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BBI 3422 Research Methods in English Assoc Prof Dr Tan Bee Hoon Tel: 03 BBI 3422 Research Methods in English Assoc Prof Dr Tan Bee Hoon Tel: 03 89468911 e-mail: [email protected] upm. edu. my Office: FBMK B 118 1

Important! You MUST buy the textbook: Doing second language research by J. D. Brown Important! You MUST buy the textbook: Doing second language research by J. D. Brown and T. S. Rodgers. Price RM 50. 90, available at Old Flat Bookshop. Distance students may request Mr Tan of Pustaka Prinsip to send by post. His mobile: 012 -2808241, email: [email protected] com You may call me at 03 -89468911 or e-mail me: [email protected] upm. edu. my to ask questions concerning the course. 2

Overview Unit 1: Introduction to language research Unit 2: Conceptualizing a research problem and Overview Unit 1: Introduction to language research Unit 2: Conceptualizing a research problem and formulating a problem statement Unit 3: Research purpose, objectives, researcg questions and hypotheses Unit 4: Literature review 3

Unit 1: Introduction to Language Research 4 Unit 1: Introduction to Language Research 4

Definition of Research Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary (2007) a) to search/ investigate exhaustively; b) studious Definition of Research Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary (2007) a) to search/ investigate exhaustively; b) studious inquiry or examination; c) the collecting of information about a particular subject How does your textbook define research? 5

Types of Research QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE (Home work – please read up) (Homework) 6 Types of Research QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE (Home work – please read up) (Homework) 6

Basic Steps in Research 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Select Basic Steps in Research 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Select a general topic. List key words. Get an overview of the topic. Write down citation details such as authors, year of publication, article title, journal title, volume and issue, and page numbers. Begin to focus the topic. Write a statement of purpose. Brainstorm questions. Write the research. Write the works cited. 7

Getting an Overview In getting an overview, you can ask yourself these questions: 1. Getting an Overview In getting an overview, you can ask yourself these questions: 1. Why do an overview? 2. How do I find one? 3. What do I look for in an overview? 8

Writing a Statement of Purpose Relevance of writing a statement of purpose: 1. To Writing a Statement of Purpose Relevance of writing a statement of purpose: 1. To be more interested with the project. 2. To prevent from getting overwhelmed and panicky. 3. To help in developing a thesis statement. Examples of Statement of Purpose: Too General Statement More Specific Statement To study about English language To study on the role of planning and policy government in language education planning To study about the decline in English language proficiency in Malaysia To study the ways to arrest the decline in English language proficiency in Malaysia 9

Writing a Thesis Statement Purpose Statement vs. Thesis Statement Purpose Statement Possible Thesis Statement Writing a Thesis Statement Purpose Statement vs. Thesis Statement Purpose Statement Possible Thesis Statement To study about the students’ learning strategies at UPM The learning strategies of UPM students have been heavily influenced by library faculties. To find out ways to enhance English language training English language learning can be enhanced with early English language education in the public school system. 10

Citing Sources Students must cite sources using APA style when using the following materials, Citing Sources Students must cite sources using APA style when using the following materials, in whole or in part: 1. Direct quotations (either written or oral). 2. Paraphrased quotations. 3. Statistical data. 4. Images. 5. Song lyrics. 6. Original ideas. 11

Unit 2: Conceptualizing a research problem and formulating a problem statement 12 Unit 2: Conceptualizing a research problem and formulating a problem statement 12

Objectives of Unit 2 To conceptualize a research problem. To identify a research problem. Objectives of Unit 2 To conceptualize a research problem. To identify a research problem. To formulate a statement of the problem. 13

Locating a Topic Take stock of what you know. Take stock of your interest. Locating a Topic Take stock of what you know. Take stock of your interest. Ensure that the topic is manageable. 14

Narrowing the Topic Use the 5 Ws. E. g. Talk Shows on Televisions Who? Narrowing the Topic Use the 5 Ws. E. g. Talk Shows on Televisions Who? The host, panel constituent/organization, audience What? Topics, themes Where? Studio, impromptu When? Election time, festivals Why? Education, propaganda, commercial 15

Formulating the Statement of Problem Three functions that characterize the statement: 1. To describe Formulating the Statement of Problem Three functions that characterize the statement: 1. To describe the nature of the problem. 2. To provide circumstances that create a need for investigation. 3. To identify a current gap in the field of the study. 16

Unit 3: Research purpose, objectives, questions and hypotheses 17 Unit 3: Research purpose, objectives, questions and hypotheses 17

Objectives of Unit 3 To state the aim/purpose of the study To formulate research Objectives of Unit 3 To state the aim/purpose of the study To formulate research objectives To formulate research questions To formulate hypotheses (for experimental design) 18

Stating the Aim/Purpose of the Study Key elements common to quantitative & qualitative approaches. Stating the Aim/Purpose of the Study Key elements common to quantitative & qualitative approaches. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Use words such as “purpose”, “intent” or “objective” to signal attention. Use action verbs. Use neutral words phrases. Provide a general working definition. Mention the specific type of strategy of inquiry. Mention the participants and the research site. 19

