Скачать презентацию Beta-Beams Status and Challenges Elena Wildner CERN 2010 Скачать презентацию Beta-Beams Status and Challenges Elena Wildner CERN 2010

d6c3acfbca9a387e59682fbfc590578a.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 42

Beta-Beams Status and Challenges Elena Wildner, CERN 2010 -01 -07 Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beta-Beams Status and Challenges Elena Wildner, CERN 2010 -01 -07 Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beams, Elena Wildner 1

Acknowledgements FP 6 “Research Infrastructure Action - Structuring the European Research Area” EURISOL DS Acknowledgements FP 6 “Research Infrastructure Action - Structuring the European Research Area” EURISOL DS Project Contract no. 515768 RIDS) and FP 7 “Design Studies” (Research Infrastructures) EUROnu (Grant agreement no. : 212372) Particular thanks to M. Benedikt, FP 6 Leader M. Lindroos, A Fabich, S. Hancock M. Mezetto and all contributing institutes and collaborators 2010 -01 -07 Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beams, Elena Wildner 2

Outline n n n Beta Beam Concepts A Beta Beam Scenario The challenges n Outline n n n Beta Beam Concepts A Beta Beam Scenario The challenges n n n 2010 -01 -07 Isotope production Intensities Radioactivity Backgrounds & accelerators Other studies Conclusion Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beams, Elena Wildner 3

Beta-beams, recall Aim: production of (anti-)neutrino beams from the beta decay of radioactive ions Beta-beams, recall Aim: production of (anti-)neutrino beams from the beta decay of radioactive ions circulating in a storage ring with long straight sections. n Similar concept to the neutrino factory, but parent particle is a beta-active isotope instead of a muon. Beta-decay at rest n n n Accelerate parent ion to relativistic gmax n n n Boosted neutrino energy spectrum: En 2 g. Q Forward focusing of neutrinos: 1/g Pure electron (anti-)neutrino beam! n n-spectrum well known from the electron spectrum Reaction energy Q typically of a few Me. V E 0 Depending on b+- or b- - decay we get a neutrino or anti-neutrino Two different parent ions for neutrino and anti-neutrino beams Physics applications of a beta-beam n n 2010 -01 -07 Primarily neutrino oscillation physics and CP-violation (high energy) Cross-sections of neutrino-nucleus interaction (low energy) Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beams, Elena Wildner 4

Choice of radioactive ion species n Beta-active isotopes n n n Production rates Life Choice of radioactive ion species n Beta-active isotopes n n n Production rates Life time Dangerous rest products Reactivity (Noble gases are good) n n n 6 He and 18 Ne 1 ms – 1 s 1 – 60 s Reasonable lifetime at rest n n t 1/2 at rest (ground state) If too short: decay during acceleration If too long: low neutrino production Optimum life time given by acceleration scenario In the order of a second 8 Li and 8 B Nu. Base Low Z preferred n n n Minimize ratio of accelerated mass/charges per neutrino produced One ion produces one neutrino. Reduce space charge problems 2010 -01 -07 European Strategy for Future Neutrino Physics, Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beams, Elena Wildner 5

Some scaling n Accelerators can accelerate ions up to Z/A × the proton energy. Some scaling n Accelerators can accelerate ions up to Z/A × the proton energy. n L ~ / Dm 2 ~ g. Q , Flux ~ L− 2 => Flux ~ Q − 2 n Cross section ~ ~ g Q n n 2010 -01 -07 Merit factor for an experiment at the atmospheric oscillation maximum: M= g /Q Decay ring length scales ~ g (ion lifetime) Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beams, Elena Wildner 6

Beta beam options n n 2010 -01 -07 High Energy beta beams n Available Beta beam options n n 2010 -01 -07 High Energy beta beams n Available accelerators (or funding) n Synergies with super-beams n Available detectors n Physics reach: choice of baseline (distance to detector) Low energy beta beams n Off axis experiments n Low energy storage rings n Available detectors Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beams, Elena Wildner 7

