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Association Rule Mining COMP 790 -90 Seminar GNET 713 BCB Module Spring 2007 Jian Pei: Data mining -- Frequent Pattern Mining The UNIVERSITY of NORTH CAROLINA at CHAPEL HILL

Approximate match Compatibility Matrix When you observe d 1 Spread count as d 1: 90%, d 2: 5%, d 3: 5% 2 COMP 790 -090 Data Mining: Concepts, Algorithms, and Applications

Match The degree to which pattern P is retained/reflected in S M(P, S) = P(P|S)= C(p, s) when l. S=l. P M(P, S) = max over all possible when l. S>l. P Example P S M d 1 d 1 d 1 d 3 0. 9*0 d 1 d 2 0. 9*0. 8 d 1 d 2 d 1 d 3 0. 9*0. 05 d 1 d 2 3 d 2 d 3 0. 1*0. 05 d 1 d 2 d 3 0. 9*0. 8 COMP 790 -090 Data Mining: Concepts, Algorithms, and Applications

Calculate Max over all Dynamic Programming M(p 1 p 2. . pi, s 1 s 2…sj)= Max of M(p 1 p 2. . pi-1, s 1 s 2…sj-1) * C(pi, sj) M(p 1 p 2. . pi, s 1 s 2…sj-1) O(l. P*l. S) When compatibility Matrix is sparse O(l. S) 4 COMP 790 -090 Data Mining: Concepts, Algorithms, and Applications

Match in D Average over all sequences in D 5 COMP 790 -090 Data Mining: Concepts, Algorithms, and Applications

Spread of match If compatibility matrix is identity matrix Match = support 6 COMP 790 -090 Data Mining: Concepts, Algorithms, and Applications

Anti-Monotone The match of a pattern P in a symbol sequence S is less than or equal to the match of any subpattern of P in S The match of a pattern P in a sequence database D is less than or equal to the match of any subpattern of P in D Can use any support based algorithm More patterns match so require efficient solution Sample based algorithms Border collapsing of ambiguous patterns 7 COMP 790 -090 Data Mining: Concepts, Algorithms, and Applications

Chernoff Bound Given sample size=n, range R, with probability 1 - true value: = sqrt([R 2 ln(1/ )]/2 n) Distribution free More conservative Sample size : fit in memory Restricted spread : Frequent Patterns min_match + min_match - Infrequent patterns For pattern P= p 1 p 2. . p. L R=min (match[pi]) for all 1 i L 8 COMP 790 -090 Data Mining: Concepts, Algorithms, and Applications

Algorithm Scan DB: O(N*min (Ls*m, Ls+m 2)) Find the match of each individual symbol Take a random sample of sequences Identify borders that embrace the set of ambiguous patterns O(m. Lp * |S| * Lp * n) Min_match existing methods for association rule mining Locate the border of frequent patterns in the entire DB via border collapsing 9 COMP 790 -090 Data Mining: Concepts, Algorithms, and Applications

Border Collapsing If memory can not hold the counters for all ambiguous counters Probe-and-collapse : binary search Probe patterns with highest collapsing power until memory is filled If memory can hold all patterns up to the 1/x layer the space of of ambiguous patterns can be narrowed to at least 1/x of the original one where x is a power of 2 If it takes a level-wise search y scans of the DB, only O(logxy) scans are necessary when the border collapsing technique is employed 10 COMP 790 -090 Data Mining: Concepts, Algorithms, and Applications

Periodic Pattern Full periodic pattern ABC ABC Partial periodic pattern ABC ADC ACC ABC Pattern hierarchy ABC ABC ABC DE DE ABC ABC DE DE 12 COMP 790 -090 Data Mining: Concepts, Algorithms, and Applications

Periodic Pattern Recent Achievements Partial Periodic Pattern Asynchronous Periodic Pattern Meta Pattern Info. Miner/Info. Miner+/STAMP 13 COMP 790 -090 Data Mining: Concepts, Algorithms, and Applications

Clustering Sequential Data CLUSEQ Approx. MAP 14 COMP 790 -090 Data Mining: Concepts, Algorithms, and Applications

References: Frequent-pattern Mining Methods R. Agarwal, C. Aggarwal, and V. V. V. Prasad. A tree projection algorithm for generation of frequent itemsets. In Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing (Special Issue on High Performance Data Mining), 2000. R. Agrawal, T. Imielinski, and A. Swami. Mining association rules between sets of items in large databases. SIGMOD'93, 207 -216, Washington, D. C. R. Agrawal and R. Srikant. Fast algorithms for mining association rules. VLDB'94 487 -499, Santiago, Chile. J. Han, J. Pei, and Y. Yin: “Mining frequent patterns without candidate generation”. In Proc. ACM-SIGMOD’ 2000, pp. 1 -12, Dallas, TX, May 2000. H. Mannila, H. Toivonen, and A. I. Verkamo. Efficient algorithms for discovering association rules. KDD'94, 181 -192, Seattle, WA, July 1994. 15 COMP 790 -090 Data Mining: Concepts, Algorithms, and Applications

