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AP PSYCHOLOGY DAY 2 SEATING REWIND DISCLOSURE CLASSROOM INTRODUCTION CCN INSTRUCTIONS 2011 EXAM AP PSYCHOLOGY DAY 2 SEATING REWIND DISCLOSURE CLASSROOM INTRODUCTION CCN INSTRUCTIONS 2011 EXAM

WHAT ARE COLOR-CODED NOTES (CCN)? CCN A NOTE-TAKING STRATEGY THAT HELPS YOU CAREFULLY ENCODE WHAT ARE COLOR-CODED NOTES (CCN)? CCN A NOTE-TAKING STRATEGY THAT HELPS YOU CAREFULLY ENCODE EVERYTHING YOU READ FOR BETTER RETENTION. *COOL! I USED CCN IN MY AP BIOLOGY CLASS!

CCN • RED QUESTIONS • GREEN TERMS • BLUE DEFINITIONS • PERSONAL REAL-LIFE APPLICATIONS CCN • RED QUESTIONS • GREEN TERMS • BLUE DEFINITIONS • PERSONAL REAL-LIFE APPLICATIONS OR EXAMPLES • MINI FRQ’S

AP PSYCHOLOGY DAY 3 NAME ASSIGNMENTS/DISCLOSURE FORMS REWIND 2011 EXAM MC TEST TIPS PROLOGUE AP PSYCHOLOGY DAY 3 NAME ASSIGNMENTS/DISCLOSURE FORMS REWIND 2011 EXAM MC TEST TIPS PROLOGUE – PSYCHOLOGY’S ROOTS

TAKING NOTES IN CLASS NOTE-TAKING TIPS: 1. WE DON’T COVER EVERYTHING IN THE BOOK TAKING NOTES IN CLASS NOTE-TAKING TIPS: 1. WE DON’T COVER EVERYTHING IN THE BOOK IN CLASS. BUT YOU ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR KNOWING ALL OF IT. 2. NOTES SUPPLEMENT THE BOOK. SOMETIMES THE BOOK DOES NOT COVER EVERYTHING NECESSARY FOR THE AP EXAM. BOTH NOTES AND BOOK ARE ESSENTIAL. 3. ENGAGE! TRY TO MAKE PERSONAL CONNECTIONS AND ASK QUESTIONS, WHEN NECESSARY. ADD TO YOUR CCN WHENEVER POSSIBLE 4. WE WILL STICK TO OUR READING/NOTES SCHEDULE. IF TIME IS SHORT, WE WILL MOVE ON ANYWAY. READ AND DO CCN!!

SOME COMMON SYMBOLS *USE THESE FOR IN-CLASS NOTES AND CCN • WHAT ARE SOME SOME COMMON SYMBOLS *USE THESE FOR IN-CLASS NOTES AND CCN • WHAT ARE SOME HELPFUL NOTE-TAKING SYMBOLS TO USE IN THIS CLASS? PSYCHOLOGY: BEHAVIOR: BEH MENTAL PROCESSES: M. P. PHYSICAL: AT: BEFORE: B/F AND: & MALE: FEMALE: AFTER: A/F WITH: W/ BECAUSE: B/C

PROLOGUE: PSYCHOLOGY’S ROOTS §DEFINITION OF PSYCHOLOGY § THE SCIENCE OF BEHAVIOR (WHAT WE DO) PROLOGUE: PSYCHOLOGY’S ROOTS §DEFINITION OF PSYCHOLOGY § THE SCIENCE OF BEHAVIOR (WHAT WE DO) AND MENTAL PROCESSES (SENSATIONS, PERCEPTIONS, DREAMS, THOUGHTS, BELIEFS, AND FEELINGS) § PSYCHE – SOUL § LOGOS – THE STUDY OF

PROLOGUE: PSYCHOLOGY’S ROOTS PRESCIENTIFIC PSYCHOLOGY § ARE WE CONTROLLED BY NATURAL ELEMENTS OR SUPERNATURAL PROLOGUE: PSYCHOLOGY’S ROOTS PRESCIENTIFIC PSYCHOLOGY § ARE WE CONTROLLED BY NATURAL ELEMENTS OR SUPERNATURAL ELEMENTS? § RELIGION VS. SCIENCE § NATURE VS. NURTURE § PHILOSOPHY VS. EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE § RELIGION/SUPERNATURAL § HIPPOCRATES/NATURAL

