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Beyond Academics’ Physical Mobility: The Many Ways of Internationalisation Keynote Speech at the Forum Beyond Academics’ Physical Mobility: The Many Ways of Internationalisation Keynote Speech at the Forum Flanders Knowledge Area “Staff Mobility – Mobility of the Mind” “How to Develop a Sustainnable HR Strategy? ” Brussels, 8 March 2016 Ulrich Teichler International Centre for Higher Education Research Kassel INCHER-KASSEL Kassel University [email protected] uni-kassel. de

Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 2 “Mobility of the Mind” – Both a Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 2 “Mobility of the Mind” – Both a Reminder an Effort of Moving Away “Mobility of the Mind” – Both a Reminder of Dominant Theme and an Effort of Moving Away from Dominant Theme of Internationalisation, i. e. Physical Mobility The theme of the Forum „Mobility of the Mind“, obviously, is led by the intention of moving away from the dominant theme of internationalisation of higher education, i. e. physical mobility. This is valuable approach to broaden our perspectives on internationality of higher education.

3 Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind The Aims of This Presentation n Locating 3 Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind The Aims of This Presentation n Locating theme “Mobility of the Mind” on the overall map of “internationalisation of higher education”, n Naming major dimensions and issues of “Mobility of the Mind” (related to the Forum questions: Why is M. important? What is M. exactly? n Not discussing the institutional conditions supportive for Mobility of the mind (this will be theme of other presentations).

4 Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind Internationalisation and Internationality § Most public debates 4 Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind Internationalisation and Internationality § Most public debates refer to internationalization: “-zation” indicates a growth trend. § Two objections: (a) There is no consistent § growth in every respect. (b) The message of most debates is: Internationality is important – no matter whether it will grow further or not. Therefore, “internationality” is the better term for most phenomena discussed in this framework.

Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 5 The Range Beyond the Nation o Regional: Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 5 The Range Beyond the Nation o Regional: select countries, o International: Cross-border amidst relevant borderlines, o Global: Cross-border amidst fadingaway borderlines.

Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 6 Widespread Notions of Internationalisation (I) Source: Hans Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 6 Widespread Notions of Internationalisation (I) Source: Hans de Wit et al. Internationalisation of Higher Education. Brussels: European Parliament, 2015. o “The most commonly accepted definition of internationalisation is ‘the Process of integrating an international, intercultural, or global dimension into the purpose, functions or delivery of post-secondary education (Knight, 2008). (p. 38)”. o“Internationalisation … includes credit and degree mobility for students, academic exchange and the search for global talent, curriculum development and learning outcomes, franchise operations and branch campuses, for both cooperation and competition”. (p. 38)

Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 7 Widespread Notions of Internationalisation (II) o Activities Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 7 Widespread Notions of Internationalisation (II) o Activities analyzed which are addressed in national policies of internationalisation of higher education: mobility, internationalisation at home (curriculum, teaching and learning, learning outcome, joint and double degrees; digital learning/virtual mobility, research, funding, services (p. 38). o Key performance indicators: international students, international staff, students studying abroad, participation in international programmes, languages of instruction, partnerships, transnational operations, capacity building in developing countries (p. 38).

Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 8 Major Targets of Inter- nationalisatio of Higher Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 8 Major Targets of Inter- nationalisatio of Higher Education Major benefits of internationalisation – the view of European universities (IAU Global Survey 2012): o Improved quality of teaching and learning, o Enhanced international cooperation and capacity-building, o Increased international awareness of/deeper engagement with global issues by students. Major reasons for European HEIs to focus on internationalisation (EAIE Barometer 2014): o Improve the overall quality of education at our institution, o To prepare students for a global world, o To attract more international students/To improve international reputation/To improve the quality of research and development

Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 9 Major Dimensions of Internationalisation – Comparative Survey Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 9 Major Dimensions of Internationalisation – Comparative Survey of the Academic Profession Futao Huang, Martin Finkelstein and Michele Rostan (Eds. ). The Internationalization of the Academy. Dordrecht: Springer, 2014: o o o o o Migration and mobility, International content and perspectives in teaching, Teaching abroad, International scope of research, Collaboration with international colleagues, Co-authorship with colleagues in other countries, Publishing in a foreign country, International research funding, Teaching / publishing in language other than primary institutional language, Primary teaching / research language is not mother tongue.

Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 10 Steps Beyond the Widespread Notions (de Wit Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 10 Steps Beyond the Widespread Notions (de Wit et al. , 2015) o o o “Emerging areas of focus are internationalisation of the curriculum, transnational education and digital learning. ” (p. 27) “Greater recognition is given to the important role of academic and administrative staff …” (p. 30). (Also recommendation: Support the important role …) One of ten recommendations: “Pay more attention to the importance of ‘Internationalisation at home’, integrating international and intercultural learning outcomes into the curriculum for all students”. (p. 30) “Conceptual development of internationalisation – the ‘what’ and ‘how’ but also the ‘why’ and ‘for whom’ …“ (p. 33). “Comprehensive internationalisation: a commitment, confirmed through action, to infuse international and comparative perspectives throughout the teaching, research and service missions of higher education. It shapes institutional ethos and values …” (p. 44) (J. K. Hudzik. Comprehensive Internationalization. New York: Routledge, 2015). “Staff with international experience can bring added value to the classroom …”(p. 47)

Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 11 Four Major Categories of Internationality o Physical Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 11 Four Major Categories of Internationality o Physical mobility (students, academic staff, others), o Other operations of border-crossing (e. g. virtual knowledge transfer, “trans-national education”, international research collaboration, etc. ), o Substantive internationality of learning, knowledge, competence, understanding etc. (e. g. “internationalisation at home”, “international education”, foreign language proficiency, “intercultural understanding”, etc. ), o Other countries as models for higher education policy and reform (e. g. imitating the leading countries, “European convergence”, etc. ). o “Mobility of the mind” is a theme of the third category.

Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 12 Some Issues of International Student Mobility Relevant Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 12 Some Issues of International Student Mobility Relevant in this Context n Our information on physical student mobility is not as good as many observers tend to believe (e. g. poor statistics: mobile vs. foreign, exclusion of short-term mobility, no information on the event of student mobility during the course of study, etc. ). n Sometimes, we consider features of “mobility” as so small that we do not count them as “mobility”, (e. g. “short visits”, mobility near the border between NL and B). n The borderline is not that clear: see “foreigners”, “migration background”, “professional migration”, “intercultural experience”; mobility in multi-cultural countries (e. g. Belgium). n Physical mobility might serve internationalisation without physical mobility: e. g. teaching staff mobility as one element of students’ “internationalisation at home”. n Physical mobility might be embedded as small components in larger “non-mobile” elements of internationality, e. g. temporary mobility” wihtin an “international study programme”.

Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 13 International Student Mobility Serves Substantive Purposes Most Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 13 International Student Mobility Serves Substantive Purposes Most frequently named purposes: o. Academic enhancement, o. Other knowledge enhancements (e. g. knowledge on other countries, foreign language proficiency), o“Learning from contrasts” (comparative awareness and reasoning), o. Intercultural understanding”, “global awareness”, etc. (values) Is “physical mobility” the best mode or even a questionable mode of contributing to these substantive purposes? We might argue: International student mobility is as good and as bad as “internships” as regards professional problem-solving.

Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 14 Some Issues of International Academi Staff Mobility Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 14 Some Issues of International Academi Staff Mobility Relevant in This Contex (I) o. Our information on physical academic staff mobility is extremely poor (e. g. poor statistics – different categories in educational and research statistics, mostly on “foreign” academics, separate statistics as regards different purposes of mobility, etc. ). o. Sometimes, we consider features of “mobility” as so small that we do not count them as “mobility”, (e. g. “short visits”, attending conferences abroad, etc. ). o. The borderline is not that clear: see “foreigners”, “migration background”, “professional migration”, “inter-cultural experience”; mobility in multi-cultural countries (e. g. Belgium and Switzerland).

Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 15 Some Issues of International Academi Staff Mobility Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 15 Some Issues of International Academi Staff Mobility Relevant in This Contex (II) o Typology of international academic staff mobility as regards activity: (a) short visits, (b) periods of life (e. g. doctorate abroad), (c) professional migration. o Typology of international academic staff mobility as regards life/career stages: (a) Migration background and early migration, (c) student mobility, (d) doctorate mobility, (e) early career mobility, (f) professional migration. o Physical mobility might be embedded as small components in larger “non-mobile” elements of internationality, e. g. “visits” in the framework of international research collaboration.

Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 16 International Academic Mobility Serves Substantive Purposes Some Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 16 International Academic Mobility Serves Substantive Purposes Some operational objectives: o. Academic knowledge transfer, o. Other knowledge transfer (e. g. knowledge on other countries, foreign language proficiency), o. Joint academic activity/production in general, o. Comparative academic work, o. Offering other ways of reasoning, other values etc. Major goals: o. Increase of the quality of education and research, o. Increasing “international knowledge” (languages, knowledge of other countries), o. Intercultural understanding, comparative reasoning, etc.

Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 17 Other Operations of Border. Crossing n Traditional Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 17 Other Operations of Border. Crossing n Traditional modes of knowledge transfer (e. g. books), n Virtual knowledge transfer (“digital learning”, “open education”, “MOOCs”, international distance education, etc. ), n “Transnational higher education” (organisation and degree of universities, departments or study programmes controlled by foreign university vs. “collaborative TNE”/”foreignbacked universities”), n International university partnerships, n Others.

Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 18 International Activities Possibly, but not Necessarily Linked Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 18 International Activities Possibly, but not Necessarily Linked to Physical Mobility n “Internationalisation at home”, n “International education”, n Regional studies, international studies, n Foreign language acquisition and use of foreign languages in teaching/learning and research, n International academic communication and discourse, n International research collaboration and related (including joint publications), n International universities (study programmes, etc. ), n Others.

19 Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind Other Countries as Models for Highe Education 19 Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind Other Countries as Models for Highe Education Policy and Reform Higher education policies of individual countries or institutions are driven by a combination of three rationales: (a) Identifying the best solution somewhere else; (b) idiosyncratic approach, (c) political option. o. Notably, international organisations are active in dissemination of various options all over the world and possibly “best practice” (critique: “international epidemiology”). o. In some historical periods: increasing interest in practices abroad. o“Europeanisation”, “internationalisation” and “globalisation”: Following the dominant international views of “best practice” become a “must”. o. Widespread critique: The search for the internationally “best practice” and its imitation are counterproductive to “international understanding” and “global mind”.

20 Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind Substantive Internationality – Students and Learning (I) 20 Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind Substantive Internationality – Students and Learning (I) o In recent text: the term “international education” is not employed anymore. o Internationalisation at home: “The purposeful integration of international and intercultural dimensions into the formal and informal curriculum for all students within domestic environments” (Beelen and Jones, 2015). o Defining, developing and assessing intercultural and international competences. o Internationalisation of the curriculum: “a means of preparing … graduates to live and work in a globalised world” (de Wit et al. , 2015, p. 50) – “incorporation of international, incultural and/or global dimensions into the content of the curriculum” (Leask, 2015).

Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 21 Substantive Internationality – Students and Learning (II) Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 21 Substantive Internationality – Students and Learning (II) o. Global citizenship: … to live and work … (knowledge, skills, ethics) (de Wit et al. , pp. 50 -51). o. Global citizenship”: “An attitude or disposition towards others and the world; underpinned by moral and transformative cosmopolitism and liberal values (openness, tolerance, respect and responsibility for self, others and the planet); … a mind-set for mature, critical, ethical and interconnected thinking …” (Lilley, 2014).

Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 22 Substantive Internationality and the Role of the Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 22 Substantive Internationality and the Role of the Academic Profession Marginal role in the de Wit et al. 2015 report on internationalisation of HE; only some purposes mentioned: n n n Emphasis: Academics are important for teaching and learning, research and third mission. Recommendation: “There is a need to break down the barriers between internationalisation of research and education … Greater synergy will lead to a win-win situation for both …” (p. 286). Danger: “Given that internationalisation has become increasingly driven by rationales …, there is a clear danger that academic values and principles are at risk”. (p. 286).