Beta beam to different baselines 2010 -01 -07 Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beams, Elena Beta beam to different baselines 2010 -01 -07 Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beams, Elena Wildner 8

The EURISOL scenario(*) boundaries n n n Based on CERN boundaries Ion choice: 6 The EURISOL scenario(*) boundaries n n n Based on CERN boundaries Ion choice: 6 He and 18 Ne Based on existing technology and machines n n n EURISOL scenario Ion production through ISOL technique Bunching and first acceleration: ECR, linac Rapid cycling synchrotron Use of existing machines: PS and SPS Relativistic gamma=100 for both ions n n SPS allows maximum of 150 (6 He) or 250 (18 Ne) Gamma choice optimized for physics reach n Opportunity to share a Mton Water Cherenkov detector with a CERN super-beam, proton decay studies and a neutrino observatory n Achieve an annual neutrino rate of n n n (*) top-down approach 2. 9*1018 anti-neutrinos from 6 He 1. 1 1018 neutrinos from 18 Ne The EURISOL scenario will serve as reference for further studies and developments: Within Euron we will study 8 Li and 8 B 02/10/09 2010 -01 -07 FP 6 “Research Infrastructure Action - Structuring Elena. European the Wildner Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beams, Research Area” EURISOL DS Project Contract no. 515768 RIDS 9

The EURISOL scenario Decay ring Br = 1500 Tm Aimed: He 2. 9 1018 The EURISOL scenario Decay ring Br = 1500 Tm Aimed: He 2. 9 1018 ( 2. 0 1013/s after target) Ne 1. 1 1018 ( 2. 0 1013/s after target) B = ~6 T C = ~6900 m Lss= ~2500 m 6 He: 18 Ne: g = 100 93 Ge. V 0. 4 Ge. V 8. 7 Ge. V 1. 7 Ge. V Design report December 2009 Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beams, Elena Wildner 10

Intensity evolution during acceleration Bunch 20 th total 15 th 10 th 5 th Intensity evolution during acceleration Bunch 20 th total 15 th 10 th 5 th 1 st Cycle optimized for neutrino rate towards the detector 30% of first 6 He bunch injected are reaching decay ring Overall only 50% (6 He) and 80% (18 Ne) reach decay ring Normalization Single bunch intensity to maximum/bunch Total intensity to total number accumulated in RCS Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beams, Elena Wildner 11

Radioprotection Residual Ambient Dose Equivalent Rate at 1 m distance from the beam line Radioprotection Residual Ambient Dose Equivalent Rate at 1 m distance from the beam line (m. Sv h -1) RCS (quad - 18 Ne) PS (dip - 6 He) SPS DR (arc - 18 Ne) 1 hour 15 10 - 5. 4 1 day 3 6 - 3. 6 1 week 2 2 - 1. 4 Not a show stopper Annual Effective Dose to the Reference Population (m. Sv) RCS PS SPS DR 0. 67 0. 64 - 5. 6 (only decay losses) Stefania Trovati, Matteo Magistris, CERN-EN-Note-2009 -007 STI EURISOL-DS/TASK 2/TN-0225 -2009 -0048 Yacin Kadi et al. , CERN 2010 -01 -07 Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beams, Elena Wildner 12

Activation and coil damage in the PS M. Kirk et. al GSI The coils Activation and coil damage in the PS M. Kirk et. al GSI The coils could support 60 years operation with a EURISOL type beta-beam 2010 -01 -07 Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beams, Elena Wildner 13

Duty factor for bkg suppression. . 1014 ions, 0. 5% duty- (supression-) factor for Duty factor for bkg suppression. . 1014 ions, 0. 5% duty- (supression-) factor for atmospheric background suppression !!! . . 20 bunches, 5. 2 ns long, distance 23*4 nanosseconds filling 1/11 of the Decay Ring, repeated every 23 microseconds 2010 -01 -07 Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beams, Elena Wildner 14