References: Frequent-pattern Mining Methods A. Savasere, E. Omiecinski, and S. Navathe. An efficient algorithm for mining association rules in large databases. VLDB'95, 432 -443, Zurich, Switzerland. C. Silverstein, S. Brin, R. Motwani, and J. Ullman. Scalable techniques for mining causal structures. VLDB'98, 594 -605, New York, NY. R. Srikant and R. Agrawal. Mining generalized association rules. VLDB'95, 407 -419, Zurich, Switzerland, Sept. 1995. R. Srikant and R. Agrawal. Mining quantitative association rules in large relational tables. SIGMOD'96, 1 -12, Montreal, Canada. H. Toivonen. Sampling large databases for association rules. VLDB'96, 134 -145, Bombay, India, Sept. 1996. M. J. Zaki, S. Parthasarathy, M. Ogihara, and W. Li. New algorithms for fast discovery of association rules. KDD’ 97. August 1997. 16 COMP 790 -090 Data Mining: Concepts, Algorithms, and Applications

References: Performance Improvements S. Brin, R. Motwani, J. D. Ullman, and S. Tsur. Dynamic itemset counting and implication rules for market basket analysis. SIGMOD'97, Tucson, Arizona, May 1997. D. W. Cheung, J. Han, V. Ng, and C. Y. Wong. Maintenance of discovered association rules in large databases: An incremental updating technique. ICDE'96, New Orleans, LA. T. Fukuda, Y. Morimoto, S. Morishita, and T. Tokuyama. Data mining using two-dimensional optimized association rules: Scheme, algorithms, and visualization. SIGMOD'96, Montreal, Canada. E. -H. Han, G. Karypis, and V. Kumar. Scalable parallel data mining for association rules. SIGMOD'97, Tucson, Arizona. J. S. Park, M. S. Chen, and P. S. Yu. An effective hash-based algorithm for mining association rules. SIGMOD'95, San Jose, CA, May 1995. 17 COMP 790 -090 Data Mining: Concepts, Algorithms, and Applications

References: Performance Improvements G. Piatetsky-Shapiro. Discovery, analysis, and presentation of strong rules. In G. Piatetsky-Shapiro and W. J. Frawley, Knowledge Discovery in Databases, . AAAI/MIT Press, 1991. J. S. Park, M. S. Chen, and P. S. Yu. An effective hash-based algorithm for mining association rules. SIGMOD'95, San Jose, CA. S. Sarawagi, S. Thomas, and R. Agrawal. Integrating association rule mining with relational database systems: Alternatives and implications. SIGMOD'98, Seattle, WA. K. Yoda, T. Fukuda, Y. Morimoto, S. Morishita, and T. Tokuyama. Computing optimized rectilinear regions for association rules. KDD'97, Newport Beach, CA, Aug. 1997. M. J. Zaki, S. Parthasarathy, M. Ogihara, and W. Li. Parallel algorithm for discovery of association rules. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery, 1: 343 -374, 1997. 18 COMP 790 -090 Data Mining: Concepts, Algorithms, and Applications

References. Extensions of Scopes 19 S. Brin, R. Motwani, and C. Silverstein. Beyond market basket: Generalizing association rules to correlations. SIGMOD'97, 265 -276, Tucson, Arizona. J. Han and Y. Fu. Discovery of multiple-level association rules from large databases. VLDB'95, 420 -431, Zurich, Switzerland. M. Klemettinen, H. Mannila, P. Ronkainen, H. Toivonen, and A. I. Verkamo. Finding interesting rules from large sets of discovered association rules. CIKM'94, 401 -408, Gaithersburg, Maryland. F. Korn, A. Labrinidis, Y. Kotidis, and C. Faloutsos. Ratio rules: A new paradigm for fast, quantifiable data mining. VLDB'98, 582 -593, New York, NY. Wei Wang, Jiong Yang, Philip S. Yu: Efficient mining of weighted association rules (WAR). KDD 2000: 270 -274 Wei Wang, Jiong Yang, Richard R. Muntz: TAR: Temporal Association Rules on Evolving Numerical Attributes. ICDE 2001: 283292 COMP 790 -090 Data Mining: Concepts, Algorithms, and Applications

