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auto-id center Beyond eb. XML Real-time logistics and telemetry David Brock, Co-Founder and Director auto-id center Beyond eb. XML Real-time logistics and telemetry David Brock, Co-Founder and Director Auto-ID Center Massachusetts Institute of Technology

past NETWORK OF ATOMS - global supply chain NETWORK OF BITS - Internet RAW past NETWORK OF ATOMS - global supply chain NETWORK OF BITS - Internet RAW MATERIALS COMPUTE atoms MANUFACTURING atoms DISTRIBUTION atoms RETAIL atoms CONSUMER atoms WASTE bits COMPUTE

present NETWORKS LINKED - e-commerce RAW MATERIALS atoms MANUFACTURING atoms DISTRIBUTION atoms RETAIL atoms present NETWORKS LINKED - e-commerce RAW MATERIALS atoms MANUFACTURING atoms DISTRIBUTION atoms RETAIL atoms CONSUMER atoms WASTE COMPUTE bits COMPUTE

future NETWORKS MERGE “Smart world” RAW MATERIALS bits atoms MANUFACTURING bits atoms DISTRIBUTION bits future NETWORKS MERGE “Smart world” RAW MATERIALS bits atoms MANUFACTURING bits atoms DISTRIBUTION bits atoms RETAIL bits atoms CONSUMER bits atoms WASTE

need for ubiquitous standards network complexity The more complex the network, the more you need for ubiquitous standards network complexity The more complex the network, the more you need standards

auto-id center • Mission Merge bits and atoms • Task Create the standards and auto-id center • Mission Merge bits and atoms • Task Create the standards and systems to enable the Internet of Things

background AUTO-ID CENTER - Founded October 1, 1999 • US Center Headquarters at MIT, background AUTO-ID CENTER - Founded October 1, 1999 • US Center Headquarters at MIT, USA • European Centers Cambridge University, ENGLAND University of St. Galan, SWITZERLAND • Pacific Center University of Adelaide, AUSTRAILIA • China Center Fudan University, Shanghai, CHINA • Japan Center Keio University, Tokyo, JAPAN South American Center University of San Paulo, BRAZIL • • African Center University of Cape Town, SOUTH

about the center • End User Sponsors – Abbott Laboratories, Ahold, Best Buy Corporation, about the center • End User Sponsors – Abbott Laboratories, Ahold, Best Buy Corporation, Canon Inc. , Carrerfour, Chep International, Coca-Cola, CVS, Dai Nippon Printing, Department of Defense, Ean International, Eastman Kodak, Home Depot, International Paper, Johnson & Johnson, Kellogg’s, Kimberly-Clark, Kraft, Lowes Companies, Inc. , Mead Westvaco, Metro, Mitsui & Co, Ltd. , Nestle Purina, Pepsi Bottling Group, Pepsi. Co, Pfizer, Philip Morris US, Procter and Gamble Company, Sara Lee, Smurfit Stone, Target Corp. , Tesco Stores Ltd. , The Gillette Company, Toppan Printing, Uniform Code Council, Unilever, United States Postal Service, UPS, Visy Industries, Wal-Mart Stores Inc. , Wegmans Food Markets, Inc. , Yuen Foong Yu Paper Mfg. Co. LTD.

about the center • Vendor Sponsors – Accenture, ACNielsen, ADT/Sensormatic, Alien Technology, Avery Dennison, about the center • Vendor Sponsors – Accenture, ACNielsen, ADT/Sensormatic, Alien Technology, Avery Dennison, Applied Wireless ID, Arbitron, Avery Dennison, AWID, British Telecom, Cap Gemini Ernst & Young, Cash's, Catalina Marketing Corp, Checkpoint Systems, Inc. , Composite Materials PLC, Connec. Terra, Inc. , Display Edge, Ember Corporation, Embrace Networks, Flexchip AG, Flint Ink, GEA Consulting, Globe. Ranger, IBM. IDTech. Ex, Imping Inc. , Information Resources, Inc. , Intel, Intermec, Invensys PLC, Ishida, KSW Manhattan Associates, Markem Corp. , Matrics, Microtec AG, Morningside Technologies, NCR Corporation, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation, NTT Comware, OATSystems, Omron, Philips Semiconductors, Provia Software, PSC, Rafsec, RF Saw Components, SAMSYS, SAP, Savi Technology, Sensitech, Sensormatic Electronics Corp, Siemens Dematic Corp. , STMicroelectronics, Sun Microsystems, Symbol Technologies, TAGSYS, Thing. Magic, Toppan Forms, Toray International, Inc. , UNISYS, Vizional Technologies, Vizional, Zebra Technologies Corporation