Particle turnover in decay ring p-collimation Arc ion ect ht s ses aig y Particle turnover in decay ring p-collimation Arc ion ect ht s ses aig y los Str deca injection merging Momentum collimation Arc Straight section n Momentum collimation (study ongoing): ~5*1012 6 He ions to be collimated per cycle Decay: ~5*1012 6 Li ions to be removed per cycle per meter n Dump at the end of the straight section will receive 30 k. W n Dipoles in collimation section receive between 1 and 10 k. W (masks). 2010 -01 -07 Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beams, Elena Wildner 15

Duty factor and RF Cavities 1014 ions, 0. 5% duty (supression) factor for background Duty factor and RF Cavities 1014 ions, 0. 5% duty (supression) factor for background suppression !!!. . Erk Jensen, CERN 20 bunches, 5. 2 ns long, distance 23*4 nanosseconds filling 1/11 of the Decay Ring, repeated every 23 microseconds 2010 -01 -07 Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beams, Elena Wildner 16

Open Midplane Dipole (Decay Ring Arc) Cos design open midplane magnet Manageable (7 T Open Midplane Dipole (Decay Ring Arc) Cos design open midplane magnet Manageable (7 T operational) with Nb -Ti at 1. 9 K Aluminum spacers possible on midplane to retain forces: gives transparency to the decay products Special cooling and radiation dumps may be needed inside yoke. J. Bruer, E. Todesco, E. Wildner, CERN 2010 -01 -07 Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beams, Elena Wildner 17

Open mid-plane Quadrupole Mid-plane Energy deposited Open mid-plane Acknowledgments (magnet design): F Borgnolutti, E. Open mid-plane Quadrupole Mid-plane Energy deposited Open mid-plane Acknowledgments (magnet design): F Borgnolutti, E. Todesco (CERN) 2010 -01 -07 Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beams, Elena Wildner 18

Open mid-plane Quadrupole Parametric Approach!! Acknowledgments (magnet design): F Borgnolutti, E. Todesco (CERN) Opening Open mid-plane Quadrupole Parametric Approach!! Acknowledgments (magnet design): F Borgnolutti, E. Todesco (CERN) Opening angle 2010 -01 -07 Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beams, Elena Wildner 19

Options for production n ISOL method at 1 -2 Ge. V (200 k. W) Options for production n ISOL method at 1 -2 Ge. V (200 k. W) n >2 1013 6 He per second n <8 1011 18 Ne per second (not an option, need to confirm new options!) n Studied within EURISOL Aimed: Direct production He 2. 9 1018 (2. 0 1013/s) n >1 1013 (? ) 6 He per second Ne 1. 1 1018 (2. 0 1013/s) n 1 1013 18 Ne per second n Studied at LLN, Soreq, WI and GANIL n Production ring (higher neutrino energies) n n 1014 (? ) 8 Li Difficult Chemistry >1013 (? ) 8 B Being studied Within EUROn N. B. Nuclear Physics has limited interest in those elements => Production rates not pushed! Try to get ressources to persue ideas how to produce Ne! 2010 -01 -07 Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beams, Elena Wildner 20

Recent Results for Production of 6 He M. Hass et al. , J. Phys. Recent Results for Production of 6 He M. Hass et al. , J. Phys. G 35, 014042 (2008); T. Hirsh et al. , Po. S (Nufact 08)090 n n n N. Thiolliere et al. , EURISOL-DS 1. 3 1013 6 He/s 100 k. W, 40 Me. V deuton beam 2 1013 6 He/s 100 k. W, 1 Ge. V proton beam (ISOLDE 2008) 1 1014 6 He/s 200 k. W, 2 Ge. V proton beam Aimed: He 2. 9 1018 (2. 0 1013/s) T. Stora et al. , EURISOL-DS, Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beams, Elena Wildner TN 03 -25 -2006 -0003 2010 -01 -07 21