References: Extensions of Scopes B. Lent, A. Swami, and J. Widom. Clustering association rules. ICDE'97, 220 -231, Birmingham, England. R. Meo, G. Psaila, and S. Ceri. A new SQL-like operator for mining association rules. VLDB'96, 122 -133, Bombay, India. R. J. Miller and Y. Yang. Association rules over interval data. SIGMOD'97, 452 -461, Tucson, Arizona. A. Savasere, E. Omiecinski, and S. Navathe. Mining for strong negative associations in a large database of customer transactions. ICDE'98, 494 -502, Orlando, FL, Feb. 1998. D. Tsur, J. D. Ullman, S. Abitboul, C. Clifton, R. Motwani, and S. Nestorov. Query flocks: A generalization of association-rule mining. SIGMOD'98, 1 -12, Seattle, Washington. J. Pei, A. K. H. Tung, J. Han. Fault-Tolerant Frequent Pattern Mining: Problems and Challenges. SIGMOD DMKD’ 01, Santa Barbara, CA. 20 COMP 790 -090 Data Mining: Concepts, Algorithms, and Applications

References: Mining Maxpatterns and Closed Itemsets R. J. Bayardo. Efficiently mining long patterns from databases. SIGMOD'98, 85 -93, Seattle, Washington. J. Pei, J. Han, and R. Mao, "CLOSET: An Efficient Algorithm for Mining Frequent Closed Itemsets", Proc. 2000 ACM-SIGMOD Int. Workshop on Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery (DMKD'00), Dallas, TX, May 2000. N. Pasquier, Y. Bastide, R. Taouil, and L. Lakhal. Discovering frequent closed itemsets for association rules. ICDT'99, 398 -416, Jerusalem, Israel, Jan. 1999. M. Zaki. Generating Non-Redundant Association Rules. KDD'00. Boston, MA. Aug. 2000. M. Zaki. CHARM: An Efficient Algorithm for Closed Association Rule Mining, TR 99 -10, Department of Computer Science, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. M. Zaki, Fast Vertical Mining Using Diffsets, TR 01 -1, Department of Computer Science, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. 21 COMP 790 -090 Data Mining: Concepts, Algorithms, and Applications

References: Constraint-base Frequent-pattern Mining G. Grahne, L. Lakshmanan, and X. Wang. Efficient mining of constrained correlated sets. ICDE'00, 512 -521, San Diego, CA, Feb. 2000. Y. Fu and J. Han. Meta-rule-guided mining of association rules in relational databases. KDOOD'95, 39 -46, Singapore, Dec. 1995. J. Han, L. V. S. Lakshmanan, and R. T. Ng, "Constraint-Based, Multidimensional Data Mining", COMPUTER (special issues on Data Mining), 32(8): 46 -50, 1999. L. V. S. Lakshmanan, R. Ng, J. Han and A. Pang, "Optimization of Constrained Frequent Set Queries with 2 -Variable Constraints", SIGMOD’ 99 22 COMP 790 -090 Data Mining: Concepts, Algorithms, and Applications

References: Constraint-base Frequent-pattern Mining R. Ng, L. V. S. Lakshmanan, J. Han & A. Pang. “Exploratory mining and pruning optimizations of constrained association rules. ” SIGMOD’ 98 J. Pei, J. Han, and L. V. S. Lakshmanan, "Mining Frequent Itemsets with Convertible Constraints", Proc. 2001 Int. Conf. on Data Engineering (ICDE'01), April 2001. J. Pei and J. Han "Can We Push More Constraints into Frequent Pattern Mining? ", Proc. 2000 Int. Conf. on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (KDD'00), Boston, MA, August 2000. R. Srikant, Q. Vu, and R. Agrawal. Mining association rules with item constraints. KDD'97, 67 -73, Newport Beach, California. 23 COMP 790 -090 Data Mining: Concepts, Algorithms, and Applications

References: Sequential Pattern Mining Methods R. Agrawal and R. Srikant. Mining sequential patterns. ICDE'95, 3 -14, Taipei, Taiwan. R. Srikant and R. Agrawal. Mining sequential patterns: Generalizations and performance improvements. EDBT’ 96. J. Han, J. Pei, B. Mortazavi-Asl, Q. Chen, U. Dayal, M. -C. Hsu, "Free. Span: Frequent Pattern-Projected Sequential Pattern Mining", Proc. 2000 Int. Conf. on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (KDD'00), Boston, MA, August 2000. H. Mannila, H Toivonen, and A. I. Verkamo. Discovery of frequent episodes in event sequences. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery, 1: 259 -289, 1997. J. Pei, J. Han, H. Pinto, Q. Chen, U. Dayal, and M. -C. Hsu, "Prefix. Span: Mining Sequential Patterns Efficiently by Prefix. Projected Pattern Growth", Proc. 2001 Int. Conf. on Data Engineering (ICDE'01), Heidelberg, Germany, April 2001. 24 COMP 790 -090 Data Mining: Concepts, Algorithms, and Applications

