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Basic Computer Application Chapter 4 Operating Systems and File Management Basic Computer Application Chapter 4 Operating Systems and File Management

4 Chapter Contents ïSection A: Operating System Basics ïSection B: Today’s Operating Systems ïSection 4 Chapter Contents ïSection A: Operating System Basics ïSection B: Today’s Operating Systems ïSection C: File Basics ïSection D: File Management ïSection E: Backup Security Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 2

4 A SECTION Operating System Basics ïOperating System Activities ïUser Interfaces ïThe Boot Process 4 A SECTION Operating System Basics ïOperating System Activities ïUser Interfaces ïThe Boot Process Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 3

4 A SECTION Operating System Basics At the most basic level, what is an 4 A SECTION Operating System Basics At the most basic level, what is an operating system? 1. An integrated circuit within the CPU 2. A start-up program stored in ROM 3. A special purpose piece of hardware that controls the operation of your computer 4. A large and complex computer program that manages and controls the operation of your computer’s resources. Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 4

4 Operating System Activities ïAn operating system is the system software that acts as 4 Operating System Activities ïAn operating system is the system software that acts as the master controller for all activities that take place within a computer system Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 5

4 Air Traffic Controller Operating System Clear aircraft for takeoff Launches programs Monitors planes 4 Air Traffic Controller Operating System Clear aircraft for takeoff Launches programs Monitors planes in the air Monitors running Keeps track of airspace runways (resources) programs that are and Keeps track of RAM and disk space (resources) Keeps track of planes on the ground Keeps track of programs stored on disk Takes care of emergency landings Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management Detects equipment failure 6

4 Operating System Activities Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 7 4 Operating System Activities Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 7

4 Operating System Activities can be done by user • Launch Programs • Manage 4 Operating System Activities can be done by user • Launch Programs • Manage Files • Get Help • Customize the user Interface • Configure equipment Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 8

4 Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 9 4 Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 9

4 Operating System Activities Modern operating systems control many things at once: ï Multitasking 4 Operating System Activities Modern operating systems control many things at once: ï Multitasking provides process and memory management services that allow two or more tasks, jobs, or programs to run simultaneously ï Within a single program, multithreading allows multiple parts, or threads, to run simultaneously ï An operating system’s multiprocessing capability supports a division of labor among all the processing units – Dual Core Processers or Multiple Processers Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 10

4 Page 151 Book. CD 187 ïHow does OS manage memory? ïHow does OS 4 Page 151 Book. CD 187 ïHow does OS manage memory? ïHow does OS keep track of storage resources? ïWhy does OS get involved with peripheral devices? Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 11

4 Commemorate Steve Jobs 2011 -10 -5 Dennis Ritchie 2011 -10 -12 Ritchie created 4 Commemorate Steve Jobs 2011 -10 -5 Dennis Ritchie 2011 -10 -12 Ritchie created the C programming language and, with long-time colleague, Ken Thompson, the UNIX operating system. Ritchie and Thompson received the Turing Award from the ACM in 1983, the Hamming Medal from the IEEE in 1990 and the National Medal of Technology from President Clinton in 1999. Ritchie was the head of Lucent Technologies System Software Research Department Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 12

4 Operating System Activities ïOperating System Categories? – Single-user operating system – Multiuser operating 4 Operating System Activities ïOperating System Categories? – Single-user operating system – Multiuser operating system – Network operating system – Desktop operating system Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 13

4 User Interfaces ïThe combination of hardware and software that helps people and computers 4 User Interfaces ïThe combination of hardware and software that helps people and computers communicate with each other Programming/Using OS utilities by API(Application Programming Interface, eg. , Win 32 API) Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 14

4 User Interfaces ïMenus, submenus, and dialog boxes In the early 1980 s, Jobs 4 User Interfaces ïMenus, submenus, and dialog boxes In the early 1980 s, Jobs was among the first to see the commercial potential of Xerox PARC's mouse-driven graphical user interface, which led to the creation of the Apple Lisa and, one year later, the Macintosh. Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 15