23 Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind “Mobility of the Mind” of Academi Staff 23 Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind “Mobility of the Mind” of Academi Staff (I) Invitation to the Forum 2016: “Mobility of the Mind can be defined as a mindset similar to the 21 st century skills and competences such as world citizenship, creativity, entrepreneurial spirit, selfreflection, language skills, intercultural skills, etc. ” o o o Also “non-mobile staff members”, Also “staff of supporting services”, The influence of physical mobility on Mobility of the Mind (conditio sine qua non? ) Assessment of Mobility of the Mind, How to introduce the concept to academics and how to train them.

Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 24 “Mobility of the Mind” of Academ Staff Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 24 “Mobility of the Mind” of Academ Staff (II) A glance at the Forum 2015: Many purposes named, e. g. Inspelen op globalisering en multiculturele samenleving, Meerwaarde: Modernisering - aanpassing aan globale, multiculturele, internationale maatschappij, o Meerwaarde van mobiliteit: opent de geest, stimuleert innovatie en creativiteit, stimuleert excellentie en kwaliteit, stimuleert netwerkig, stimuleert zelfstandighei, is noodzakelijk in de huidige globle competitiviteit. More operational contexts named, but not a single presentation on the “substance”, i. e. the way of thinking, the knowledge, the competencies acquired through staff mobility. o o

25 Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind “Mobility of the Mind” of Academic Staff 25 Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind “Mobility of the Mind” of Academic Staff (III) -Tentative Conclusions “Looking across borders” is viewed as valuable. This can be reinforced in many ways, whereby physical mobility is only one of the means. Means: o o o Outbound mobility, Contacts with inbound mobile students and staff, International collaboration (multiple modes), Designing and implementation of “international study programmes”, Inquiry and reflection.

“Mobility of the Mind” of Academic Staff (IV) -Tentative Conclusions: The Mindset – Seven “Mobility of the Mind” of Academic Staff (IV) -Tentative Conclusions: The Mindset – Seven Dimensions Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 26 o o o o Academic superiority (better knowledge, better networks, etc. ), Knowledge of other societies and cultures, Various knowledge/skills/attitudes conducive to handle the intern. world (foreign language proficiency, travelling and living somewhere else at ease, handling virtual communication, etc. ), Comparative reasoning, “learning from contrasts”, reflection of one’s own idiosyncracies, critical thinking, relativism (? ), “Intercultural understanding” in cognitive terms of empathy into other ways of thinking, values and behaviour, “Intercult. underst. ”, “global awareness”, etc. in terms of values (liberal and cosmopolitan v, respect for others, tolerance, etc. , “ 21 st century skills”: Socialisation into the mainstream of the globalized world (Competitiveness? Entrepreneurship? Extrinsic motivation? Managerial culture? Value relativism? Global village? Sustainability concern? What else? ).

Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 27 Ulrich Teichler: Publications on Academic Staff Internationality Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 27 Ulrich Teichler: Publications on Academic Staff Internationality and Mobility (I) o o o Teichler, U. ; Becker, P. ; Maiworm, F. , & Holtkamp, R. (1990). Experiences and Ca reers of Science and Engineering Fellows Supported by the European Community. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities (Research Evalua tion, Nr. EUR 12932 EN). Teichler, U. ; Lewsion, G. , & Massimo, L. (1991). Surveys of European Community transnational research fellows. Research Evaluation, 1(3), 137 -147. Kreitz, R. , & Teichler, U. (1995). Mobility of academic staff for teaching purposes. In De Groof, J. (Ed. ), The Legal Status of Teachers in Europe: Mobility and Education. Leuven & Amersfoort: Uitgeverij Acco, pp. 83 -97. Kreitz, R. , & Teichler, U. (1997). ERASMUS Teaching Staff Mobility: The 1990/91 Teachers' View. Kassel: Wissenschaftliches Zentrum für Berufs- und Hochschulforschung der Universität Ge samthochschule Kassel (Werkstattberichte, 53). Maiworm, F. , & Teichler, U. (1997). European Research Fellowships 1987 -1993: The Ex periences and Views of Fellows, Supervisors and Administrators Luxembourg: . Of fice for Official Publications of the European Communities. Enders, J. , & Teichler, U. (2005). Academics’ views of teaching staff mobility: The ERASMUS experience revisited. In Welch, A. (Ed. ), The Professoriate: Profile of a Profession. Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 97 -112.

Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 28 Ulrich Teichler: Publications on Academic Staff Internationality Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 28 Ulrich Teichler: Publications on Academic Staff Internationality and Mobility (II) o o o o Teichler, U. (2011). Academic staff mobility. In Teichler, U. ; Ferencz, I. , & Wächter, B. (Eds. ), Mapping Mobility in European Higher Education. Volume I: Overview and Trends. Bonn: DAAD, pp. 115 -149 (http: //ec. europa. eu/education /erasmus/doc 922_en. htm). Huang, F. ; Teichler, U. , and Galaz-Fontes, J. F. (2014). Regionalisation of higher education and the academic profession in Asia, Europe and North America“. In Huang, F. ; Finkelstein, M. , & Rostan, M. (Eds. ), The Internationalization of the Academy: Changes, Realities and Prospects. Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 145 -181. Jung, J. ; Kooij, R. , & Teichler, U. (2014). Internationalization of the new generation of academics. In Huang, F. ; Finkelnstein, M. , & Rostan, M. (Eds. ), The Internationalization of the Academy: Changes, Realities and Prospects. Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 207 -236. Teichler, U. (2015). Academic mobility and migration: What we know and what we do not know. European Review, 23(Supplement No. 1), 6 -37. Teichler, U. , & Cavalli, A. (2015). The diverse patterns and the diverse causes of migration and mobility in science. European Review, 23(Supplement No. 1), 112 -126. De Corte, E. ; Engwall, L. , & Teichler, U. (2016). Emerging Models of Learning and Teaching in Higher Education: From Books to MOOCs? London: Portland. Teichler, U. (2016). Mobility and internationalitiy of academics in the humanities and social sciences. European Review, 24(2), 253 -263.

Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 29 Ulrich Teichler: Select Publications on Internationalisation of Ulrich Teichler: Mobility of the Mind 29 Ulrich Teichler: Select Publications on Internationalisation of HE o. Teichler, U. (2004). The changing debate on internationalisation of higher education. Higher Education, 48(1), 5 -26. o. Kehm, B. M. , & Teichler, U. (2007). Research on internationalisation in higher education“. Jour nal of Studies in International Education, 11(3 -4), 260 -273. o. Teichler, U. (2007). Die Internationalisierung der Hochschulen: Neue Herausforderungen und Strategien. Frankfurt a. M. & New York: Campus. o. Teichler, U. (2008). The internationalisation of European higher education: Debates, policies, trends. In Gaebel, M. ; Purser, L. ; Wächter, B. , & Wilson, L. (Eds. ), Internationalisation of European Higher Education: An EUA/ACA Handbook. Berlin: Raabe, part A 2. 2 -1, pp. 1 -30. o. Janson, K. ; Schomburg, H. , & Teichler, U. (2009). The Professional Value of ERAS MUS Mobility: The Impact of International Experience on Former Students’ and on Teachers’ Careers. Bonn: Lemmens. o. Teichler, U. (2009 a). Internationalisation of higher education: European experiences. Asia Pacific Educa tional Review 10(1), 93 -106. , o. Teichler, U. (2009 b). Student mobility and staff mobility in the European Higher Education Area beyond 2010. In Kehm. B. M. ; Huisman, J. , & Stensacker, B. (Eds. ), The European Higher Education Area: Perspectives on a Moving Target. Rotterdam & Taipei: Sense, pp. 183 -201. o. Schomburg, H. , & Teichler, U. (Eds. ) (2011). Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduate in Europe: Key Results of the Bologna Process. Rotterdam: Sense. o. Teichler, U. ; Ferencz, I. , & Wächter, B. (Eds. ) (2011). Mapping Mobility in European Higher Education. 2 Volumes. Bonn: DAAD (http: //ec. europa. eu/ education /erasmus/doc 922_en. htm). o. Teichler, U. (2012): Excellence and internationality of higher education. In Wächter, B. ; Lam, Q. K. H. , & Ferencz, I. (Eds. ), Tying It All Together: Excellence, Mobility, Funding and the Social Dimension in Higher Education. Bonn: Lemmens, pp. 24 -56.