- Количество слайдов: 39
Assessing Faculty Competencies to Teach Online: A Review Nasreen Ahmad Research Analyst Collin County Community College District Presented at the 32 th Annual SAIR Conference Charleston, South Carolina October 22 -25, 2005
Effect of Technology • On Students Want More Flexible Education • On Institutions Meet the Need of Students and Offer Online Courses • On Faculty Learn to Teach in the New Technology Environment • On Teaching and Learning Environment Shift in Pedagogy
Distance Education by Type of Institution In 2000 -2001: • Public Institutions § Ninety percent of 2 -year and 89 percent of 4 year institutions offered distance learning courses. • Private Institutions • Sixteen percent of 2 -year and 40 percent of the 4 -year institutions offered distance learning courses. National Center for Education Statistics 
Distance Education and Training • Sixty percent of higher education institutions provided training opportunities to the distance faculty • 25 percent required training in learning technology • 13 percent in curriculum development • 17 percent in teaching methods National Center for Education Statistics 
Objective of the Presentation • Review the literature and identify faclutys’ competencies to teach online? • How institutions are assessing facultys’ preparedness to teach online?
Distance Education Involves Change • Students • State of Technology • Loss of Face-to. Face Interaction • Missing being on College • Increased Autonomy • Passive to More Active Learner • Teacher • Missing Face-to. Face Interaction • Increased Investment of Time • Lack of Adequate Equipment • Shift in Teaching Paradigm ─ from Provider of Knowledge to Facilitator of Learning Lane and Williamson
Newly Coined Terms in Literature • • • e-structor eteacher emoderator Cyberteacher efacilitator online instructor
Definition of Distance Education Distance education is defined as “the acquisition of knowledge and skills through mediated information and instruction, encompassing all technologies and other forms of learning at a distance. ” United States Distance Learning Association 
Findings from Literature─ (I) § § Online courses need new pedagogical models. Faculty are not well adept in the use of new technologies to teach on line. Numerous studies cite that faculty members have requested training on how to use technology effectively. Newer teachers already possess the skills to integrate technology, training is needed for those less experienced in the distance learning model.
Findings from Literature (Cont’d): ─ (2) § Incorporate online teaching and learning into initial teacher education. § Faculty are more confident in their technical competence than in their methodological ability to use technology in their teaching. § A lot of investment in upgrading the hardware and software but little or no investment in opportunities to upgrade user skills. § Use of IT in teaching requires additional competencies.
Findings from Literature (Cont’d): ─ (3) § Emphasis needs to be placed on the identification of teacher competencies and the training needs for successful faculty development. § Difficult for technology coordinators to provide training if they don’t know who is technologically competent and who is not, and their level of competence.
Findings from Literature (Cont’d): ─(4) § Need for competencies is well documented but § § § there is a paucity of comprehensive studies to identify competencies. Fewer studies have undergone rigorous process of competency identification based on research methods. Much of the literature has focused on technical skills. In most studies, reference to competencies is in general terms with a list of technical and course design task without rubrics for measurement.
Findings from Literature (Cont’d): ─ (5) § Very little research on the type of faculty development to fit the new role of faculty in the new environment, in a review of 225 articles only 27 references were related to faculty development [Dillon and Walsh cited by Thach and Murphy 1995]. § Two out of eleven challenges faced by administrators related to distance education issues and professional development, but only handful of articles were reported on faculty development and competency in relation to technology [ Leist and Murry 2003].
Findings from Literature (Cont’d): ─ (6) § Studies identify faculty competencies mostly based on interviews of experts about their opinion of skills and knowledge necessary to conduct certain tasks well. § Recent studies have highlighted the importance of interaction: communication between teacher and learner, engagement and feedback.
Definition of Competency International Board of Standards for Training, Performance and Instruction (Ibstpi) defines competency as “a knowledge, skill, or attitude that enables one to effectively perform the activities of a given occupation or function to the standards expected in employment” .
Ibstpi Competencies for Instructors (1) Professional Foundations 1. Communicate effectively. 2. Update and improve one’s professional knowledge and skills. 3. Comply with established ethical and legal standards. 4. Establish and maintain professional credibility. Planning and Preparation 5. Plan instructional methods and materials 6. Prepare for instruction.
Ibstpi Competencies for Instructors (2) Instructional Methods and Strategies 7. Stimulate and sustain learner motivation and engagement. 8. Demonstrate effective presentation skills. 9. Demonstrate effective facilitation skills. 10. Demonstrate effective questioning skills. 11. Provide clarification and feedback. 12. Promote retention of knowledge and skills. 13. Promote transfer of knowledge and skills. 14. Use media and technology to enhance learning & performance. Assessment and Evaluation 15. Assess learning and performance. 16. Evaluate instructional effectiveness. Management 17. Manage an environment that fosters learning and performance. 18. Manage the instructional process through the appropriate use of technology.