4 Xerox PARC ï Xerox PARC has been the inventor and incubator of many 4 Xerox PARC ï Xerox PARC has been the inventor and incubator of many elements of modern computing in the contemporary office work place: ï Laser printers, ï Computer-generated bitmap graphics ï The Graphical user interface, featuring windows and icons, operated with a mouse ï The WYSIWYG text editor ï Inter. Press, a resolution-independent graphical page-description language and the precursor to Post. Script ï Ethernet as a local-area computer network ï Fully formed object-oriented programming in the Smalltalk programming language and integrated development environment. Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 16

4 The Boot Process ï During the boot process, the operating system kernel is 4 The Boot Process ï During the boot process, the operating system kernel is loaded into RAM – The kernel provides essential operating system services ï Where is it? – Your computer’s small bootstrap program is built into special ROM circuitry housed in the computer’s system unit Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 17

4 The Boot Process From here Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management to 4 The Boot Process From here Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management to here 18

4 How many steps during Boot process? ïSix steps in Boot process – – 4 How many steps during Boot process? ïSix steps in Boot process – – – 1. Power up 2. Start Boot program 3. Post (power on self test) 4. Identify attached peripheral devices 5. Load OS 6. Check/implement config and customizations ï How about to install many OSs in your PC? Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 19

4 Quick. Check ïPage 157 ïBook. CD 193 Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File 4 Quick. Check ïPage 157 ïBook. CD 193 Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 20

4 B SECTION Today’s Operating Systems ïMicrosoft Windows ïMac OS ïUNIX and Linux ïDOS 4 B SECTION Today’s Operating Systems ïMicrosoft Windows ïMac OS ïUNIX and Linux ïDOS ïHandheld Operating Systems – What is the smart Phone? – Smart Phone OS Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 21

4 Microsoft Windows XP Windows Vista Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 22 4 Microsoft Windows XP Windows Vista Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 22

4 Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 23 4 Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 23

4 What are pros and cons of Windows OS? Chapter 4: Operating Systems and 4 What are pros and cons of Windows OS? Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 24

4 Mac OS You can tell when you’re using Mac OS by the Apple 4 Mac OS You can tell when you’re using Mac OS by the Apple logo that appears on the menu bar. The Mac OS X interface includes all the standard elements of a GUI, including icons, menus, windows, and taskbars. Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 25

4 Mac OS Dual Boot: On a Macintosh computer with Boot Camp, you can 4 Mac OS Dual Boot: On a Macintosh computer with Boot Camp, you can boot into Mac OS X or into Windows XP. Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 26

4 Mac OS ïMac OS X on an Intel Mac offers the ability to 4 Mac OS ïMac OS X on an Intel Mac offers the ability to run Windows and Windows application software in addition to software designed for the Macintosh – Dual boot ïVirtual Machine Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 27

4 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ï Virtualization software allows a single host computer 4 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ï Virtualization software allows a single host computer to create and run one or more virtual environments. ï Virtualization software is most often used to emulate a complete computer system in order to allow a guest operating system to be run, for example allowing Linux to run as a guest on top of a PC that is natively running a Microsoft Windows operating system. – Virtual PC – Virtual Box – VMWare ï Storage virtualization refers to the process of abstracting logical storage from physical storage. Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 28

4 Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 29 4 Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 29

4 ï The 1970 s and 1980 s saw more and more computer-related inventions 4 ï The 1970 s and 1980 s saw more and more computer-related inventions at the Bell Laboratories as part of the personal computing revolution. ï In 1970 Dennis Ritchie developed the compiled C programming language as a replacement for the interpretive B which was then used in writing the UNIX operating system (also developed at Bell Laboratories by Ritchie and Ken Thompson). ï Additionally, the AWK programming language was designed and implemented by Alfred Aho, Peter Weinberger, and Brian Kernighan of Bell Laboratories. ï Alcatel-Lucent, holding the Bell Labs now Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 30

4 antitrust case ï Under a 1958 consent decree in settlement of an antitrust 4 antitrust case ï Under a 1958 consent decree in settlement of an antitrust case, AT&T (the parent organization of Bell Labs) had been forbidden from entering the computer business. ï Unix could not, therefore, be turned into a product; indeed, under the terms of the consent decree, Bell Labs was required to license its non-telephone technology to anyone who asked. ï Ken Thompson quietly began answering requests by shipping out tapes and disk packs – each, according to legend, with a note signed "love, ken”. [9] ï AT&T made Unix available to universities and commercial firms, as well as the United States government, under licenses. ï The licenses included all source code including the machine-dependent parts of the kernel, which were written in PDP-11 assembly code. ï Copies of the annotated Unix kernel sources circulated widely in the late 1970 s in the form of a much-copied book by John Lions of the University of New South Wales, the Lions' Commentary on UNIX 6 th Edition, with Source Code, which led to considerable use of Unix as an educational example. Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 31

