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Australian-United States Defence Links A presentation prepared by the Medical Association for Prevention of Australian-United States Defence Links A presentation prepared by the Medical Association for Prevention of War MAPW (Australia) US Defence Links 2006 Aust-

Australia and the United States of America l The United States is approaching 300 Australia and the United States of America l The United States is approaching 300 million people, Australia has only 20 million l The United States spends more than $400 billion (USD) on defense, Australia spends less than $13 billion (USD) l America is the world's only superpower, Australia is a ‘Middle Power’ MAPW (Australia) US Defence Links 2006 Aust- 2

History of the Alliance MAPW (Australia) US Defence Links 2006 Aust- History of the Alliance MAPW (Australia) US Defence Links 2006 Aust-

History “Without inhibitions of any kind, I make it quite clear that Australia looks History “Without inhibitions of any kind, I make it quite clear that Australia looks to America, free of any pangs as to our traditional links or kinship with the United Kingdom” -Prime Minister John Curtin December 1944 MAPW (Australia) US Defence Links 2006 Aust- 4

Early History l World War II – American-Australian military collaboration in the Pacific l Early History l World War II – American-Australian military collaboration in the Pacific l Post 1945 US military dominance in Asia l 1947 -8 UKUSA agreement l ASIO formed in 1949 with CIA assistance l ASIS formed in 1950 with CIA assistance l ANZUS Treaty signed 1 September 1951 MAPW (Australia) US Defence Links 2006 Aust- 5

Key Dates l l l l 1950 Australian troops deployed to Korea 1963 North Key Dates l l l l 1950 Australian troops deployed to Korea 1963 North West Cape established 1965 Australia troops deployed to Vietnam 1966 Pine Gap established 1969 Nurrungar established 1990/1 Australian troops deployed to Iraq 2001 Australian troops deployed to Afghanistan 2003 Australian troops deployed to Iraq MAPW (Australia) US Defence Links 2006 Aust- 6

The ANZUS Treaty MAPW (Australia) US Defence Links 2006 Aust- The ANZUS Treaty MAPW (Australia) US Defence Links 2006 Aust-

ANZUS The treaty bound the signatories to: l Recognize that an armed attack in ANZUS The treaty bound the signatories to: l Recognize that an armed attack in the Pacific area on any of them would endanger the peace and safety of the others l Consult in the event of a threat and, in the event of attack, to meet the common danger in accordance with their respective constitutional processes l Maintain and develop individual and collective capabilities to resist attack l MAPW (Australia) US Defence Links 2006 Aust- 8

ANZUS and New Zealand l l l 1985 New Zealand refused access to its ANZUS and New Zealand l l l 1985 New Zealand refused access to its ports by nuclearweapons-capable and nuclear-powered ships of the US The US suspended defence obligations to New Zealand The first US-Australia bilateral meeting was held in Canberra in 1985 At the second, in San Francisco in 1986, the US and Australia announced that the US was suspending its treaty security obligations to New Zealand pending the restoration of port access Subsequent bilateral Australia-US Ministerial (AUSMIN) meetings have alternated between Australia and the US MAPW (Australia) US Defence Links 2006 Aust- 9

ANZUS Today The US-Australia alliance under the ANZUS Treaty remains in full force l ANZUS Today The US-Australia alliance under the ANZUS Treaty remains in full force l ANZUS has no integrated defence structure or dedicated forces. However, in fulfilment of ANZUS obligations, Australia and the United States conduct a variety of joint activities l Prime Minister Howard invoked the ANZUS Treaty for the first time on September 14, 2001 l MAPW (Australia) US Defence Links 2006 Aust- 10

War and the Australia-US Alliance MAPW (Australia) US Defence Links 2006 Aust- War and the Australia-US Alliance MAPW (Australia) US Defence Links 2006 Aust-

Major Military Operations Australia has joined the US in major military operations in: l Major Military Operations Australia has joined the US in major military operations in: l l l Korea Vietnam Iraq/Kuwait Afghanistan Iraq MAPW (Australia) US Defence Links 2006 Aust- 12

The Invasion of Iraq March 2003 Australia joins the US in invading Iraq l The Invasion of Iraq March 2003 Australia joins the US in invading Iraq l 36% of Australians oppose the invasion l 2006 Australian troops still deployed in Iraq (mainly protecting Japanese civilian workers) l MAPW (Australia) US Defence Links 2006 Aust- 13

The Invasion of Iraq l Between 20 March 2003 and 19 March 2005: 24, The Invasion of Iraq l Between 20 March 2003 and 19 March 2005: 24, 865 civilians killed l This is equal to 1 in every 1000 Iraqis l Adult males killed: 82% l Adult Females killed: 9% l 42, 500 civilians were reported wounded MAPW (Australia) US Defence Links 2006 Aust- 14

The Invasion of Iraq Children: l Nearly 1 in 10 of those killed were The Invasion of Iraq Children: l Nearly 1 in 10 of those killed were under the age of 18 l Nearly 1 in 200 of those killed was a baby aged 0 -2 l Most adult victims were parents leaving behind orphans and widows l Children were disproportionately affected by all explosive devices but most severely by air strikes and unexploded ordinance MAPW (Australia) US Defence Links 2006 Aust- 15

Missile Defence MAPW (Australia) US Defence Links 2006 Aust- Missile Defence MAPW (Australia) US Defence Links 2006 Aust-

Current US proposal: l Ground-based midcourse system (nationwide defence) Initial deployment: 5 silo-based interceptors Current US proposal: l Ground-based midcourse system (nationwide defence) Initial deployment: 5 silo-based interceptors in Alaska and California in 2004 with another 3 in 2005 l Sea-based ‘Aegis’ midcourse system (theatre defence) Upgrades: improvements to the SPY-1 radar signal processor and the Weapons Control System to perform exoatmospheric engagements *The first of the interceptors was emplaced on 22 July 2004. MAPW (Australia) US Defence Links 2006 Aust- 17

