision Disputants responsible for on the issues of dispute. the agreement. The decision is binding as The agreement is not if it is made by the court. binding unless endorsed Can be used to resolve by the court. future dispute. Use to resolve past or Quasi-judicial present dispute. Informal.

PROVISIONS ON SULH z 1 st state to draft the procedure: Federal Territories of PROVISIONS ON SULH z 1 st state to draft the procedure: Federal Territories of Kuala Lumpur. Later followed by Selangor and Melaka. z Proactive state in implementing sulh: Selangor. z Relevant laws in Selangor: 1. The Family Law Enactment 2003 (IFLE): s. 47, 48. 2. The Syariah Court Civil Procedure Enactment 2003 (SCCPE) : s. 99, 94 and 131. 3. The Syariah Civil Procedure (Sulh) Rule 2001.

SECTION 47 IFLE– CONCILIATORY COMMITTEE z S 47(5): “Where the other party does not SECTION 47 IFLE– CONCILIATORY COMMITTEE z S 47(5): “Where the other party does not consent to the divorce or it appears to the court that there is reasonable possibility of a reconciliation between the parties, the court shall, as soon as possible, appoint a conciliatory committee consisting of a religious officer as Chairman and two other persons, one to act for the husband the other for the wife and refer the case to the committee. ” z In practice: Counselling registration Department Chairman is usually the head of family and Development Unit or the Head of of Marriage and Revocation Unit in the of Islamic Religion of Selangor.

EXEMPTION OF SECTION 47 Desertion. Residing outside Peninsular Malaysia – unlikely to be within EXEMPTION OF SECTION 47 Desertion. Residing outside Peninsular Malaysia – unlikely to be within the jurisdiction of the court within 6 months. Imprisonment for a term of 3 yrs and more. Incurable mental illness. Exceptional circumstances which make reference to a conciliatory committee impracticable.

SECTION 48 IFLE - HAKAM z The court may appoint two hakam to act SECTION 48 IFLE - HAKAM z The court may appoint two hakam to act on behalf of the husband wife respectively if it is satisfied that there is constant quarrels between them. z Preference: close relatives who know the circumstances of the case. z Hakam will be directed by the court. z If the hakam are unable to agree or if the court dissatisfied with their conduct: appoint another hakam.

SS 99, 94 AND 131 SCCPE 2003 z S. 99: Any parties to a SS 99, 94 AND 131 SCCPE 2003 z S. 99: Any parties to a proceeding may convene sulh at any stage of the proceeding according to the established rules and procedure. z Absence of those rules and procedure: hukum syarak. resort to z S. 94: recording of settlement reached in any proceeding including sulh. The record of settlement shall afford as a defense by way of res judicata. z S. 131: Judgement based on consent or agreement of parties including sulh may be recorded at any time.

THE SYARIAH CIVIL PROCEDURE (SULH) RULES 2001 Enforced in 2002. Not applicable in divorce THE SYARIAH CIVIL PROCEDURE (SULH) RULES 2001 Enforced in 2002. Not applicable in divorce cases. Determination of date: on registration day. Sulh will convene in 21 days. Failure to attend Majlis Sulh: penalised – imprisonment not more than 6 months or a fine not more that RM 2000. Confidential Non-compliance of Consent Order amount to contempt of court

JABATAN KEHAKIMAN SYARIAH MALAYSIA z Play important role in upgrading the quality of services JABATAN KEHAKIMAN SYARIAH MALAYSIA z Play important role in upgrading the quality of services of the syariah courts. z Provide Working Manual and Code of Ethics to guide sulh officers in performing their duty effectively. z Provide ongoing training to enhance mediation skill. z All sulh officers must attend training course conducted by The Accord Group, an international (based in Sidney, Australia) dispute resolution firm specializing in mediation. z Eg. of Skills imparted: conflict management, communication, how to represent client. z Qualified for Associate membership of the UK Chartered Institute of Arbitrators.

CASES THAT CAN BE RESOLVED BY SULH z z z S. 13 : consent CASES THAT CAN BE RESOLVED BY SULH z z z S. 13 : consent of wali. S. 18(1) (c): Wali hakim S. 23(1): Poligamy S. 47: Application of divorce S. 49: Khulu’ S. 50: Ta’liq S. 53: Fasakh S. 57: Confirmat’n of divorce S. 58: Mut’ah S. 60: Maintenance S. 66: ‘Iddah maintenance S. 67: Amendment of wife maintenance S. 70: Outstanding maintenance S. 73: Maintenance of children S. 82: Custody of children S. 122: Harta sepencarian S. 133: Failure to abide maintenance order S. 154: Enforcement order

SULH PROCESS z Review case file. z Ensures sulh officer has jurisdiction and Notice SULH PROCESS z Review case file. z Ensures sulh officer has jurisdiction and Notice has been served or not to parties in sulh. z Conduct Majlis Sulh. z Agreed: record agreement in sulh, draft Consent Agreement, review Consent Agreement, z Court endorsed Consent Agreement: Judgement Order z Disagreed: proceed for trial in court, Judgement Order. z Case closed.

EFFECTIVENESS OF SULH IN SELANGOR z 64% as compared to 34% cases referred for EFFECTIVENESS OF SULH IN SELANGOR z 64% as compared to 34% cases referred for trial. Only 2 % adjourned. (JAKESS: May 2002 to December 2006). z Of 2555 cases registered from May 2002 to December 2003, 68% were succesfully settled by sulh, 26% by trial in court and only 6% adjourned (Raihanah, 2005). z 87% parties of sulh reported that they were highly satisfied with sulh, 13% reported that thay were moderately satisfied with sulh, none reported having low satisfaction with sulh (Sa’odah, 2010). z Majority or the parties of sulh were able to discuss issues resulted from their divorce and together they came up with agreed aolution (Sa’odah, 2010). z 97% parties of sulh would recommend sulh to any person having similar problems (Sa’odah, 2010).

CONSLUSION z z z Sulh is very effective in resolving dispute amicably. Empowering process. CONSLUSION z z z Sulh is very effective in resolving dispute amicably. Empowering process. Gain-gain situation. Preserve future relationship between parties in dispute. Spill-over result: decrease of backlog cases in court.