Technology Competencies and Assessment K-12 Teachers are evaluated for following competencies: § Basic Technology § Software Proficiency § Ethics § Basis Integration of Technology in Curriculum § Advanced Integration of Technology in Curriculum Type of assessments used are: • Online Exams • Portfolio Assessments • Performance Assessments • Interview Protocols • Self Assessments
Assessing Online Readiness Students and Faculty at IHE • Students • • Many colleges and • universities require computer competency tests. • • Many colleges and universities offer online readiness self- • assessment instruments on websites. § are short, very general, provide • basic information Faculty Some colleges and universities require certification for online teaching. Many colleges offer selfassessment instruments for online readiness. Mostly, questions in instruments relate to the availability of hardware and software, and whether they meet certain specifications. Mostly, instruments are without any rubrics for measurement of competencies.
More Findings from Studies on Competencies (1) • Based on quantitative and qualitative analysis, Mu found three competency areas of importance: word processing software, use of email and use of World Wide Web at the College of Education, University of Tennessee . • Based on extensive literature review and findings of survey, administered to online practitioners, Kemshal-Bell summarized his findings into: technical skills which relate to the use of technology; facilitation skills which relate to interpersonal skills and engaging learners, and management skills which relate to management of the learning process .
More Findings from Studies on Competencies (2) • Survey research at New South Wales Department of Education identified five skill sets for effective online teaching: relating to learner in the online environment, managing online environment, communicating effectively, using online learning tools, using effective online teaching methods. http: //cyberteacher. onestop. net/final%20 report. pdf. • The Institute of Higher Education Policy identified benchmarks important for distance education to include student interaction with faculty through variety of ways, timely feedback to students’ questions and assignments, and instruction in proper research .
Multiple Domains Competency Model ─ Dusick • Dusick studied only two areas: • Software broken into eight domains • Computer hardware broken into four domains • His findings indicate that faculty were most confident in the use of word processing followed by use of Internet, operating system applications, data base applications, and spreadsheet applications. Faculty were least confident in the use of multimedia, networking and programming, presentations, and repairs/peripherals.
Distance Education Competency Model ─ Thach and Murphy • • • Roles Instructor Instructional Designer Technology Expert Technician Administrator Site Facilitator Support Staff Editor Librarian Evaluation Specialist Graphic Designer • Competencies • Interpersonal Communication • Planning Skills • Collaboration/Teamwork Skills • English Proficiency • Writing Skills • Knowledge of Distance Education Skills • Organizational Skills • Feedback Skills • Basic Technology Knowledge • Technology Access Knowledge
Competencies for Interactive Television • • • Course Planning and Organization Verbal and Nonverbal Presentation Skills Collaborative Teamwork Questioning Strategies Subject Matter Expertise Involving Students and Coordinating the Field Sites Cyrs 
Some Competencies for Online Synchronous Environment • Establishing Ground Rules for Discussion • Keeping Interactions with Minimal Instructor Interventions • Sensing How Online Text Appears to Learners • Keeping Aware of Cultural Differences Specter and de la Teja 
Some Competencies for Asynchronous Environment § Allowing Time for Learners to Reflect § Keeping Discussions Alive and Productive § Archiving and Organizing Discussions • Spector and de la Teja  § § Administrative Facilitation Technical Evaluation • Learning Peaks
Competencies for Online Certification • Core Competencies: • Selecting Material Suited for Online Delivery • Preparation of Content for Online Delivery • Delivery of Online Instruction • Managing Online Course • Assessing Student Learning • Enabling Competencies: • Selection of Computer System/Components • Setup of Computer System • Creation of Healthy Workplace • Good Ergonomic Habits • Use of Input Devices • Use of Operating System • Mastery of Advanced Features of Operating System • Word Processing • Spreadsheets • Electronic Communications • Voice Input • Use of ADA Input and Output Options • Sustaining Competencies: • Instruction in Competencies that are Essential for Excellence • Evaluation/Revision of Online Courses • Rowe and Kruper 
A Shift in Emphasis § Emphasis on Interactive Knowledge Structure and Pedagogies Supportive of Student Centered Learning § Emphasis of Online Teaching on Interactivity § Chickering and Ehrmann’s Revised Seven Principles of Good Practice Emphasize Interaction and Collaboration § Three Type of Interactions: Learner-Content Interactions; Learner-Instructor Interactions; and Learner-Learner Interactions
Summary Competencies for Online Teaching § Technical Skills relate to the use of computers; effective use of communication and media technologies and online learning tools; and web development. § Facilitation Skills relate to engaging the learner in the learning environment, enhancing interaction with learner in his/her learning experience. . § Collaboration Skills relate to working in teams and helping learners work in teams as well-- promoting collaboration § Planning and Management/Administrative Skills relate to the management of the learning process and management of learners. § Assessment and Evaluation Skills relate to the assessment of learning; assessment of instructional effectiveness; and self-evaluation of skills. § Pedagogical Skills that relate to supporting studentcentered learning.