Be. O : A new target material R. Hodak, H. Franberg, V. Kumar 2010 Be. O : A new target material R. Hodak, H. Franberg, V. Kumar 2010 -01 -07 Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beams, Elena Wildner 22

Be. O : Release of 6 He Half life-time Courtesy: T. Stora (2009) 2010 Be. O : Release of 6 He Half life-time Courtesy: T. Stora (2009) 2010 -01 -07 Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beams, Elena Wildner 23

Recent Research: 19 F(p, 2 n) 18 Ne The ne beam needs production of Recent Research: 19 F(p, 2 n) 18 Ne The ne beam needs production of 2. 0 1013 18 Ne/s Theoretically possible with 10 m. A 70 Me. V protons on Na. F We need measurements of the crossection 19 F(p, 2 n)18 Ne ! T. Stora, private communication Ressouces need to be allocated 2010 -01 -07 Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beams, Elena Wildner 24

New approaches for ion production “Beam cooling with ionisation losses” – C. Rubbia, A New approaches for ion production “Beam cooling with ionisation losses” – C. Rubbia, A Ferrari, Y. Kadi and V. Vlachoudis in NIM A 568 (2006) 475– 487 “Development of FFAG accelerators and their applications for intense secondary particle production”, Y. Mori, NIM A 562(2006)591 Supersonic gas jet target, stripper and absorber Studied within Euron FP 7 (*) European Strategy for Future Neutrino Physics, (*) FP 7 “Design Studies” (Research Infrastructures) EUROnu 2010 -01 -07 Crakow Epiphany. Wildner Elena Conference, Beta Beams, Elena Wildner (Grant agreement no. : 212372) 25

Beta Beam scenario EUROnu, FP 7 Ion Linac 20 Me. V Ion production PR Beta Beam scenario EUROnu, FP 7 Ion Linac 20 Me. V Ion production PR n-beam to experiment 8 B/8 Li Decay ring ISOL target, Collection Br ~ 500 Tm Existing!!! 60 GHz pulsed ECR Linac, 0. 4 Ge. V PS 2 31 Ge. V SPS 92 Ge. V Neutrino Source Decay Ring B = ~6 T C = ~6900 m Lss= ~2500 m 8 Li: 18 B: g = 100 . RCS, 5 Ge. V Detector Gran Sasso (~ 5 times higher Q) 2010 -01 -07 Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beams, Elena Wildner 26

The beta-beam in EURONU DS (I) n The study will focus on production issues The beta-beam in EURONU DS (I) n The study will focus on production issues for 8 Li and 8 B n n 8 B is highly reactive and has never been produced as an ISOL beam Production ring: enhanced direct production n n n Ring lattice design (CERN) Cooling (CERN +) Collection of the produced ions, release efficiencies and cross sections for the reactions (UCL, INFN) Sources ECR (LPSC, GHMFL) Supersonic Gas injector (PPPL + ? ) CERN Complex n n n 2010 -01 -07 All machines to be simulated with B and Li (CERN, CEA) PS 2 presently under design (requirements for beta beams) Multiple Charge State Linacs (P Ostroumov, ANL) Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beams, Elena Wildner 27

Associated partners in EURONU DS Possible realization with one detector only (price) nm-beam: SPL: Associated partners in EURONU DS Possible realization with one detector only (price) nm-beam: SPL: = 260 Me. V Lopt = 134 km CERN – Frejus: 130 km ne-beam: g = 150 Lopt = 130 km g = 500 Lopt = 1000 km 3 -Flavor Oscillation needs two significantly different baselines to disentangle CP and matter effects 2010 -01 -07 CERN – Frejus: 130 km DESY – Frejus: 960 km Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beams, Elena Wildner 28