4 MINIX & Andrew S. Tanenbaum ï In 1987, Tanenbaum wrote a clone of 4 MINIX & Andrew S. Tanenbaum ï In 1987, Tanenbaum wrote a clone of UNIX, called MINIX (MIni-u. NIX), for the IBM PC. ï It was targeted at students and others who wanted to learn how an operating system worked. ï Consequently, he wrote a book[8] that listed the source code in an appendix and described it in detail in the text. ï The source code itself was available on a set of floppy disks. Within three months, a USENET newsgroup, comp. os. minix, [9] had sprung up with over 40, 000 subscribers discussing and improving the system. ï One of these subscribers was a Finnish student named Linus Torvalds who began adding new features to MINIX and tailoring it to his own needs. ï On October 5, 1991, Torvalds announced his own (POSIX like) kernel, called Linux, which originally used the MINIX file system but is not based on MINIX code. [10] Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 32

4 UNIX and Linux Trivia: The name Linux is derived from “Linus” (after it’s 4 UNIX and Linux Trivia: The name Linux is derived from “Linus” (after it’s creator, Linus Torvald) and “Minix” (a compact version of the Unix operating system). Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 33 ïSeveral Web sites offer a Linux distribution, Linux distribution which is a package that contains the Linux kernel, system utilities, applications, and an installation routine

4 Why is Linux so popular? ï It is based on the proven Unix 4 Why is Linux so popular? ï It is based on the proven Unix operating system – Multi-tasking, multi-threading, multi-processor technology first developed in the late 1970’s – Created as a platform for networking and software development – File system protection, security ï The source code is “Open, ” so systems Open programmers can download it, modify it and create their own OS versions/features ï Free! Or, at least, cheap (relatively) Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 34

4 UNIX and Linux users can choose from several graphical interfaces. Pictured here is 4 UNIX and Linux users can choose from several graphical interfaces. Pictured here is the popular KDE graphical desktop. Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 35

4 DOS ïDisk Operating System ïFirst operating system that many used ïCommand line interface 4 DOS ïDisk Operating System ïFirst operating system that many used ïCommand line interface (i. e. , not a GUI) Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 36

4 Handheld Operating Systems Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 37 4 Handheld Operating Systems Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 37

4 Quick Quiz 1. 2. 3. The kernel provides essential operating system services, _____ 4 Quick Quiz 1. 2. 3. The kernel provides essential operating system services, _____ such as memory management and file access. True/False: A GUI provides a way to point and click a mouse to select menu options and manipulate graphical objects that are displayed on the screen. Multitasking ______ provides process and memory management services that allow two or more tasks, jobs, or programs to run simultaneously. a. b. c. d. Multitasking Multithreading Networking Multiprocessing Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 38

4 C SECTION File Basics ïFile Names and Extensions ïFile Directories and Folders ïFile 4 C SECTION File Basics ïFile Names and Extensions ïFile Directories and Folders ïFile Formats What is a “file? ” Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 39

4 Computer Files ïA named collection of data that exists in computer storage. – 4 Computer Files ïA named collection of data that exists in computer storage. – Documents – Database records – Pictures, Music, etc. ïFile Attributes – – Name Format Location Size, Date, etc. Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 40

4 File Names and Extensions ïYou must adhere to file-naming conventions when saving files 4 File Names and Extensions ïYou must adhere to file-naming conventions when saving files – – Maximum length (255 in Win) Prohibited characters No reserved words Case sensitivity Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 41

4 The rules for naming a file names under Linux (and UNIX like oses) 4 The rules for naming a file names under Linux (and UNIX like oses) are as follows: ï The file names can be up to 255 characters (or bytes) long ï You cannot use all special characters, try to use: => Uppercase or lowercase letters => Digits => Special characters, such as: +, -, _, . ï File names are case-sensitive. Thus, the following file names all are different: – vivek VIVEK VIVek ï Try to avoid non printable and following characters in filenames: /, >, <, ? , ", ', blank space Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 42

