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BACK TO WHERE IT ALL BEGAN… THE MIDDLE EAST BACK TO WHERE IT ALL BEGAN… THE MIDDLE EAST

World Zionist Organization Theodor Herzl (1897– 1904) 1897: World Zionist Organization Theodor Herzl (1897– 1904) 1897: "called for the establishment of a home for the Jewish people in Palestine secured under public law". The Holocaust during WWII increased support for the founding of a Jewish homeland. Hundreds of thousands of Jewish refugees move to region of Palestine.

Palestine and the Jews: Ottoman Empire loses control of region after WWI League of Palestine and the Jews: Ottoman Empire loses control of region after WWI League of Nations Mandate system Balfour Declaration 1917 - Supported creating a homeland for the Jews Allowed Jews to migrate to region during the Mandate Arab Palestinians saw British rule and Jewish settlement as Imperialism

The Founding of Israel May 14, 1948 Israel officially formed One of only two The Founding of Israel May 14, 1948 Israel officially formed One of only two multi-party democratic systems in Middle East (Turkey) Day after United Nations leaves, Israel is attacked by the surrounding Arab states… Israel wins.

The Founding of Israel Six Day War (1967) In response to sabotage acts aimed The Founding of Israel Six Day War (1967) In response to sabotage acts aimed at Israeli targets, Israel launched surprise bombing raids against Egyptian air-fields.

The Founding of Israel Six Day War (1967) Israeli forces take control of the The Founding of Israel Six Day War (1967) Israeli forces take control of the • • • Gaza Strip Sinai Peninsula from Egypt the West Bank East Jerusalem from Jordan Golan Heights from Syria Israel takes land from Palestinians as a “buffer zone”.

Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Yasser Arafat Resistance group dedicated to destruction of Israel, reclaiming Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Yasser Arafat Resistance group dedicated to destruction of Israel, reclaiming the land, and creating an official Palestinian state (country) Because of past violence, Israel considers the PLO a terrorist group

Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Yasser Arafat MUNICH OLYMPICS https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=mg 3 Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Yasser Arafat MUNICH OLYMPICS https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=mg 3 f. HCUCq. G 4 Because of past violence, Israel considers the PLO a terrorist group

Palestinian and Arab Resistance Yom Kippur War – (1973) Egypt and Syria attack Israeli Palestinian and Arab Resistance Yom Kippur War – (1973) Egypt and Syria attack Israeli controlled territories in the eve on Jewish Religious holiday Israel gained the upper hand, however… – The Soviet Union threatened to help the PLO – The US supported Israel and put its military on alert – Israel maintains control of land

OPEC Reaction Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries an international organization headquartered in Vienna, OPEC Reaction Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries an international organization headquartered in Vienna, Austria. OPEC was established in Baghdad, in 1960 Furious that the United States had supported Israel, Arab members of OPEC organized an oil embargo against the United States

Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Palestinian Declaration of Independence - 1988 International recognition of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Palestinian Declaration of Independence - 1988 International recognition of the State of Palestine has been the objective of the PLO since 1988 • 2012: the UN General Assembly passed a motion changing Palestine's status to "nonmember observer state" by a vote of 138 to 9, with 41 abstentions. • 2015: 70% of the United Nations have recognized the State of Palestine. Many of the countries recognize the PLO as the "representative of the Palestinian people“ Political parties: Fatah, Hamas (former Terrorist groups) Israel and the U. S. did not recognize Palestine as a state and maintains military control.

Iran and the Hostage Crisis Shah Pahlavi – – – Helped to power by Iran and the Hostage Crisis Shah Pahlavi – – – Helped to power by U. S. Built industries Gave oil contracts to Foreign companies Women were educated Recognized Israel • Secret police terrorized opponents – Sharia hardliners

Iran and the Hostage Crisis Iranian Revolution – 1979 Ayatollah Khomeini – Shah violated Iran and the Hostage Crisis Iranian Revolution – 1979 Ayatollah Khomeini – Shah violated Islamic Law – Established Islamic Republic – Sharia Law • Disbanded Secular courts • Negated Women’s rights

911 September 11, 2001 19 Arab terrorists hijacked four airliners • Two crashed into 911 September 11, 2001 19 Arab terrorists hijacked four airliners • Two crashed into the World Trade Towers • One crashed into the Pentagon • One crashed into a Pennsylvania field when passengers attacked the terrorist – The plane was headed for the White House

911 September 11, 2001 About 3, 000 died Over 300 New York City firefighters 911 September 11, 2001 About 3, 000 died Over 300 New York City firefighters and 40 police officers who ran into the buildings to help evacuate citizens http: //www. demotix. com/news/827232/firefighters-honour-first-responders-911 -twin-towerattacks

Hunting for the Terrorists Osama Bin Laden (Saudi Arabia) organized the attacks Bin Laden Hunting for the Terrorists Osama Bin Laden (Saudi Arabia) organized the attacks Bin Laden spent some time hiding in Afghanistan protected by the Taliban Regime linked to the al-Qaeda (Terrorist)

Hunting for the Terrorists Osama Bin Laden (Saudi Arabia) organized the attacks Bin Laden Hunting for the Terrorists Osama Bin Laden (Saudi Arabia) organized the attacks Bin Laden spent some time hiding in Afghanistan protected by the Taliban Regime linked to the al-Qaeda (Terrorist) After the Taliban refused to hand Bin Laden over to the US, the US attacked Afghanistan

Hunting for the Terrorists Osama Bin Laden (Saudi Arabia) Bin Laden found in house Hunting for the Terrorists Osama Bin Laden (Saudi Arabia) Bin Laden found in house about one mile from Pakistan military base. United States Navy SEALs of the U. S. Naval Special Warfare Development Group killed Bin Laden and several others in night raid May 2, 2011

Operation Iraqi Freedom • Saddam Hussein defied UN weapons inspectors Operation Iraqi Freedom • Saddam Hussein defied UN weapons inspectors

Operation Iraqi Freedom • Saddam Hussein defied UN weapons inspectors • Many believed that Operation Iraqi Freedom • Saddam Hussein defied UN weapons inspectors • Many believed that Hussein was stockpiling Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) • He threatened to use them if UN Troops came into Iraq

Operation Iraqi Freedom The US launched Operation Iraqi Freedom March 2003 Operation Iraqi Freedom The US launched Operation Iraqi Freedom March 2003

Impact on American Life • Terrorist attacks are no longer seen as some distant Impact on American Life • Terrorist attacks are no longer seen as some distant issue, but in our own backyards • Wave of anti-Muslim sentiments within the United States

ISIS (Isil) American pull out of Iraq prior to 2012 elections allowed for ISIS ISIS (Isil) American pull out of Iraq prior to 2012 elections allowed for ISIS to rise with little opposition To Be Continued. . .