PROLOGUE: CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY • JOHN LOCKE (ARISTOTLE PHILOSOPHIZED ABOUT THIS EARLY ON) EMPIRICIST; BELIEVED PROLOGUE: CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY • JOHN LOCKE (ARISTOTLE PHILOSOPHIZED ABOUT THIS EARLY ON) EMPIRICIST; BELIEVED THAT KNOWLEDGE IS ACQUIRED SOLELY THROUGH LIFE EXPERIENCES. TABULA RASA: BLANK TABLET CLAIMED EACH OF US IS BORN A BLANK SLATE ON WHICH ARE WRITTEN THE LIFE EXPERIENCES WE ACQUIRE THROUGH OUR SENSES. (PLATO AND HIPPOCRATES BELIEVED JUST THE OPPOSITE)

PROLOGUE: CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY RENE DESCARTES RATIONALIST; INSISTED WE SHOULD DOUBT EVERYTHING THAT IS NOT PROLOGUE: CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY RENE DESCARTES RATIONALIST; INSISTED WE SHOULD DOUBT EVERYTHING THAT IS NOT PROVED BY OUR OWN REASONING. TRUE KNOWLEDGE COMES THROUGH CORRECT REASONING AND IT IS INBORN. “I THINK, THEREFORE I AM. ” • RENE DESCARTES WALKS INTO A BAR. • THE BARTENDER SAYS, “WOULD YOU LIKE A BEER? ” • DESCARTES REPLIES, “I THINK NOT, ” AND PROMPTLY DISAPPEARS.

PROLOGUE: PSYCHOLOGY’S ROOTS §PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE IS BORN § EMPIRICISM § KNOWLEDGE COMES FROM EXPERIENCE PROLOGUE: PSYCHOLOGY’S ROOTS §PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE IS BORN § EMPIRICISM § KNOWLEDGE COMES FROM EXPERIENCE VIA THE SENSES § SCIENCE FLOURISHES THROUGH OBSERVATION AND EXPERIMENT

WILHELM WUNDT IS REFERRED TO AS THE “FATHER OF PSYCHOLOGY” BECAUSE IN 1879 HE WILHELM WUNDT IS REFERRED TO AS THE “FATHER OF PSYCHOLOGY” BECAUSE IN 1879 HE STARTED THE FIRST LABORATORY IN PSYCHOLOGY FOR HE BROKE INTO PARTS THE ELEMENTS OF FEELINGS AND STUDYING HUMANS. THOUGHT TO FIND THE VERY “ATOMS” OF THE MIND. TAUGHT HIS SUBJECTS TO USE A PROCEDURE CALLED “INTROSPECTION” HE INTRODUCED SCIENTIFIC PROCEDURE TO STUDY FEELINGS.

E. B. TITCHENER (1867– 1927) E. B. TITCHENER (1867– 1927)

WILLIAM JAMES IS CONSIDERED TO BE ONE OF THE FOUNDERS OF AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGY. IN WILLIAM JAMES IS CONSIDERED TO BE ONE OF THE FOUNDERS OF AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGY. IN 1890, HE PUBLISHED PRINCIPLES OF PSYCHOLOGY. THE BOOK WAS 1400 PAGES LONG, TWO VOLUMES IN LENGTH AND IT TOOK HIM 12 UNLIKE WUNDT, HE DID NOT WANT TO YEARS TO WRITE. BREAK BEHAVIOR INTO PARTS; INSTEAD, HE NEVER WANTED TO LOSE SIGHT OF THE INDIVIDUAL AS A WHOLE. HIS GOAL

OTHER PIONEERS • E. BRADFORD TITCHENER (1867– 1927) • WUNDT’S STUDENT, PROFESSOR AT CORNELL OTHER PIONEERS • E. BRADFORD TITCHENER (1867– 1927) • WUNDT’S STUDENT, PROFESSOR AT CORNELL UNIVERSITY • G. STANLEY HALL (1844 -1924) • WUNDT’S STUDENT, BROUGHT LAB TO USA AT JOHN’S HOPKINS UNIVERSITY • SIGMUND FREUD (1856– 1939) • AUSTRIAN PHYSICIAN THAT FOCUSED ON ILLNESS • PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY OF MENTAL DISORDERS • JOHN B. WATSON (1878– 1958) • PSYCHOLOGISTS SHOULD STUDY OVERT BEHAVIOR • ADAPTED PAVLOVIAN LEARNING THEORY TO HUMANS • B. F. SKINNER (1904– 1990) • AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST AT HARVARD • STUDIED LEARNING AND EFFECT OF REINFORCEMENT • BEHAVIORISM