4 File Directories and Folders ïAn operating system maintains a directory for each disk, 4 File Directories and Folders ïAn operating system maintains a directory for each disk, tape, CD, DVD, or USB flash drive – Root directory – Subdirectory • Depicted as folders ïA computer’s file location is defined by a file specification, or path C: My MusicReggaeMarley One Love. mp 3 Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 43

4 File Formats ï Windows uses a file association list to link a file 4 File Formats ï Windows uses a file association list to link a file extension to its corresponding application software ï File extensions are usually related to the file format – Native file format for applications ï Although a file extension is a good indicator of a file’s format, it does not really define the format – A file header is a section of data at the beginning of a file that contains information about a file ïPage 172/Book. CD-208 Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 44

4 Graphics file formats Raster formats ANI · ANIM · APNG · ART · 4 Graphics file formats Raster formats ANI · ANIM · APNG · ART · BEF · BMP · BSAVE · CAL · CGM · CIN · CPC · DPX · ECW · EXR · FITS · FLIC · FPX · GIF · HDRi · ICER · ICNS · ICO · ICS · IGES · ILBM · JBIG 2 · JNG · JPEG 2000 · JPEG-LS · JPEG-HDR · JPEG XR · MNG · MIFF · PBM · PCX · PGF · PGM · PICT · PICtor · Pixel · PNG · PPM · PSP · RAD · RGBE · SGI · TGA · TIFF (Logluv TIFF) · WBMP · Web. P · XAR · XBM · XCF · XPM Raw formats CIFF · DNG Vector formats AI · CDR · DXF · EVA · EMF · PGML · SVG · VML · WMF Compound formats Dj. Vu · EPS · PDF · Post. Script · PSD · SWF · XAML Related Exchangeable image file format (EXIF) · Extensible Metadata Platform (XMP) Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 45

4 Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 46 4 Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 46

4 Which image format is best? ï ï ï ï ï BMP format best 4 Which image format is best? ï ï ï ï ï BMP format best image quality, large file To get best image quality, you should choose BMP file format(Windows Bitmap). It's used internally in the Microsoft Windows operating system to handle graphics images. These files are typically not compressed, resulting in large file. JPG/JPEG format Lossy format, small file JPEG(Joint Photographic Experts Group) files are a lossy format (in most cases). The DOS filename extension is JPG, although other operating systems may use JPEG. Nearly all digital cameras have the option to save images in JPEG format. The JPEG format supports 8 bits per color - red, green, and blue, for 24 -bit total - and produces relatively small file sizes. The compression when not too severe does not detract noticeably from the image. But JPEG files can suffer generational degradation when repeatedly edited and saved. Photographic images may be better stored in a lossless non. JPEG format if they will be re-edited in future, or if the presence of small "artifacts" (blemishes), due to the nature of the JPEG compression algorithm, is unacceptable. JPEG is also used as the image compression algorithm in many Adobe PDF file. GIF format Limited color, Lossy format, small file GIF(Graphics Interchange Format) is limited to an 8 -bit palette, or 256 colors. This makes the GIF format suitable for storing graphics with relatively few colors such as simple diagrams, shapes, logos and cartoon style images. The GIF format supports animation and is still widely used to provide image animation effects. It also uses a lossless compression that is more effective when large areas have a single color, and ineffective for detailed images or dithered images. Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 47