Australia’s Role: history US-Australian joint facilities used in missile defence attempts: Nurrungar and Pine Australia’s Role: history US-Australian joint facilities used in missile defence attempts: Nurrungar and Pine Gap l Nurrungar used in Theatre Missile Defence during 1991 Gulf War l Political support for Strategic Defence Initiative withheld by Hawke l Coalition supported missile defence while in opposition l MAPW (Australia) US Defence Links 2006 Aust- 18

Australia’s Role : history US-Australian cooperation involving JORN radar since 1995 l Australia formally Australia’s Role : history US-Australian cooperation involving JORN radar since 1995 l Australia formally announced involvement in US missile defence system December 2003 l Australia and United States sign 25 -year MOU July 2004 l Australian Defence and Foreign Affairs ministers and American Secretary of State and Secretary of Defence at the signing of the MOU MAPW (Australia) US Defence Links 2006 Aust- 19

Australia’s Role : Technical Involvement l Pine Gap l JORN Radar l Aegis ships Australia’s Role : Technical Involvement l Pine Gap l JORN Radar l Aegis ships (Theatre Missile Defence) MAPW (Australia) US Defence Links 2006 Aust- 20

Australia’s Role : Regional Implications l China has publicly stated its opposition to missile Australia’s Role : Regional Implications l China has publicly stated its opposition to missile defence and made reference to Australian involvement l Indonesia has been Australia’s most persistent critic on missile defence l Australian procurement of long-range cruise missiles has heightened regional anxiety MAPW (Australia) US Defence Links 2006 Aust- 21

Where Does Missile Defence Stand Today? l US system still not operational l Limited Where Does Missile Defence Stand Today? l US system still not operational l Limited success in TMD tests l All other tests have been complete failures l Research and development into MKVs l Canada and Taiwan limiting their support MAPW (Australia) US Defence Links 2006 Aust- 22

Why is Missile Defence of Concern to Doctors? Proliferation of WMD – grave health Why is Missile Defence of Concern to Doctors? Proliferation of WMD – grave health risk l Illusion of protection l l Consequences of an operational system “Real security lies in diplomacy, not in developing new weapons systems. Australia's involvement in missile defence would lead to greater vulnerability within our region, as well as implicating us in a scheme that will lead to the further proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and the missiles for their delivery. This will undermine international security and stability” Medical Association for Prevention of War, July 2004 MAPW (Australia) US Defence Links 2006 Aust- 23

Recommendations MAPW (Australia) US Defence Links 2006 Aust- Recommendations MAPW (Australia) US Defence Links 2006 Aust-

ANZUS and Regional Security MAPW encourages the Australian Government to: l. Work cooperatively within ANZUS and Regional Security MAPW encourages the Australian Government to: l. Work cooperatively within our region to truly strengthen the fabric of peace in the Asia-Pacific region l. Comprehensively review our commitment to the ANZUS treaty MAPW (Australia) US Defence Links 2006 Aust- 25

Australia’s Security MAPW encourages the Australian Government to: l. Thoroughly examine how Australian involvement Australia’s Security MAPW encourages the Australian Government to: l. Thoroughly examine how Australian involvement in the Afghanistan and Iraq conflicts have affected our security l. Re-orient current policies with the US to address the root causes of terrorism, promote human security, including its social, educational, economic, environmental, and human rights dimensions, and strengthen the international rule of law MAPW (Australia) US Defence Links 2006 Aust- 26

Multilateral and International Commitments MAPW encourages the Australian Government to: l. Use the leverage Multilateral and International Commitments MAPW encourages the Australian Government to: l. Use the leverage we are said to acquire through ANZUS to encourage the legally binding commitment of the US to eliminate all nuclear weapons through the 1967 Non-Proliferation Treaty l. Lobby for a Nuclear Weapons Convention MAPW (Australia) US Defence Links 2006 Aust- 27

Pine Gap MAPW encourages the Australian Government to: l. Review the lease of the Pine Gap MAPW encourages the Australian Government to: l. Review the lease of the US-Australian Joint Facility at Pine Gap especially in relation to functions relating to US nuclear war-fighting capabilities MAPW (Australia) US Defence Links 2006 Aust- 28

Missile Defence MAPW encourages the Australian Government to: l. End all involvement in the Missile Defence MAPW encourages the Australian Government to: l. End all involvement in the US missile defence system including both intelligence sharing (Pine Gap and JORN Radar) and military involvement (Aegis ships theatre missile defence) MAPW (Australia) US Defence Links 2006 Aust- 29

Raise your voice Join MAPW in calling for a comprehensive re-examination of Australia’s defence Raise your voice Join MAPW in calling for a comprehensive re-examination of Australia’s defence relationship with the United States to reflect an approach based on non-violent conflict resolution and the promotion of human security: • Write to your local MP • Write to the Defence Minister • Visit: www. mapw. org. au for more activities MAPW ‘body bag’ protest against the invasion of Iraq, December 2002 MAPW (Australia) US Defence Links 2006 Aust- 30

Medical Association for Prevention of War Australia (MAPW) National Office: P. O. Box 1379, Medical Association for Prevention of War Australia (MAPW) National Office: P. O. Box 1379, Carlton VIC 3053, Australia Ph: 03 8344 1637 Fax: 03 8344 1638 www. mapw. org. au [email protected] org. au Australian affiliate of International Physicians for Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW) MAPW (Australia) US Defence Links 2006 Aust- 31