Associates n Weizmann Institue of Science, Revohot q q q n Work Focus q Associates n Weizmann Institue of Science, Revohot q q q n Work Focus q q q n Michael Hass Partners: GANIL and Soreq Collaboration with Aachen (exchange of students) produce light radioactive isotopes also for beta beams secondary neutrons from an intense, 40 Me. V d beam (6 He and 8 Li) and direct production with 3 He or 4 He beams (18 Ne). Use of superconducting LINACs such as SARAF at Soreq (Israel) and the driver for SPIRAL-II (GANIL). Added Value q To produce strong beta beam ion candidates or production methods not in EUROnu Courtesy Micha Hass 2010 -01 -07 Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beams, Elena Wildner 29

The production ring cooling Supersonic gas jet target, stripper and absorber Low-energy Ionization cooling The production ring cooling Supersonic gas jet target, stripper and absorber Low-energy Ionization cooling of ions for Beta Beam sources – D. Neuffer (FERMILAB-FN-0808 -APC) Mini-workshop on cooling at Fermilab summer 2009 (David Neuffer ) joining teams from CERN and Fermilab Meeting at GSI internal targets and cooling Oct. 2009 (O. Boine-Frankenheim, C. Dimopoulou, E Benedetto) joining teams from CERN and GSI 2010 -01 -07 Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beams, Elena Wildner 30

PR: Gas Jet Targets and Cooling (GSI) We need 10 19 cm-2 !! 2010 PR: Gas Jet Targets and Cooling (GSI) We need 10 19 cm-2 !! 2010 -01 -07 Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beams, Elena Wildner 31

Challenge: collection device n n A large proportion of beam particles (6 Li) will Challenge: collection device n n A large proportion of beam particles (6 Li) will be scattered into the collection device. Production of 8 Li and 8 B: 7 Li(d, p) 8 Li and 6 Li(3 He, n) 8 B reactions using low energy and low intensity ~ 1 n. A beams of 7 Li(10 -25 Me. V) and 6 Li(4 -15 Me. V) hitting the deuteron or 3 He target. Semen Mitrofanov Thierry Delbar Marc Loiselet Off-line test: October ÷ November 09 First beam test (beam test in cabin): December 09 Background measurements: February 10 Full-time beam experiments: April 10 8 Li stage progress report: July 10 End of the summer 2010 - hope to finish with 8 Li. Research on B will follow. 2010 -01 -07 Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beams, Elena Wildner 32

Cross section measurements at Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro M. Mezzetto (INFN-Pd) on behalf of Cross section measurements at Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro M. Mezzetto (INFN-Pd) on behalf of INFN-LNL: M. Cinausero, G. De Angelis, G. Prete First Experiment performed in July 2008 Inverse kinematic reaction: 7 Li + CD 2 target E=25 Me. V Data reduction in progress Future: reduce contamination 2010 -01 -07 Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beams, Elena Wildner 7 Li 33

ECR 60 GHz Source Follow up of intense LPSC-LNCMI collaboration Magnet time request to ECR 60 GHz Source Follow up of intense LPSC-LNCMI collaboration Magnet time request to EUROMAGNET 2 : accepted July 2009 ISTC collaboration accepted July 2009 (IAP-LPSC-LNCMI-CERNInstituto di Fisica del plasma) Hydraulic test in December 2009 ANR funding request to fund permanent 60 GHz test stand at LNCMI Magnetic tests scheduled for February 2010 Installation of a bench at 28 GHz during 2010 60 GHz for mid 2011 The SEISM Collaboration 2010 -01 -07 Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beams, Elena Wildner 34

Relaxed Duty Factors: more neutrinos 0. 5% duty factor for background suppression could be Relaxed Duty Factors: more neutrinos 0. 5% duty factor for background suppression could be relaxed for higher neutrino energies. . . But not enough to profit of Barrier Buckets for B and Li! We need in addition 10 times more flux for high-Q ions. Christian Hansen Enrique Fernandez-Martinez 2010 -01 -07 Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beams, Elena Wildner 35