4 Which image format is best? PNG format True color, small file PNG(Portable Network 4 Which image format is best? PNG format True color, small file PNG(Portable Network Graphics) file format is regarded, and was made, as the free and open-source successor to the GIF file format. The PNG file format supports true color(16 million colors) whereas the GIF file format only allows 256 colors. PNG excels when the image has large areas of uniform color. The lossless PNG format is best suited for editing pictures, and the lossy formats like JPG are best for final distribution of photographic-type images because of smaller file size. Many older browsers do not yet support the PNG file format, however with the release of Internet Explorer 7 all popular modern browsers fully support PNG. ï TIF format ï Widely accepted in printing industry ï TIFF(Tagged Image File Format) is a flexible image format that normally saves 8 or 16 bits per color - red, green and blue - for a total of 24 or 48 bits, and uses a filename extension of TIFF or TIFF's flexibility is both a feature and a curse, with no single reader capable of handling all the different varieties of TIFF files. TIFF can be lossy or lossless. Some types of TIFF files offer relatively good lossless compression for bi-level (black and white, no grey) images. Some high-end digital cameras have the option to save images in the TIFF format, using the LZW compression algorithm for lossless storage. The TIFF image format is not widely supported by web browsers. TIFF is still widely accepted as a photograph file standard in the printing industry. TIFF is capable of handling device-specific color spaces, such as the CMYK defined by a particular set of printing press inks. ï WMF format ï Raster image ï Windows Metafile(WMF) is a graphics file format on Microsoft Windows systems, originally designed in the early 1990 s. Windows Metafiles are intended to be portable between applications and may contain both vector and bitmap components. In contrast to raster formats such as JPEG and GIF which are used to store bitmap graphics such as photographs, scans and graphics, Windows Metafiles generally are used to store line-art, illustrations and content created in drawing or presentation applications. Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 48 ï EMF format ï Raster image ï ï ï

4 Question-P 173 ï How do you know which files a program will open? 4 Question-P 173 ï How do you know which files a program will open? ï Why can’t you open some files? ï What if all your software fails to open a particular file format? ï How do you know what kinds of file formats you can send to your friends? ï Is it possible to convert a file from one format to another? ï Will a converted document be identical to the original? Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 49

4 File Formats ï A software application can open files that exist in its 4 File Formats ï A software application can open files that exist in its native file format, plus several additional file formats Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 50

4 File Formats An easy way to convert a file from one format to 4 File Formats An easy way to convert a file from one format to another is to open it with an application that supports both file formats, and then use the Save As dialog box to select an alternative file format. Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 51

4 Quick. Check p 175 Bookcd 211 Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 4 Quick. Check p 175 Bookcd 211 Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 52

4 D SECTION File Management ïApplication-based File Management ïFile Management Utilities ïFile Management Metaphors 4 D SECTION File Management ïApplication-based File Management ïFile Management Utilities ïFile Management Metaphors ïWindows Explorer ïFile Management Tips ïPhysical File Storage Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 53

4 Application-based File Management ï Applications typically provide a way to open files and 4 Application-based File Management ï Applications typically provide a way to open files and save them in a specific folder on a storage device Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management Should I use the Save or Save As command? 54

4 Application-based File Management The Save As dialog box not only helps you name 4 Application-based File Management The Save As dialog box not only helps you name a file and designate its destination drive, but also allows you to rename files, delete files, create folders, and rename folders. Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 55

4 File Management Utilities ï File management utilities show you the files stored on 4 File Management Utilities ï File management utilities show you the files stored on your disks and help you work with them Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 56

4 File Management Metaphors ïStorage metaphors help you visualize and mentally organize the files 4 File Management Metaphors ïStorage metaphors help you visualize and mentally organize the files on your disks – Logical storage models Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 57

4 Windows Explorer makes it easy to drill down through the levels of the 4 Windows Explorer makes it easy to drill down through the levels of the directory hierarchy to locate a folder or file. Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 58

4 Windows Explorer ïWindows Explorer allows you to manipulate files and folders in the 4 Windows Explorer ïWindows Explorer allows you to manipulate files and folders in the following ways: – Rename – Copy – Move – Delete Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 59

4 File Management Tips ïUse descriptive names ïMaintain file extensions ïGroup similar files ïOrganize 4 File Management Tips ïUse descriptive names ïMaintain file extensions ïGroup similar files ïOrganize your folders from the top down ïConsider using the My Documents default directory ïDo not mix data files and program files Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 60

4 Physical File Storage ïThe physical storage model describes what happens on the disks 4 Physical File Storage ïThe physical storage model describes what happens on the disks and in the circuits when files are stored – Storage media must be formatted before it can store files • Formatting utilities divide the disk into tracks and sectors Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 62

4 Physical File Storage ïThe file system keeps track of the names and locations 4 Physical File Storage ïThe file system keeps track of the names and locations of files – NTFS • Master File Table (MFT) – FAT 32 • File Allocation Table (FAT) Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 64

