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ASEAN Cooperation on Fire and Haze Control under the ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze ASEAN Cooperation on Fire and Haze Control under the ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution Mr. Thalearngsak Petchsuwan Air Quality and Noise Management Bureau Pollution Control Department, Thailand

What is HAZE? • HAZE : Atmospheric moisture, dust, smoke and vapor suspended in What is HAZE? • HAZE : Atmospheric moisture, dust, smoke and vapor suspended in the air to form a partially opaque condition and impair visibility. • HAZE pollution can be “transboundary” if its density and extent is so great at source that it remains at measurable levels after crossing into another country’s air space.

Hotspot and Smoke Haze detected by the Moderate Haze from Land Forest Fires Resolution Hotspot and Smoke Haze detected by the Moderate Haze from Land Forest Fires Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite Hot Spot Smoke Haze Hot Spot

Haze resulted from 3 main activities; Solid Waste Burning Agricultural Waste Burning Forest Fire Haze resulted from 3 main activities; Solid Waste Burning Agricultural Waste Burning Forest Fire

Haze Situation in Southeast Asia During dry season in the Northern Hemisphere (January - Haze Situation in Southeast Asia During dry season in the Northern Hemisphere (January - April), hotspot in Mekong Sub-Region was found to increase. These burning activities result in transboundary haze pollution which can be seen clearly in the satellite images On the other hand, fire in the Southern Part of the Region is found to be more intense during June – September particularly in Sumatra and Borneo.

Mekong sub-region Dry season: Jan – April Problems: Forest fire and open burning in Mekong sub-region Dry season: Jan – April Problems: Forest fire and open burning in agricultural areas and community Southern ASEAN Dry season: June - September Problems: Burning in peatland

HAZE IN THE SOUTHERN PART OF ASEAN REGION HAZE IN THE SOUTHERN PART OF ASEAN REGION

Southern Smoke Haze Episode in 1997 Southern Smoke Haze Episode in 1997

Southern Smoke Haze Episode in 1997 • Smoke haze from land forest fire in Southern Smoke Haze Episode in 1997 • Smoke haze from land forest fire in Sumatra and Borneo, Indonesia had affected Southeast Asian countries during dry seasons in 1991, 1994 and 1997 • Widespread uncontrolled forest fires, which originated from agricultural land clearing, occurred since July 1997 in several major islands of Indonesia, under the abnormally dry conditions from the 1997 -98 El Niño/ Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episode

Southern Smoke Haze Episode in 1997 • The fires sent thick smoke haze across Southern Smoke Haze Episode in 1997 • The fires sent thick smoke haze across the sky of countries in the region such as Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, the Southern part of Thailand some parts of the Philippines in September 1997.

Southern Smoke Haze Episode in 1997 • The economic loss suffered by countries during Southern Smoke Haze Episode in 1997 • The economic loss suffered by countries during this environmental disaster was enormous. Several economic sectors, including air, water and land transport, tourism and agriculture have been severely affected • Poor visibility making airlines canceling flights to several airports in the region • Implicated as a factor in the crash of a commercial aircraft in Sumatra on 26 September 1997, that killed all 243 people abroad

 • Haze pollution has also resulted in considerable health impact on the people • Haze pollution has also resulted in considerable health impact on the people of the countries affected. An increase in number of sick people who required clinic visits or hospital admission was reported from Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. • More than 20, 000 and 4, 000 cases were reported in Malaysia and Singapore, respectively, and several thousands cases in Thailand.

Changes in the respiratory morbidity in the south of Thailand the net health impacts Changes in the respiratory morbidity in the south of Thailand the net health impacts from 1997 haze, Sept - Oct 1997 % change % net haze impacts P- value* OPD visits All respiratory IPD admissions +26 8 <0. 01** All respiratory +33 7 <0. 01** Pneumonia +36 18 <0. 01** Bronchitis/COPD +40 12 Asthma +12 3 0. 01** NS * Chi-squre goodness of fit test, using contingency table analysis (2 x 2) for each condition ** Significant Source: Health and Environmental Impacts from the 1997 ASEAN Haze in Southern Thailand, 1998

HAZE IN THE NORTHERN PART OF ASEAN REGION (MEKONG SUB-REGION) HAZE IN THE NORTHERN PART OF ASEAN REGION (MEKONG SUB-REGION)

Smoke Haze in Mekong Sub-Region Smoke Haze in Mekong Sub-Region

Smoke Haze in Mekong Sub-Region • Hotspot in Mekong Sub-Region was found to increase Smoke Haze in Mekong Sub-Region • Hotspot in Mekong Sub-Region was found to increase during January to April every year • The increasing hotspot number is from forest fires which are found to be more intense during that period in Mekong Sub-Region Countries • In addition, the farmers in this region also prepare land for the next crop cultivation and burning is the easiest way to eliminate waste such as rice straw and sugar cane leaves

