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APAN Conference, Fukuoka Jan 21 -23, 2003 Observations and Model Analysis of Recent Asian APAN Conference, Fukuoka Jan 21 -23, 2003 Observations and Model Analysis of Recent Asian Dust Events Nobuo Sugimoto (National Institute for Environmental Studies) Itsushi Uno (Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University) Atsushi Shimizu, Ichiro Matsui (National Institute for Environmental Studies) Kimio Arao (Nagasaki University) Hao Quan, Yan Cheng (CJFCEP, China) Jun Zhou (AIOFM, China) C-H Lee (Kyung Hee University, Korea)

Heavy dust event in Beijing on March 20, 2002. Heavy dust event in Beijing on March 20, 2002.

Dust Project in the Global Environment Research Program of the Ministry of the Environment Dust Project in the Global Environment Research Program of the Ministry of the Environment (1) Observation of distribution and movement of Asian dust using lidars (2) Chemical analysis of Asian dust (3) Modeling study

NIES lidar observation network Tsukuba (36. 05 N, 140. 12 E) 1996 -Nagasaki (32. NIES lidar observation network Tsukuba (36. 05 N, 140. 12 E) 1996 -Nagasaki (32. 78 N, 129. 86 E) Mar. 2001 -Beijing, China (39. 9 N, 116. 3 E) Mar. 2001 -Sri Samrong, Thailand (17. 15 N, 99. 95 E) Oct. 2001 -Suwon, Korea (37. 14 N, 127. 04 E) 2002 -Amami-Ohshima (28. 44 N, 129. 70 E) 2002 -Miyakojima (24. 7 N, 125. 3 E) 2002 -Fukue (32. 63 N, 128. 83 E) Oct. 2002 -Hefei, China (31. 90 N, 117. 16 E) Oct. 2002 -Research Vessel “Mirai” 1999 --

Map. New Map. New

Purpose of the lidar network observations - Climatology of aerosols and clouds - To Purpose of the lidar network observations - Climatology of aerosols and clouds - To understand aerosol phenomena including effects of Asian dust and anthropogenic aerosols on the environment and climate - To validate chemical transport models - Monitoring of Asian dust and anthropogenic aerosols in the regional and global scales

NIES Compact Mie Lidar NIES Compact Mie Lidar

Beijing Tsukuba Nagasaki NIES Lidar Network for Asian Dust Observation Beijing Tsukuba Nagasaki NIES Lidar Network for Asian Dust Observation

NIES Compact Mie Lidar NIES Compact Mie Lidar

Beijing 2002 Lidar data Beijing 2002 Lidar data

spherical aerosol dust Laser Scattering intensity Laser ice cloud water cloud P// Depolarization ratio spherical aerosol dust Laser Scattering intensity Laser ice cloud water cloud P// Depolarization ratio d = P⊥/P// dust P⊥ P// spherical aerosols Depolarizati on ratio Target classification method

April 2001 Target classification 2 rain ice cloud water cl. dust aerosols unknown no April 2001 Target classification 2 rain ice cloud water cl. dust aerosols unknown no obs. Target classification using the signal intensity and the depolarization ratio.

Histogram 2001 Histogram 2001

Histogram 2002 Histogram 2002

Tsukuba 2000 -2002 Tsukuba 2000 -2002

Comparison with Models The Chemical Forecast System (CFORS), (I. Uno) (A RAMS based regional Comparison with Models The Chemical Forecast System (CFORS), (I. Uno) (A RAMS based regional model including chemistry)

Chemical Forecast System (CFORS) Chemical Forecast System (CFORS)

Lidar signal intensity (depolarization) S 1 extinction coefficient assumption on external mixing distribution and Lidar signal intensity (depolarization) S 1 extinction coefficient assumption on external mixing distribution and characteristics of other aerosols dust extinction coefficient mass/extinction conversion factor dust density optical characteristics of dust Chemical Transport Model Which parameter shall we compare?

Ratio of dust is estimated by the following equations when we consider external mixture Ratio of dust is estimated by the following equations when we consider external mixture of dust and other spherical aerosols.  R={(1 -d 2’)d-d 2’}/{(d 1’-d 2’)(1+d)}    …………. . (1) d 1’=d 1/(1+d 1) ……………(2) d 2’=d 2/(1+d 2) ……………(3) where d 1 is depolarization ratio of dust, and d 2 is depolarization ratio of other aerosols. Empirically, d 1~0. 35, d 2~0. 05.

Beijing March 2001 dust air pollution aerosols dust Day (UTC) Distributions of dust and Beijing March 2001 dust air pollution aerosols dust Day (UTC) Distributions of dust and spherical (air-pollution) aerosols estimated from the signal intensity and depolarization ratio

Comparison with CFORS Comparison with CFORS

Chemical Forecast System (CFORS) Chemical Forecast System (CFORS)

Dust Number(Lidar) Dust Number(Lidar)

Dust Number Dust Number

Asian dust source regions Asian dust source regions

XZ 2001 Apr XZ 2001 Apr

CFORS 2001, 2002 CFORS 2001, 2002

Summary We conducted continuous observations in Beijing, Nagasaki, and Tsukuba with automated polarization lidars Summary We conducted continuous observations in Beijing, Nagasaki, and Tsukuba with automated polarization lidars since March 2001. A statistical analysis showed that the frequency of dust events in 2002 and 2001 was not very different in Beijing, but the frequency was much higher in 2002 in Tsukuba. We studied the dust source regions and transport paths using the regional chemical transport model CFORS. The results showed that most major dust events originated in Inner Mongolia and/or Mongolia. The dust was transported rapidly with the strong westerly of the storm, and the main part was transported northeast near the coast of China. In 2002, the location of dust streams were shifted slightly to the east, and this caused heavy dust events in Korea and northern Japan. This is probably related with the climate change.

RIAM-NIES CFORS Dust event on November 12, 2002 RIAM-NIES CFORS Dust event on November 12, 2002

Lidar. CFORS 1 Beijing Suwon Lidar. CFORS 1 Beijing Suwon

Lidar. CFORS 2 Fukue Tsukuba Lidar. CFORS 2 Fukue Tsukuba

Lidar. CFORS 3 Hefei Miyako-jima Lidar. CFORS 3 Hefei Miyako-jima

Perspective Understanding dust phenomena Dust forecast Constructing dust monitoring network Ground based observation network Perspective Understanding dust phenomena Dust forecast Constructing dust monitoring network Ground based observation network Chemical transport model Satellite data (surface, dust)

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