FIELD RESEARCH • BASIC RESEARCH – PURPOSE IS TO EXPAND THE KNOWLEDGE BASE • FIELD RESEARCH • BASIC RESEARCH – PURPOSE IS TO EXPAND THE KNOWLEDGE BASE • EX. WHAT PART(S) OF THE BRAIN ARE USED FOR LEARNING? • APPLIED RESEARCH – PURPOSE IS TO FIND REAL-LIFE APPLICATIONS FOR BASIC RESEARCH FINDINGS • EX. BASED ON HOW THE BRAIN “LEARNS”, HOW CAN TEACHERS BEST TEACH AND STUDENTS BEST LEARN?

PROLOGUE: CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHIATRY § A BRANCH OF MEDICINE DEALING WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS § PROLOGUE: CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHIATRY § A BRANCH OF MEDICINE DEALING WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS § PRACTICED BY PHYSICIANS WHO SOMETIMES USE MEDICAL (FOR EXAMPLE, DRUG) TREATMENTS AS WELL AS PSYCHOTHERAPY § REQUIRES AN M. D. LICENSE § CAN PRESCRIBE MEDICATIONS PSYCHOLOGISTS • A FIELD OF PSYCHOLOGY THAT MAY INCLUDE A WIDE RANGE OF EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUNDS • PHD • PSYD • MASTERS (CLINICAL SOCIAL WORK, PSYCHOLOGICAL COUNSELING, ETC. ) • CLINICIANS MAY CONDUCT RESEARCH, TREAT PATIENTS, BOTH • CANNOT PRESCRIBE MEDICATION

MAJOR MODERN SUBFIELDS OF PSYCHOLOGY • READ THROUGH LIST/DESCRIPTIONS • HI-LITE/ANNOTATE • REFLECT • MAJOR MODERN SUBFIELDS OF PSYCHOLOGY • READ THROUGH LIST/DESCRIPTIONS • HI-LITE/ANNOTATE • REFLECT • WHICH FIELD WOULD YOU LIKE TO LEARN MORE ABOUT? WHY? • APPENDIX A IN TEXT

FIELD VS. PERSPECTIVE *HANDOUT FIELD – A CAREER/JOB RELATED (IN THIS CASE) TO PSYCHOLOGY. FIELD VS. PERSPECTIVE *HANDOUT FIELD – A CAREER/JOB RELATED (IN THIS CASE) TO PSYCHOLOGY. PERSPECTIVE – THE LENS THROUGH WHICH YOU VIEW YOUR JOB/CAREER/HUMANS

PROLOGUE: CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY §PSYCHOLOGY’S PERSPECTIVES PROLOGUE: CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY §PSYCHOLOGY’S PERSPECTIVES

A. BIOLOGICAL/NEUROSCIENCE PERSPECTIVE • STUDY THE PHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS IN THE BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM A. BIOLOGICAL/NEUROSCIENCE PERSPECTIVE • STUDY THE PHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS IN THE BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM THAT ORGANIZE AND CONTROL BEHAVIOR • FOCUS MAY BE AT VARIOUS LEVELS • INDIVIDUAL NEURONS • AREAS OF THE BRAIN • SPECIFIC FUNCTIONS LIKE EATING, EMOTION, OR LEARNING • INTEREST IN BEHAVIOR DISTINGUISHES BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY FROM MANY OTHER BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

B. EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE • INFLUENCED BY DARWIN AND THE EMPHASIS ON INNATE, ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR B. EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE • INFLUENCED BY DARWIN AND THE EMPHASIS ON INNATE, ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR PATTERNS • APPLICATION OF PRINCIPLES OF EVOLUTION TO EXPLAIN BEHAVIOR AND PSYCHOLOGICAL PROCESSES

CHARLES DARWIN ON THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES WAS PUBLISHED IN 1859. HIS THEORY WAS CHARLES DARWIN ON THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES WAS PUBLISHED IN 1859. HIS THEORY WAS THAT HUMANS AND ANIMALS HAD EVOLVED AND CHANGED. HIS THEORY INSPIRED SCIENTISTS TO STUDY ANIMALS IN ORDER TO UNDERSTAND HUMAN BEHAVIOR.