Smoke Haze in Mekong Sub-Region • These burning activities result in transboundary haze pollution Smoke Haze in Mekong Sub-Region • These burning activities result in transboundary haze pollution which can be seen clearly in the satellite images. Dust, smoke and gaseous pollutants can be blown across boundary and affect to all countries in the region • PM 10 concentrations in the Northern Part of Thailand are found to elevate during the same period as the increase in hotspot number

Regional Mechanisms on Fire and Haze Prevention and Control Regional Mechanisms on Fire and Haze Prevention and Control

The Development of the ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution • Since the early The Development of the ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution • Since the early 90 s, ASEAN Member States have been working together to tackle transboundary haze pollution problem arising from land forest fires • In 1995, ASEAN Environment Ministers agreed to intensify co -operation through concrete programmes spelt out in the Regional Haze Action Plan (RHAP) to prevent, monitor and mitigate land forest fires

The Development of the ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution • The RHAP was The Development of the ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution • The RHAP was adopted at the First ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Haze in December 1997 in Singapore • In 1999, ASEAN took a step further by adopting the policy on zero-burning and banning of open burning as a long-term strategy during dry season

The Development of the ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution • This ASEAN spirit The Development of the ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution • This ASEAN spirit of co-operation continued into the new millennium with ASEAN Environment Ministers agreeing to forge ahead with the formulation of an ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution in October 2000 • Subsequently, an Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee (INC), comprising government officials from the environmental and legal agencies of ASEAN Member States, was formed to draft the Agreement

ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution Objective: The Agreement aims to prevent and monitor ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution Objective: The Agreement aims to prevent and monitor transboundary haze pollution as a result of land and/or forest fires which should be mitigated, through concerted national efforts and intensified regional and international co-operation.

 • The ASEAN Haze Agreement was signed by the ten ASEAN Members States • The ASEAN Haze Agreement was signed by the ten ASEAN Members States on 10 June 2002 during the occasion of the World Conference and Exhibition on Land Forest Fire Hazards in Kuala Lumpur • The Agreement entered into force on 25 November 2003, following the deposit of the sixth instrument of ratification by Thailand on 26 September 2003 • Only Indonesia that still not Ratify to the ASEAN Haze Agreement

Conference of the Parties (COP) e N Haz ASEA d Fun Mechanism under Committee Conference of the Parties (COP) e N Haz ASEA d Fun Mechanism under Committee Under COP ASEAN Secretariat ASEAN Haze Agreement ACC ASMC COP Sub-Regional Arrangement Sub-Regional Ministerial Steering Committee (MSC) Technical Working Group (TWG) for the Southern Part of the Region Technical Working Group (TWG) for the Mekong Sub. Region

Fire and Haze Situations in Thailand Fire and Haze Situations in Thailand

Hotspot Monitoring in Thailand MODIS Aqua&Terra by DNP o o Whole Country & 9 Hotspot Monitoring in Thailand MODIS Aqua&Terra by DNP o o Whole Country & 9 Provinces 3 categories; Protected area, National forest reserve and agricultural area

Hotspot Monitoring (Cont. ) NOAA o From ASMC Website o Whole ASEAN Region o Hotspot Monitoring (Cont. ) NOAA o From ASMC Website o Whole ASEAN Region o Include Wind speed / Wind direction and Density of smoked haze

Air Quality Monitoring Region No. of Stations North 14 North - east 3 Central Air Quality Monitoring Region No. of Stations North 14 North - east 3 Central 31 East 10 South 5 Total 63 Stations / 29 Provinces Mobile Air Quality Units

Public Dissemination of Forest Fire Data http: //www. dnp. go. th/forestfire Data on DNP Public Dissemination of Forest Fire Data http: //www. dnp. go. th/forestfire Data on DNP Website: Daily hotspot number, forest fire forecast and fire weather index

http: //www. dnp. go. th/forestfire Hotspot Information Fire Weather Index http: //www. dnp. go. th/forestfire Hotspot Information Fire Weather Index

Public Dissemination of Air Quality Data 1. www. aqnis. pcd. go. th 2. www. Public Dissemination of Air Quality Data 1. www. aqnis. pcd. go. th 2. www. aqmthai. com Haze information including air quality data, meteorological data, hotspot count and suggestions for health protection Real-time air quality data from PCD monitoring stations and AQI

3. Application: Air 4 Thai Free download for i. OS android 3. Application: Air 4 Thai Free download for i. OS android

Thailand National Prevention and Mitigation Measures Thailand National Prevention and Mitigation Measures