A Qualitative Purpose Statement E. g. The purpose of this study was to explore A Qualitative Purpose Statement E. g. The purpose of this study was to explore affective, social, and educational factors that may have contributed to the development of reading disabilities in four adolescents. The study also sought explanation as to why students’ reading disabilities persisted despite years of instruction. This was not an intervention study and, although some students may have improved their reading, reading improvement was not the focus of the study(Kos, 1991, pp. 876 -877). Task: Suggest a title for the study with the above purpose statement. 20

A Quantitative Purpose Statement E. g. This study was undertaken with a view to A Quantitative Purpose Statement E. g. This study was undertaken with a view to learning about the use of transitions in relation to quality in written English compositions o some TESL undergraduates. The study attempts to investigate the following points: a. How grammar and coherence are related to the quality of writing. b. The frequency of use for the various transitions in linking T-units and paragraphs into a coherent whole (Winterowd’s categories of transitions are used as reference). c. The relationship between composition length and the level of proficiency. 21

Definition of Terms The terms used have specific meanings. Basic term such as TESL Definition of Terms The terms used have specific meanings. Basic term such as TESL does not need to be defined. Terms such as coherence is basic yet too broad and need for specific definition. Specialized terms such as T-unit needs to be defined as it is unlikely known by others. 22

Identifying Variables Creswell’s description of variables: 1. Independent variable 2. Dependent variable 3. Intervening/ Identifying Variables Creswell’s description of variables: 1. Independent variable 2. Dependent variable 3. Intervening/ mediating variables 4. Control variables 5. Confounding (or spurious) variables Search the above terms and learn each type of variables. 23

Formulating Research Questions Categories of research questions: 1. Descriptive questions e. g. What are Formulating Research Questions Categories of research questions: 1. Descriptive questions e. g. What are the student’s achievement levels (or grades) in English classes? 2. Difference questions e. g. Are there differences between Malay L 2 learners and Chinese L 2 learners in the learning of English prepositions? 3. Relationship questions e. g. Does critical thinking ability relate to students achievement? 24

Formulating Qualitative Research Questions Ask one or two questions. Relate the central question to Formulating Qualitative Research Questions Ask one or two questions. Relate the central question to the specific qualitative strategy of inquiry. Begin with the word “what” or “how” to convey an open and emerging design. Focus on a single concept. Use exploratory verbs in the objectives. E. g. How do early adolescent females read black literature? 25

Formulating Quantitative Research Questions Research questions are built around selected variables. The use of Formulating Quantitative Research Questions Research questions are built around selected variables. The use of variables are limited to three approaches: Compare groups/independent variables. 2. Relate one/more independent variable to a dependent variable. 3. Describe responses to the independent, mediating or dependent variables. 1. E. g. Does a relationship exist between reading strategy use between low proficiency and high proficiency students? 26

Formulating Hypotheses are predictions about the relationship among variables. They provide the central focus Formulating Hypotheses are predictions about the relationship among variables. They provide the central focus of the study. Two forms of hypotheses: 1. Null hypotheses 2. Alternative hypotheses Formulate a null hypothesis and an alternative hypothesis. 27

Unit 4: Reviewing the Literature Objectives: Explain what a literature review is Describe the Unit 4: Reviewing the Literature Objectives: Explain what a literature review is Describe the form and construction of a literature review 28

What is a review of the Literature? An account of what has been published What is a review of the Literature? An account of what has been published on a topic by accredited scholars and researchers. Purpose: to convey to readers what knowledge and ideas have been established on a topic, and their strengths and weaknesses. Review is done and organised according to the purpose/objectives/ RQs of a study. 29

General purposes of literature review Be organised around and related directly to the purpose General purposes of literature review Be organised around and related directly to the purpose or research questions Synthesize results into a summary of what is and is not known Identify areas of controversy Formulate questions that need further research Read pp. 2 and 3 of the module 30

How to conduct a literature review 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Search How to conduct a literature review 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Search for literature Sort and prioritize the retrieved literature Analytical reading of the literature Evaluative reading Comparison across studies Organising the content Writing the review 31

BBI 3422: Evaluation Assignment 1: Assignment 2: Mid-term test: Final exam: 20% (see the BBI 3422: Evaluation Assignment 1: Assignment 2: Mid-term test: Final exam: 20% (see the next slide) 20% (see Slide 34) 30% (Units 1 -4) 30% (Units 5 -9) 32

Assignment 1 (20%) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Identify a topic for your final Assignment 1 (20%) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Identify a topic for your final year project. Conduct a keyword search based on the topic to identify two related research articles. Read the two articles and compare/ discuss the purpose, sample and location, methodology, and important results. Marking scheme: topic (5 marks), purpose/objectives/research questions (10 marks), sample and location (5 marks), methodology (10 marks), and results (10 marks) Submission date: Week 7. 33

Assignment 2 (20%) Identify a topic and formulate a title for your final year Assignment 2 (20%) Identify a topic and formulate a title for your final year project. 2. Write a research proposal for your final year project (4 -5 pages, single-spaced, font: Arial 12) 3. Your research proposal must have the following sections: Introduction and research problem (10 marks) Purpose/objectives/research questions (10 marks) Methodology (Sampling, data collection, data analysis methods) (10 marks) Significance of the study (10 marks) 4. Submission date: Week 12 1. 34

The End Happy Studying & Good Luck 35 The End Happy Studying & Good Luck 35