PROLOGUE: CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY CHARLES DARWIN § NATURAL SELECTION § PRINCIPLE THAT THOSE INHERITED TRAIT PROLOGUE: CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY CHARLES DARWIN § NATURAL SELECTION § PRINCIPLE THAT THOSE INHERITED TRAIT VARIATIONS CONTRIBUTING TO SURVIVAL WILL MOST LIKELY BE PASSED ON TO SUCCEEDING GENERATIONS

C. BEHAVIOR-GENETICS PERSPECTIVE • INFLUENCED BY NATURE VS. NURTURE DEBATE • HOW DO OUR C. BEHAVIOR-GENETICS PERSPECTIVE • INFLUENCED BY NATURE VS. NURTURE DEBATE • HOW DO OUR GENES INFLUENCE BEHAVIOR (NATURE) AND HOW DOES OUR ENVIRONMENT INFLUENCE OUR MENTAL AND INTERNAL PROCESSES (NURTURE)?

JOHN B. WATSON STUDIED THE IMPACT OF LEARNING ON PEOPLE. THIS LED TO THE JOHN B. WATSON STUDIED THE IMPACT OF LEARNING ON PEOPLE. THIS LED TO THE SCHOOL OF BEHAVIORISM. HE BELIEVED THAT CAREFUL AND STRUCTURED PARENTING COULD ELIMINATE WATSON LATER WROTE A BOOK APPLYING PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENTIFIC METHODS TO RAISING PROBLEMS. CHILDREN.

THE BEHAVIORAL APPROACH PEOPLE SUCH AS B. F. SKINNER (PICTURED TO THE LEFT) AND THE BEHAVIORAL APPROACH PEOPLE SUCH AS B. F. SKINNER (PICTURED TO THE LEFT) AND JOHN B. WATSON ARE CALLED BEHAVIORISTS. THIS APPROACH EMPHASIZES THAT BEHAVIOR IS PRIMARILY THE RESULT OF LEARNING AND NOT DUE TO A PERSON’S THOUGHTS AND UNCONSCIOUS PROCESSES.

D. BEHAVIORAL PERSPECTIVE • VIEW OF BEHAVIOR BASED ON EXPERIENCE OR LEARNING • CLASSICAL D. BEHAVIORAL PERSPECTIVE • VIEW OF BEHAVIOR BASED ON EXPERIENCE OR LEARNING • CLASSICAL CONDITIONING • OPERANT CONDITIONING

E. COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE • HOW IS KNOWLEDGE ACQUIRED, ORGANIZED, REMEMBERED, AND USED TO GUIDE E. COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE • HOW IS KNOWLEDGE ACQUIRED, ORGANIZED, REMEMBERED, AND USED TO GUIDE BEHAVIOR? • INFLUENCES INCLUDE • WORTHEIMER, KOHLER, KOFFKA – GESTALT • FIND THE “WHOLE PATTERN” OF OUR PERCEPTIONS • PIAGET – STUDIED INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT • CHOMSKY – STUDIED LANGUAGE • CYBERNETICS – SCIENCE OF INFORMATION PROCESSING

F. THE SOCIOCULTURAL (CROSS-CULTURAL) APPROACH THIS APPROACH LOOKS AT THE IMPACT THAT SOCIETY, CULTURE, F. THE SOCIOCULTURAL (CROSS-CULTURAL) APPROACH THIS APPROACH LOOKS AT THE IMPACT THAT SOCIETY, CULTURE, ETHNICITY, RACE, AND RELIGION HAVE ON PERSONALITY. PSYCHOANALYTIC COGNITIVE

CROSS-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE • THE STUDY OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES AMONG PEOPLE LIVING IN DIFFERENT CULTURAL CROSS-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE • THE STUDY OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES AMONG PEOPLE LIVING IN DIFFERENT CULTURAL GROUPS • HOW ARE PEOPLE’S THOUGHTS, FEELINGS AND BEHAVIOR INFLUENCED BY THEIR CULTURE? • WHAT ARE THE COMMON ELEMENTS ACROSS CULTURE? ARE THESE INNATE?