Experience of Mt. San Antonio College California Community College System Objective: § Define Baseline Competencies in Online Teaching and Learning § Have New Faculty Achieve the Baseline Competencies § Define Extended Competencies
Experience of Mt. San Antonio College California Community College System–(Cont’d) § Survey of Experienced Faculty about Knowledge and Skills Used for Online Environment § Questionnaire Developed and Administered to Experienced Faculty § Data Analyzed, Knowledge/Skills for Online Faculty Determined § Created Rubrics for Baseline Competencies § Created Assessment Tool to Measure Competencies of Potential Faculty § Assessment Tool Administered to Online Faculty § Results Compared to Knowledge and Skills Rubric § Personalized Plans Created for Online Faculty § Online Resources Created for Faculty to Remove Deficiencies and Develop Skills § From Original Survey Next Level of Knowledge and Skills Developed
Tale of Some Texas Institutions (1) Brazosport College, Lake Jackson • E-Learning Certificate Required to Teach Online • Faculty Attend 12 -15 Sessions during Fall, ─ in Spring and Summer they Develop their Courses which they are Expected to Offer Online in Fall • Faculty has Support of Instructional Designer and Media Specialist • Courses are Monitored the First Semester they are Offered Texas A&M University, Texarkana • No Diagnostic Instrument Used • Faculty Training Provided but not Required Before Teaching Online, presently, Training Provided by Experienced Staff • Working on Developing Guidelines/Procedures to Evaluate Technical Quality of Online Courses
Tale of Some Texas Institutions (2) Delmar College, Corpus Christi • Instructor must have 24 Hours of Web. CT Training at Del Mar or have Proof of using Web. CT • Web. CT Training as well as Individual Training Offered San Antonio College, San Antonio • Three Types of Certification Offered • Every Month Several Courses Offered through the Instructional Innovation Center (IIC) towards Completion of Certificate • Draft Web Pages to Support Internet Courses are reviewed for Skill and Content by IIC or Committee of Faculty • Has Detailed Technology Plan • First Time Faculty Teaches a Class Limited to 20 Students, thereafter, Maintained at 20 -25 Students
Tale of Some Texas Institutions (3) University of Texas Pan American • Faculty members can attend orientation sessions that demonstrate using Web. CT. • At UTPA, emphasis on learning Pedagogy of teaching online. • Six-week long workshop on “Teaching in Higher Education” offered. Workshop is available to any faculty regardless of school. • Online rubrics are available on web for teachers to assess their own learning.
Tale of Some Texas Institutions (4) Collin County Community College • In 2003, a Review of Literature was Undertaken • A Committee was Formed, that Decided it was Deans’ Job to Assess Faculty’s Online Competencies • Deans and Institutional Research Office Collaborating to Develop Questionnaire • Questionnaire to be Administered to Faculty Wanting to Teach Online by Teaching Learning Center (TLC) • Instructors to be Institutionally Certified to Teach Online • Faculty Required to Work with TLC to Overcome Deficiencies in Order to be Certified
Concluding Remarks • Faculty need to have requisite competencies to be effective in distance learning environment. • Determination of competencies for online teaching, is the first step to help faculty prepare for online teaching. • Benchmark competencies are very important for new as well as the in-service faculty. • Prior to measuring faculty members’ competencies, it is important to determine the faculty members’ needs. • Development of competencies should go through a rigorous process of development.
Concluding Remarks (Cont’d) • Any faculty development efforts based on identified competencies will be grounded in research rather than haphazard approaches. • For successful professional development, the professional development efforts should be based on deficiencies of the faculty. • Successful professional development should be part of institutions’ Technology Plan. • More research is needed to improve competency development efforts. • The competencies developed should undergo periodic revisions in view of changing technology.
Online on the Line? ? ? § The changing profile of students, funding issues, competition, rising enrollment is putting pressure on the present infrastructure of institutions, there is likelihood of proliferation of more distance education courses— will your institution and faculty be ready for that? § In future, there are other possibilities, such as, the likelihood that faculty may have to work in collaboration with other campuses and states to create electronic courses— will your institution and faculty be ready for that?
For comments or questions contact at: [email protected] edu 972 -758 -3810