about the center • Trade Bodies American Trucking Association (ATA), Association for Retail Technology about the center • Trade Bodies American Trucking Association (ATA), Association for Retail Technology Standards (ARTS) also NRF, Auto-ID Manufacturers (AIM), Canadian Council of Grocery Distributors, Consumer Electronics Association (CEA), Efficient Consumer Response Europe (ECR Europe), Electronic Commerce Council of Canada, Food Marketing Institute (FMI), Global Commerce Initiative (GCI), Grocery Manufacturers of America (GMA), Healthcare Distribution Management Association (HDMA), International Federation of Pharmaceutical Wholesalers (IFPW), International Hologram Manufactures Association (IHMA) (Reconnaissance Intl), International Mass Retail Association (IMRA), Material Handling Industry of America (MHIA), National Association of Chain Drug Stores (NACDS), National Association of Convenience Stores (NACS), National Retail Federation (NRF) also ARTS, Point of Purchasing Advertising International (POPAI), Produce Marketing Association (PMA), Uniform and Textile Services Association (UTSA)

intelligent infrastructure • TAGS RFID • EPC Electronic Product Code • ONS Object Name intelligent infrastructure • TAGS RFID • EPC Electronic Product Code • ONS Object Name Service • PML Physical Markup Language • Savant. TM Distributed Operating Local Host System Remote Host Reader Product Network Savant ONS PML Tag EPC Interface Application

tag tag

low cost rfid Silicon: 4 cents/mm 2 handling cost die size/cost, cents 20 15 low cost rfid Silicon: 4 cents/mm 2 handling cost die size/cost, cents 20 15 10 5 time

why is rfid expensive today? reduce functionality (Networking & software) greater functionality reduce chip why is rfid expensive today? reduce functionality (Networking & software) greater functionality reduce chip size (handle small chips) increased chip size

tag: cheap chip 100 mm tag: cheap chip 100 mm

tag: cheap manufacturing tag: cheap manufacturing

tag: cheap protocol tag: cheap protocol

electronic product code (epc) Naming scheme for physical objects electronic product code (epc) Naming scheme for physical objects

epc - electronic product code 01. 0203 D 2 A. 916 E 8 B. epc - electronic product code 01. 0203 D 2 A. 916 E 8 B. 0719 BAE 03 C Header 8 bits 256 EPC Manager 28 bits 268, 435, 456 Serial Number 36 bits 68, 719, 476, 736 Object Class 24 bits 16, 777, 216 Items 1, 152, 921, 504, 606, 846, 976

ons – object naming service • Redirection Service acts as telephone book in reverse ons – object naming service • Redirection Service acts as telephone book in reverse based upon Domain Name Service (DNS)

pml – physical markup language • Language for describing physical objects classification and categorization pml – physical markup language • Language for describing physical objects classification and categorization

savanttm – operating system for epc “National” Savant “Regional” Savant “Store” Savant data readers savanttm – operating system for epc “National” Savant “Regional” Savant “Store” Savant data readers sensors machines Savant

savanttm – operating system for epc Savant tm Soap Query Soap Response Soap Interface savanttm – operating system for epc Savant tm Soap Query Soap Response Soap Interface Query Processor 1 Class ID Class Server Query Processor 2 Task Manager Class Update Schedules Retrieve Schedules Data Storage Query Processor n

making it real • One dozen EPC pilot trials • Gillette purchases 500 million making it real • One dozen EPC pilot trials • Gillette purchases 500 million EPC tags • Wal*Mart requires top 150 suppliers to put RFID tags on shipping creates and pallets by January 2005 and all 25, 000 suppliers by January 2006 – Computer World June 16, 2003. • 1 Billion RFID tags with embedded Electronic Product Code (EPC) for tracking and identification of items at the individual create and pallet level – Pam Kohn V. P. Global Supply Chain Operations Wal*Mart. • United States Department of Defense (Do. D) mandate RFID and EPC for higher value items. • United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) mandates RFID for pharmaceutical supply chain.

