Assembly Language for Intel-Based Computers 4 th Edition

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Assembly Language for Intel-Based Computers, 4 th Edition Kip R. Irvine Unpacked and Packed Assembly Language for Intel-Based Computers, 4 th Edition Kip R. Irvine Unpacked and Packed Integers Slides prepared by Kip R. Irvine Revision date: 07/11/2002 Modified 2006, Dr. Nikolay Metodiev Sirakov • Chapter corrections (Web) Assembly language sources (Web) (c) Pearson Education, 2002. All rights reserved. You may modify and copy this slide show for your personal use, or for use in the classroom, as long as this copyright statement, the author's name, and the title are not changed.

ASCII and Packed Decimal Arithmetic • • • Unpacked BCD ASCII Decimal AAA Instruction ASCII and Packed Decimal Arithmetic • • • Unpacked BCD ASCII Decimal AAA Instruction AAS Instruction AAM Instruction AAD Instruction Packed Decimal Integers DAA Instruction DAS Instruction Irvine, Kip R. Assembly Language for Intel-Based Computers, 2003. Web site Examples 2

Unpacked BCD • Binary-coded decimal (BCD) numbers use 4 binary bits to represent each Unpacked BCD • Binary-coded decimal (BCD) numbers use 4 binary bits to represent each decimal digit • A number using unpacked BCD representation stores a decimal digit in the lower four bits of each byte • For example, 5, 678 is stored as the following sequence of hexadecimal bytes: 05 06 07 08 Irvine, Kip R. Assembly Language for Intel-Based Computers, 2003. Web site Examples 3

ASCII Decimal • A number using ASCII Decimal representation stores a single ASCII digit ASCII Decimal • A number using ASCII Decimal representation stores a single ASCII digit in each byte • For example, 5, 678 is stored as the following sequence of hexadecimal bytes: 35 36 37 38 Irvine, Kip R. Assembly Language for Intel-Based Computers, 2003. Web site Examples 4

AAA Instruction • The AAA (ASCII adjust after addition) instruction adjusts the binary result AAA Instruction • The AAA (ASCII adjust after addition) instruction adjusts the binary result of an ADD or ADC instruction. It makes the result in AL consistent with ASCII digit representation. • The Carry value, if any ends up in AH • Example: Add '8' and '2' mov ah, 0 mov al, '8' ; AX = 0038 h add al, '2' ; AX = 006 Ah aaa ; AX = 0100 h (adjust result) or ax, 3030 h ; AX = 3130 h = '10' Irvine, Kip R. Assembly Language for Intel-Based Computers, 2003. Web site Examples 5

AAS Instruction • The AAS (ASCII adjust after subtraction) instruction adjusts the binary result AAS Instruction • The AAS (ASCII adjust after subtraction) instruction adjusts the binary result of an SUB or SBB instruction. It makes the result in AL consistent with ASCII digit representation. • It places the Carry value, if any, in AH • Example: Subtract '9' from '8' mov ah, 0 mov al, '8' sub al, '9' aas pushf or al, 30 h popf ; ; ; AX = 0038 h AX = 00 FFh AX = FF 09 h (adjust result) save Carry flag AX = FF 39 h (AL = '9') restore Carry flag Irvine, Kip R. Assembly Language for Intel-Based Computers, 2003. Web site Examples 6

AAM Instruction • The AAM (ASCII adjust after multiplication) instruction adjusts the binary result AAM Instruction • The AAM (ASCII adjust after multiplication) instruction adjusts the binary result of a MUL instruction. The multiplication must have been performed on unpacked decimal numbers. mov bl, 05 h mov al, 06 h mul bl aam Irvine, Kip R. Assembly Language for Intel-Based Computers, 2003. ; ; first operand second operand AX = 001 Eh AX = 0300 h Web site Examples 7

AAD Instruction • The AAD (ASCII adjust before division) instruction adjusts the unpacked decimal AAD Instruction • The AAD (ASCII adjust before division) instruction adjusts the unpacked decimal dividend in AX before a division operation. data quotient BYTE ? remainder BYTE ? . code mov ax, 0307 h aad mov bl, 5 div bl mov quotient, al mov remainder, ah Irvine, Kip R. Assembly Language for Intel-Based Computers, 2003. ; ; Web site dividend AX = 0025 h divisor AX = 0207 h Examples 8

Packed Decimal Integers • Packed BCD stores two decimal digits per byte • For Packed Decimal Integers • Packed BCD stores two decimal digits per byte • For example, 12, 345, 678 can be stored as the following sequence of hexadecimal bytes: 12 34 56 78 There is no limit on the number of bytes you can use to store a BCD number. Financial values are frequently stored in BCD format, to permit high precision when performing calculations. Irvine, Kip R. Assembly Language for Intel-Based Computers, 2003. Web site Examples 9

DAA Instruction • The DAA (decimal adjust after addition) instruction converts the binary result DAA Instruction • The DAA (decimal adjust after addition) instruction converts the binary result of an ADD or ADC operation to packed decimal format. • The value to be adjusted must be in AL • Example: calculate BCD 35 + 48 mov al, 35 h add al, 48 h daa ; AL = 7 Dh ; AL = 83 h (adjusted) Irvine, Kip R. Assembly Language for Intel-Based Computers, 2003. Web site Examples 10

DAS Instruction • The DAS (decimal adjust after subtraction) instruction converts the binary result DAS Instruction • The DAS (decimal adjust after subtraction) instruction converts the binary result of a SUB or SBB operation to packed decimal format. • The value must be in AL • Example: subtract BCD 48 from 85 mov al, 85 h sub al, 48 h das ; AL = 3 Dh ; AL = 37 h (adjusted) Irvine, Kip R. Assembly Language for Intel-Based Computers, 2003. Web site Examples 11

The End Irvine, Kip R. Assembly Language for Intel-Based Computers, 2003. Web site Examples The End Irvine, Kip R. Assembly Language for Intel-Based Computers, 2003. Web site Examples 12




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