4 Physical File Storage ïDeleting a file changes the status of that file’s clusters 4 Physical File Storage ïDeleting a file changes the status of that file’s clusters to empty and removes the file name from the index file – The file’s data is still there – File shredder software overwrites “empty” sectors with random 1 s and 0 s ïFiles in the Windows Recycle Bin and similar utilities can be undeleted Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 65

4 Physical File Storage ïFragmented files are stored in noncontiguous clusters and decrease performance 4 Physical File Storage ïFragmented files are stored in noncontiguous clusters and decrease performance ïDefragmentation utilities rearrange files so that they are stored in contiguous clusters Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 66

4 Quick. Check 185/221 Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 67 4 Quick. Check 185/221 Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 67

4 E SECTION Backup Security ïBackup Basics ïData File Backup ïSystem Backup ïBoot and 4 E SECTION Backup Security ïBackup Basics ïData File Backup ïSystem Backup ïBoot and Recovery Disks Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 68

4 Backup Basics ïA backup stores the files needed to recover data that’s been 4 Backup Basics ïA backup stores the files needed to recover data that’s been wiped out by operator error, viruses, or hardware failures Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 69

4 Backup Basics ïYour backup schedule depends on how much data you can afford 4 Backup Basics ïYour backup schedule depends on how much data you can afford to lose ïYou should run an up-to-date virus check as the first step in your backup routine ïThe backup device you select depends on the value of your data, your current equipment, and your budget Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 70

4 Backup Basics Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 71 4 Backup Basics Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 71

4 Data File Backup ï Most computers are equipped with a writable CD or 4 Data File Backup ï Most computers are equipped with a writable CD or DVD drive with adequate storage capacity for a typical computer owner’s data files ï Store all files to be backed up in the same location ï Back up Internet connection information, e-mail folders, e-mail address book, favorite URLs, downloads and validation codes, and other configuration information Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 72

4 Data File Backup ïTo restore from a data file backup, you simply copy 4 Data File Backup ïTo restore from a data file backup, you simply copy files from your backup to your hard disk ïSystem Restore (Windows Me and XP) and System Protection (Windows Vista) are operating systems’ utilities that periodically set a restore point that is a snapshot of your computer settings Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 73

4 System Backup ïTo make a backup, you can use backup software ïBackup software 4 System Backup ïTo make a backup, you can use backup software ïBackup software is supplied with most tape drives and other backup devices Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 74

4 System Backup Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 75 4 System Backup Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 75

4 System Backup ï A full backup makes a fresh copy of every file 4 System Backup ï A full backup makes a fresh copy of every file in the folders you’ve specified for the backup ï A differential backup makes a backup of only those files that were added or changed since your last full backup session ï An incremental backup makes a backup of the files that were added or changed since the last backup— not necessarily the files that changed from the last full backup ï Most experts recommend that you keep more than one set of backups Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 76

4 System Backup Full, incremental, and differential backups each take a slightly different approach 4 System Backup Full, incremental, and differential backups each take a slightly different approach to backing up files. Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 77

4 Boot and Recovery Disks ïA boot disk is a removable storage medium containing 4 Boot and Recovery Disks ïA boot disk is a removable storage medium containing the operating system files needed to boot your computer without accessing the hard disk – Boots DOS Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 78

4 Boot and Recovery Disks ï A recovery disk loads hardware drivers and user 4 Boot and Recovery Disks ï A recovery disk loads hardware drivers and user settings as well as the operating system – Sometimes included with new computer systems – The Windows XP Backup utility creates a set of Automated System Recovery disks Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 79

4 Boot and Recovery Disks ï You can create a custom recovery CD that 4 Boot and Recovery Disks ï You can create a custom recovery CD that contains your computer’s current settings and device drivers ï Norton Ghost is a product of Symantec, which also provides a more specialized recovery disk called the Symantec Recovery Disk ï Certain PC manufacturers have pre-installed Norton Ghost and the recovery environment on some of their computers Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 80

4 Windows 7 Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 81 4 Windows 7 Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 81

4 Please read the HTML File and Watch the video Windows 7 backup and 4 Please read the HTML File and Watch the video Windows 7 backup and restore Windows 7 video Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 82

4 Quick. Check 195/231 Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 83 4 Quick. Check 195/231 Chapter 4: Operating Systems and File Management 83

Basic Computer Application Chapter 4 Complete Operating Systems and File Management Basic Computer Application Chapter 4 Complete Operating Systems and File Management