SIGMUND FREUD DEVELOPED THE FIRST COMPREHENSIVE THEORY OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND BEHAVIOR, ESPECIALLY HOW SIGMUND FREUD DEVELOPED THE FIRST COMPREHENSIVE THEORY OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND BEHAVIOR, ESPECIALLY HOW THE PERSONALITY DEVELOPS. HE BELIEVED THAT CHILDHOOD MEMORIES AND THOUGHTS INFLUENCED THE BEHAVIOR OF PEOPLE WHEN THEY BECAME ADULTS.

G. PSYCHODYNAMIC PERSPECTIVE • VIEW OF BEHAVIOR BASED ON EXPERIENCE TREATING PATIENTS • PSYCHOANALYTIC G. PSYCHODYNAMIC PERSPECTIVE • VIEW OF BEHAVIOR BASED ON EXPERIENCE TREATING PATIENTS • PSYCHOANALYTIC APPROACH (SIGMUND FREUD) • BOTH A METHOD OF TREATMENT AND A THEORY OF THE MIND • BEHAVIOR REFLECTS COMBINATIONS OF CONSCIOUS AND UNCONSCIOUS INFLUENCES • DRIVES AND URGES WITHIN THE UNCONSCIOUS COMPONENT OF MIND INFLUENCE THOUGHT AND BEHAVIOR • EARLY CHILDHOOD EXPERIENCES SHAPE UNCONSCIOUS MOTIVATIONS

H. HUMANISTIC PERSPECTIVE • DEVELOPED BY ABRAHAM MASLOW & CARL ROGERS • • • H. HUMANISTIC PERSPECTIVE • DEVELOPED BY ABRAHAM MASLOW & CARL ROGERS • • • BEHAVIOR REFLECTS INNATE ‘ACTUALIZATION’ FOCUS ON CONSCIOUS FORCES AND SELF PERCEPTION MORE POSITIVE VIEW OF BASIC FORCES THAN FREUD’S

THE HUMANISTIC APPROACH CARL ROGERS IS THE BEST KNOWN OF THE HUMANISTS. THIS APPROACH THE HUMANISTIC APPROACH CARL ROGERS IS THE BEST KNOWN OF THE HUMANISTS. THIS APPROACH EMPHASIZES THAT PEOPLE HAVE FREE WILL, SELF-CONCEPTS AND ARE BASICALLY GOOD. HUMANISTS BELIEVE THAT EVERY PERSON CAN FULFILL HIS OR HER POTENTIAL.

FREE RESPONSES IN AP PSYCH • FR TIP SHEET • ANDREA YATES ASSIGNMENT – FREE RESPONSES IN AP PSYCH • FR TIP SHEET • ANDREA YATES ASSIGNMENT – “MOTHERHOOD AND MURDER” • EVALUATION SHEET/RUBRIC T D A A!

REVIEW REVIEW

PSYCHOLOGY SHOULD STUDY HOW BEHAVIOR AND MENTAL PROCESSES ALLOW ORGANISMS TO ADAPT TO THEIR PSYCHOLOGY SHOULD STUDY HOW BEHAVIOR AND MENTAL PROCESSES ALLOW ORGANISMS TO ADAPT TO THEIR ENVIRONMENTS PERSPECTIVE/APPROACH EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE FOUNDER CHARLES DARWIN

PSYCHOLOGY SHOULD EMPHASIZE PEOPLE’S UNIQUE POTENTIAL FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL GROWTH SCHOOL/APPRO ACH FOUNDERS HUMANISTIC MASLOW PSYCHOLOGY SHOULD EMPHASIZE PEOPLE’S UNIQUE POTENTIAL FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL GROWTH SCHOOL/APPRO ACH FOUNDERS HUMANISTIC MASLOW AND ROGERS

PSYCHOLOGY SHOULD ONLY STUDY OBSERVABLE BEHAVIOR? SCHOOL/APPRO ACH FOUNDER BEHAVIORISM WATSON/SKI NNER PSYCHOLOGY SHOULD ONLY STUDY OBSERVABLE BEHAVIOR? SCHOOL/APPRO ACH FOUNDER BEHAVIORISM WATSON/SKI NNER

WHICH PERSPECTIVE? EMILIO IS ANXIOUS BECAUSE OF A HORMONAL IMBALANCE. ONCE THE DOCTORS PRESCRIBE WHICH PERSPECTIVE? EMILIO IS ANXIOUS BECAUSE OF A HORMONAL IMBALANCE. ONCE THE DOCTORS PRESCRIBE THE RIGHT MEDICINE, HE FEELS “NORMAL” AGAIN.