References: Sequential Pattern Mining Methods B. Ozden, S. Ramaswamy, and A. Silberschatz. Cyclic association rules. ICDE'98, 412 -421, Orlando, FL. S. Ramaswamy, S. Mahajan, and A. Silberschatz. On the discovery of interesting patterns in association rules. VLDB'98, 368 -379, New York, NY. M. J. Zaki. Efficient enumeration of frequent sequences. CIKM’ 98. Novermber 1998. M. N. Garofalakis, R. Rastogi, K. Shim: SPIRIT: Sequential Pattern Mining with Regular Expression Constraints. VLDB 1999: 223 -234, Edinburgh, Scotland. Wei Wang, Jiong Yang, Philip S. Yu: Mining Patterns in Long Sequential Data with Noise. SIGKDD Explorations 2(2): 28 -33 (2000) Jiong Yang, Wei Wang, Philip S. Yu, Jiawei Han: Mining Long Sequential Patterns in a Noisy Environment. SIGMOD Conference 2002 25 COMP 790 -090 Data Mining: Concepts, Algorithms, and Applications

References: Periodic Pattern Mining Methods Jiawei Han, Wan Gong, Yiwen Yin: Mining Segment-Wise Periodic Patterns in Time-Related Databases. KDD 1998: 214 -218 Jiawei Han, Guozhu Dong, Yiwen Yin: Efficient Mining of Partial Periodic Patterns in Time Series Database. ICDE 1999: 106 -115 Jiong Yang, Wei Wang, Philip S. Yu: Mining asynchronous periodic patterns in time series data. KDD 2000: 275 -279 Wei Wang, Jiong Yang, Philip S. Yu: Meta-patterns: Revealing Hidden Periodic Patterns. ICDM 2001: 550 -557 Jiong Yang, Wei Wang, Philip S. Yu: Infominer: mining surprising periodic patterns. KDD 2001: 395 -400 26 COMP 790 -090 Data Mining: Concepts, Algorithms, and Applications

References: Mining Various Databases K. Koperski, J. Han, and G. B. Marchisio, "Mining Spatial and Image Data through Progressive Refinement Methods", Revue internationale de gomatique (European Journal of GIS and Spatial Analysis), 9(4): 425 -440, 1999. A. K. H. Tung, H. Lu, J. Han, and L. Feng, "Breaking the Barrier of Transactions: Mining Inter-Transaction Association Rules", Proc. 1999 Int. Conf. on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (KDD'99), San Diego, CA, Aug. 1999, pp. 297 -301. 27 COMP 790 -090 Data Mining: Concepts, Algorithms, and Applications

References: Mining Various Databases H. Lu, L. Feng, and J. Han, "Beyond Intra-Transaction Association Analysis: Mining Multi-Dimensional Inter-Transaction Association Rules", ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS’ 00), 18(4): 423 -454, 2000. O. R. Zaiane, M. Xin, J. Han, "Discovering Web Access Patterns and Trends by Applying OLAP and Data Mining Technology on Web Logs, " Proc. Advances in Digital Librar ies Conf. (ADL'98), Santa Barbara, CA, April 1998, pp. 19 -29 O. R. Zaiane, J. Han, and H. Zhu, "Mining Recurrent Items in Multimedia with Progressive Resolution Refinement", Proc. 2000 Int. Conf. on Data Engineering (ICDE'00), San Diego, CA, Feb. 2000, pp. 461 -470. 28 COMP 790 -090 Data Mining: Concepts, Algorithms, and Applications

References: Frequent-pattern Mining for Classification and Data Cube K. Beyer and R. Ramakrishnan. Bottom-up computation of sparse and iceberg cubes. SIGMOD'99, 359 -370, Philadelphia, PA, June 1999. M. Fang, N. Shivakumar, H. Garcia-Molina, R. Motwani, and J. D. Ullman. Computing iceberg queries efficiently. VLDB'98, 299 -310, New York, NY, Aug. 1998. J. Han, J. Pei, G. Dong, and K. Wang, “Computing Iceberg Data Cubes with Complex Measures”, Proc. ACM-SIGMOD’ 2001, Santa Barbara, CA, May 2001. M. Kamber, J. Han, and J. Y. Chiang. Metarule-guided mining of multi -dimensional association rules using data cubes. KDD'97, 207 -210, Newport Beach, California. K. Beyer and R. Ramakrishnan. Bottom-up computation of sparse and iceberg cubes. SIGMOD’ 99 T. Imielinski, L. Khachiyan, and A. Abdulghani. Cubegrades: Generalizing association rules. Technical Report, Aug. 2000 29 COMP 790 -090 Data Mining: Concepts, Algorithms, and Applications

THANK YOU! Jian Pei: Data mining -- Frequent Pattern Mining The UNIVERSITY of NORTH CAROLINA at CHAPEL HILL