Policies/Regulations/Plans • National Disaster Prevention and Mitigation Plan (20102014) • National Master Plan for Policies/Regulations/Plans • National Disaster Prevention and Mitigation Plan (20102014) • National Master Plan for Open Burning Control • Action Plan on Fire and Haze Control (2012 -2017) • Haze Pollution Prevention and Mitigation for Provinces in the Northern Part of Thailand, 2013 • National Master Plan on Forest Fire Control • Provincial Regulations • Community Rules

Institutions • Single Command § National Level: Prime Minister/ Deputy Prime Minister § Provincial Institutions • Single Command § National Level: Prime Minister/ Deputy Prime Minister § Provincial Level: Governor • Committee § National Disaster Management Committee chaired by Prime Minister § National Committee on Fire and Haze Control: chaired by Minister of Natural Resources and Environment • Stakeholders § Private sector/Community/Academic/Public

Haze Pollution Prevention and Mitigation for Provinces in the Northern Part of Thailand, 2013 Haze Pollution Prevention and Mitigation for Provinces in the Northern Part of Thailand, 2013 Measures 1. 100 Day - Control Burning Activities • Strictly prohibited burning in forest areas and control burning in communities, agricultural areas and roadside during Jan – April • Issued provincial regulations to control burning by the Governors • Strictly enforce law and regulation related to fire and haze control

Measures Activities 2. Forest Fire Prevention • Fire detection and suppression: and Control Satellite, Measures Activities 2. Forest Fire Prevention • Fire detection and suppression: and Control Satellite, ground survey and hotline • Fuel management strategy: Early burning, Fire brake construction • Public Relation Programme with local communities in 9 Northern Province • Resources mobilisation: staffs vehicle and equipments

Measure Activities 3. Supporting Zero • 1, 000 villages are evaluated and supported to Measure Activities 3. Supporting Zero • 1, 000 villages are evaluated and supported to increase their capacity to Burning Villages in control fire and haze • 5, 000 villagers are educated and raised the Northern awareness to control burning Thailand • Meetings with Private sector to discuss about cooperation on fire and haze control Private sector • Open burning control networks consist of through Corporate academic sector, private sector, local authorities, NGOs and local communities Social 4. Cooperation with Responsibility

5. Promotion of Public Awareness and Public Participation Press conference/interview Zero Burning Campaign and 5. Promotion of Public Awareness and Public Participation Press conference/interview Zero Burning Campaign and Caravan Content in Public Relations Types of Public Relations Brochures Animations and video Spot and short advertisement n n n Seeking Cooperation, and network Sources and health impact of haze Non –burning techniques n Channel of Public Relations n Evaluation of perception and understanding of the publics (receiving, knowing and performing) By man Village Radio Speaker Newspaper, Radio and Television Other media n n

6. Early warning of Haze 80 < PM 10 < 120 ug/m 3 Observation 6. Early warning of Haze 80 < PM 10 < 120 ug/m 3 Observation Level: report data (hotspot, air quality and meteorological data through website 120 < PM 10 < 200 ug/m 3 Warning Level: report data through website, e-mail, Fax and sms People are warned to avoid haze covered area/ Sensitive group should stay in the house 200 < PM 10 < 350 ug/m 3 Hazardous Level: report data through website, e-mail, Formal letter, Fax and sms Burning in forest areas is prohibited, Strictly enforce law People especially sensitive group are warned to stay in the house PM 10 > 350 ug/m 3 Severe Level: report data through website, e-mail, Formal letter, Fax and sms All burning is prohibited, Strictly enforce law People especially sensitive group are warned to stay in the house/ outdoor activities are advised to be cancelled

Measures 7. Regional Cooperation on Transboundary Haze Control Activities o Cooperation between Lao PDR Measures 7. Regional Cooperation on Transboundary Haze Control Activities o Cooperation between Lao PDR and Thailand: Thailand is in the process of installation of one fully equipped air quality monitoring station in Lao PDR o Training Workshop on Air Quality Monitoring and Haze Pollution Control: 27 – 29 March 2013, Bangkok, Thailand

8. Single Command Approach Single Command Prime Minister/Deputy Prime Minister Related Ministries Ministers Forward 8. Single Command Approach Single Command Prime Minister/Deputy Prime Minister Related Ministries Ministers Forward Command (Provincial Level) Governor District Level District Chief Officer Administrative authorities Forest protection and Forest fire control authorities Agricultural authorities Military/Police

The Way Forward 1. Supporting area approach management with Unity and Integration 2. Network The Way Forward 1. Supporting area approach management with Unity and Integration 2. Network and Public Participation 3. Raising awareness on health and environmental impacts 4. Encouraging Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) 5. Promoting of Beneficial Pay Principle (BPP) and establishing of the Fund for fire and haze management 6. Promoting indigenous knowledge and Public education