WHICH PERSPECTIVE? SAMANTHA WON’T ACKNOWLEDGE THAT SHE HAS AN ADDICTION. SHE’D RATHER LIE TO WHICH PERSPECTIVE? SAMANTHA WON’T ACKNOWLEDGE THAT SHE HAS AN ADDICTION. SHE’D RATHER LIE TO HERSELF THAN ADMIT THE TRUTH. EVEN THOUGH SHE WANTS TO QUIT, SHE KEEPS GOING BACK TO THE SAME OLD HABITS. EACH TIME SHE FINDS HERSELF GIVING IN TO HER URGES AND USING, SHE FINDS A WAY TO “FORGET” IT EVER HAPPENED SO SHE DOESN’T FEEL GUILTY.

WHICH PERSPECTIVE? BETTY IS A NAUGHTY CHILD BECAUSE HER PARENTS NEVER GIVE HER CONSEQUENCES WHICH PERSPECTIVE? BETTY IS A NAUGHTY CHILD BECAUSE HER PARENTS NEVER GIVE HER CONSEQUENCES AND THEY ALWAYS GIVE IN TO HER DEMANDS. SHE OFTEN THROWS TANTRUMS AND ACTS OUT AT THE GROCERY STORE BECAUSE SHE KNOWS THEY WILL BUY HER TREATS TO KEEP HER QUIET. THEY ARE TRAINING HER TO HAVE A “NAUGHTY” PERSONALITY.

WHICH PERSPECTIVE? BOB IS DEPRESSED BECAUSE HE KEEPS THINKING SELF-DEFEATING THOUGHTS. HE NEVER LOOKS WHICH PERSPECTIVE? BOB IS DEPRESSED BECAUSE HE KEEPS THINKING SELF-DEFEATING THOUGHTS. HE NEVER LOOKS AT THE BRIGHT SIDE OF THINGS. ONCE HE GETS INTO A NEGATIVE MOOD, HIS THOUGHTS SPIRAL HIM DOWN EMOTIONALLY INTO A STATE OF DEPRESSION.

WHICH PERSPECTIVE? PHILLIP WOULD LIKE TO BE ON THE VARSITY TEAM BEFORE HE GRADUATES. WHICH PERSPECTIVE? PHILLIP WOULD LIKE TO BE ON THE VARSITY TEAM BEFORE HE GRADUATES. HE SETS A GOAL TO WORKS EVERY DAY THROUGHOUT THE OFF SEASON TO GET BETTER. HOWEVER, HIS PARENTS DIDN’T THINK IT IS WORTH HIS TIME. THEY MAKE HIM GET A SUMMER JOB. WHEN TRYOUTS ARRIVE, HE IS NOT SELECTED FOR THE TEAM. HE FEELS DEFEATED AND HIS SELF-ESTEEM SUFFERS, CAUSING HIM TO PERFORM POORLY IN SCHOOL.

WHICH PERSPECTIVE? ROGER SPENT HIS ENTIRE CHILDHOOD IN A ROUGH NEIGHBORHOOD. HE LEARNED THAT WHICH PERSPECTIVE? ROGER SPENT HIS ENTIRE CHILDHOOD IN A ROUGH NEIGHBORHOOD. HE LEARNED THAT FIGHTING IS PART OF LIFE. WHEN HE MOVED TO A NEW NEIGHBORHOOD HIS JUNIOR YEAR, HIS PARENTS WERE EMBARRASSED BY THE NUMBER OF TIMES HE GOT SUSPENDED FOR FIGHTING. IF ONLY THE ADMINISTRATION KNEW WHERE HE’S REALLY COMING FROM….

MNEMONIC DEVICE • THE “HANDY” MODEL FOR REMEMBERING HOW EACH PERSPECTIVE APPROACHES THE STUDY MNEMONIC DEVICE • THE “HANDY” MODEL FOR REMEMBERING HOW EACH PERSPECTIVE APPROACHES THE STUDY OF MENTAL PROCESSES AND BEHAVIOR: • NEUROSCIENCE • COGNITIVE • SOCIOCULTURAL • PSYCHODYNAMIC/PSYCHOANALYTIC • BEHAVIORAL • HUMANISTIC • EVOLUTIONARY • BEHAVIOR-GENETICS