what can you use it for? what can you use it for?

real-time supply chain managmenet… Real-time logistics data real-time supply chain managmenet… Real-time logistics data

…in the warehouse… …in the warehouse…

…and on the shelf …and on the shelf

prevents theft… prevents theft…

… and counterfeit products … and counterfeit products

from product creation … from product creation …

…to disposal …to disposal

a revolution in the supply chain… demand Reducing the “Bullwhip” Effect time a revolution in the supply chain… demand Reducing the “Bullwhip” Effect time

continuing the revolution… continuing the revolution…

special interest group (SIG) web services Network special interest group (SIG) web services Network

web services standards LEVEL 4: EPC Business Processes LEVEL 3: EPC Aggregation LEVEL 2: web services standards LEVEL 4: EPC Business Processes LEVEL 3: EPC Aggregation LEVEL 2: EPC Filtered Events LEVEL 1: EPC Events: Rear. ID + EPC + Time LEVEL 0: EPC Events: Rear. ID + EPC + Time (compressed)

web services Scenario 1: Tracking Service Registration • Mfg Retailer Shipper WAN Service Provider web services Scenario 1: Tracking Service Registration • Mfg Retailer Shipper WAN Service Provider - Service names - Address - Data format Service Lookup Format Auto-ID XML message Package Shipped Service = “Shipment notification” Retailer = WMF Shipper = UPS Data points, formats, etc. Package X Shipped Package Update Package Tracking

automatic track and trace ASN Retailer Stop & Shop PO PO# 0010 Item List automatic track and trace ASN Retailer Stop & Shop PO PO# 0010 Item List 1, 500 Cheddar Cheese 2, 000 Phil Cream Cheese Receiving Dock Warehouse Supplier Kraft ASN PO PO# 0010 Item List 1, 500 Cheddar Cheese 2, 000 Phil Cream Cheese Warehouse PO# 0010 EPC List Pick List # 00101 10. 03. 0. 09088. 08 BF 6. 0000000 A 10. 03. 0. 09088. 08 BF 6. 0000000 B … 10. 03. 0. 09088. 08 BF 6. 0000015 C

special interest group (SIG) advanced packaging special interest group (SIG) advanced packaging

healthcare research initiative healthcare research initiative

Future. Store initiative Future. Store initiative

automatic inventory automatic inventory

special interest group (SIG) point of sale “ 1 second” checkout special interest group (SIG) point of sale “ 1 second” checkout

sensor data… sensor data…

example: fresh food example: fresh food

example: fresh food • 76 Million cases of foodborne disease • 91 Million tons example: fresh food • 76 Million cases of foodborne disease • 91 Million tons of food disposed • 325, 000 hospitalizations • Transported to landfills • 5000 deaths* • 26% of food supply* • 1. 8 Million deaths from foodborne illness worldwide * United States figures

example: fresh food Current Type 3 Tag w/Temp Sensor Next Generation Application Specific Integrated example: fresh food Current Type 3 Tag w/Temp Sensor Next Generation Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) 350 Micron Nano. Block™ chips

example: fresh food example: fresh food

example: fresh food example: fresh food

example: fresh food Variables • Ea Activation energy • k 1 Arrhenius constant • example: fresh food Variables • Ea Activation energy • k 1 Arrhenius constant • n Order of the reaction • T Temperature • Q Quality • t Time

example: fresh food example: fresh food

example: fresh food example: fresh food

example: fresh food 01010111 11 010010000000 0 010101 0100 0000 0 1001001 0 01000 example: fresh food 01010111 11 010010000000 0 010101 0100 0000 0 1001001 0 01000 000101001 00 0010 10010 010101 00000010010 1010110 000 1 0 10100000 0 00100 1 0101000 01 001010 01 00000 1001 0 1010 1 01010001 0 00000 01 1 1 0101 100 s 1 la 1111010 1 0 s. C 1 ss 1 0 0 A 11 essme 0 01001 nt 10 0 0 110010 0 1 100101100000 010010 1111 10 1 Shelf Life Weather (NWS) Location Tracking Replenishment PUSH Pathogen Detection VOC Chemical Agent Detection Transportation (DOT/GTN) ISSUE INSPECT DISPOSE