High g and decay-ring size, 6 He Gamma Rigidity [Tm] Ring length T=5 T High g and decay-ring size, 6 He Gamma Rigidity [Tm] Ring length T=5 T f=0. 36 Dipole Field rho=300 m Length=6885 m 100 150 200 350 500 938 1404 1867 3277 4678 4916 6421 7917 12474 17000 3. 1 4. 7 6. 2 10. 9 15. 6 Magnet R&D Example : Neutrino oscillation physics with a higher g b-beam, ar. Xiv: hep-ph/0312068 J. Burguet-Castell, D. Casper, J. J. Gomez-Cadenas, P. Hernandez, F. Sanchez 2010 -01 -07 Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beams, Elena Wildner 36

Beta Beams at Fermilab Combining CPT-conjugate channels at the same E/L: neutrino mass hierarchy Beta Beams at Fermilab Combining CPT-conjugate channels at the same E/L: neutrino mass hierarchy A. Janson, O. Mena, S. Parke: hep-ph/0711107 P(nm -> ne ) > P(ne -> nm) for normal hierarchy P(nm -> ne ) < P(ne -> nm) for inverted hierarchy nm -> ne : existing Nu. Mi Beamline ne -> nm : 6 He or 8 Li Beta Beams 2010 -01 -07 Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beams, Elena Wildner 37

Optimized Two-Baseline Beta Beam Courtesy: Sandhya Choubey n Beta Beam Concepts n Beta Beam Optimized Two-Baseline Beta Beam Courtesy: Sandhya Choubey n Beta Beam Concepts n Beta Beam Scenarios n Ion Production 2010 -01 -07 Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beams, Elena Wildner 38

Low energy Beta Beams Christina Volpe: A proposal to establish a facility for the Low energy Beta Beams Christina Volpe: A proposal to establish a facility for the production of intense and pure low energy neutrino beams (100 Me. V). BASELINE SPS To off axis far detector n storage ring PS n close detector J Phys G 30 (2004) L 1. PHYSICS POTENTIAL n-nucleus cross sections (detector’s response, r-process, 2 b-decay) fundamental interactions studies (Weinberg angle, CVC test, mn) astrophysical applications PHYSICS STUDIED WITHIN THE EURISOL DS (FP 6, 2005 -2009) 2010 -01 -07 Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beams, Elena Wildner 39

Combining energies from BB and EC • Sensitivity to θ 13 and δ (CERN Combining energies from BB and EC • Sensitivity to θ 13 and δ (CERN to Gran Sasso or Canfranc ) difficult to make, space charge ? J. Bernabeu, C. Espinosa, C. Orme, S. Palomares-Ruiz and S. Pascoli based on JHEP 0906: 040, 2009 2010 -01 -07 Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beams, Elena Wildner 40

Summary (i) n The EURISOL beta-beam conceptual design report is available (6 He and Summary (i) n The EURISOL beta-beam conceptual design report is available (6 He and 18 Ne , gamma 100) n n First coherent study of a beta-beam facility Top down approach (production rates of ions assumed ) 18 Ne shortfall as of today Duty Factors are challenging: Collimation and RF in Decay Ring 2010 -01 -07 Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beams, Elena Wildner 41

Summary (ii) n A beta-beam facility using 8 Li and 8 B (EUROnu) (gamma Summary (ii) n A beta-beam facility using 8 Li and 8 B (EUROnu) (gamma 100) n n n n n 2010 -01 -07 Continuation of EURISOL (consolidation of He/Ne) Production of Ne needs extra ressources Production B and Li, X-sections, Source issues Optimize accelerator chain for new ions Revisit Duty Factors, RF and bunch structures Acceptance of PS 2, SPS, High intensity beam stability (PS, SPS) Costing First results will come from Euronu DS (2008 -2012) Crakow Epiphany Conference, Beta Beams, Elena Wildner 42