Animated Vision Associates Allan Hytowitz Any sufficiently

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Animated Vision Associates Allan Hytowitz Animated Vision Associates Allan Hytowitz

“Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic. ” Arthur C. Clarke’s Third Law “Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic. ” Arthur C. Clarke’s Third Law

International Vision Standards 1988 “Visual resolution, as used in optics and visual science, refers International Vision Standards 1988 “Visual resolution, as used in optics and visual science, refers to the ability to just detect a break in a line or the separation of parallel lines or points of light (minimum separable). This class of thresholds can be measured using short bars, Landolt rings, gratings or other targets. ” Visual Acuity Measurement Standard CONSILIUM OPHTHALMOLOGICUM UNIVERSALE Visual Functions Committee August Colenbrander, M. D. General Secretary, Visual Functions Committee, International Council of Ophthalmology Department of Ophthalmology Pacific Medical Center Clay and Webster Streets San Francisco, CA 94115, U. S. A.

Problems with Current Vision Tests • • Culturally based / culturally biased Based upon Problems with Current Vision Tests • • Culturally based / culturally biased Based upon comprehension and not acuity 5 arc minute standard is not accurate Tendency for over-refraction/over-stimulation

The Snellen Test 1862 - 2010 The Snellen Test 1862 - 2010

The Snellen Test Universal? Russia China? India? Saudi Arabia? Israel? Germany? Mexico? The Snellen Test Universal? Russia China? India? Saudi Arabia? Israel? Germany? Mexico?

Problems with Current Vision Tests • • Culturally based / culturally biased Based upon Problems with Current Vision Tests • • Culturally based / culturally biased Based upon comprehension and not acuity 5 arc minute standard is not accurate Tendency for over-refraction/over-stimulation

The Snellen Test The “hidden secret” 60% comprehension is a “failing grade” for Optometry The Snellen Test The “hidden secret” 60% comprehension is a “failing grade” for Optometry AND the patient

The Snellen Test 1862 The Snellen Test 1862

The Landolt Ring 1988 - 2010 The Landolt Ring 1988 - 2010

Problems with Current Vision Tests • • Culturally based / culturally biased Based upon Problems with Current Vision Tests • • Culturally based / culturally biased Based upon comprehension and not acuity 5 arc minute standard is not accurate Tendency for over-refraction/over-stimulation

International Vision Standards 1988 - 2010 5 arc minutes? 4. 8 arc minutes or International Vision Standards 1988 - 2010 5 arc minutes? 4. 8 arc minutes or 5. 2 arc minutes?

International Vision Standards 1988 - 2010 pi = 3 ? pi = 3. 14159… International Vision Standards 1988 - 2010 pi = 3 ? pi = 3. 14159…

Problems with Current Vision Tests • • Culturally based / culturally biased Based upon Problems with Current Vision Tests • • Culturally based / culturally biased Based upon comprehension and not acuity 5 arc minute standard is not accurate Tendency for over-refraction/over-stimulation

The Snellen Test #1 or #2? The Snellen Test #1 or #2?

The Snellen Test #1 or #2? The Snellen Test #1 or #2?

How Dyops™ Work • The eye is a digital camera, NOT analog • Dyop™ How Dyops™ Work • The eye is a digital camera, NOT analog • Dyop™ precision based upon physiology • Dyops™ can be virtually any rotating shape

The eye is NOT an analog camera The eye is NOT an analog camera

Anatomy of a digital camera Anatomy of a digital camera

Electronic Pixels Photoreceptors Electronic Pixels Electronic Pixels Photoreceptors Electronic Pixels

Pixels in the Eye Acuity is determined by cone photoreceptor perception Pixels in the Pixels in the Eye Acuity is determined by cone photoreceptor perception Pixels in the Eye

Retinal Cones–Normal Color Vision Blue cones absent in central fovea • • Red cones Retinal Cones–Normal Color Vision Blue cones absent in central fovea • • Red cones = 60% Green cones = 30% Blue cones = 10% Brightness = R + G Retinal Cones–Normal Color Vision Photomicrograph – Dr. Jeff Rabin, USAF

Pixels in the Eye Dyop ™ stroke width versus photoreceptor stimulus path Thinner Dyop™ Pixels in the Eye Dyop ™ stroke width versus photoreceptor stimulus path Thinner Dyop™ = thinner segment photoreceptor stimulus Thicker Dyop™ = thicker segment photoreceptor stimulus Dyop ™ stroke width versus photoreceptor stimulus path

Dyop™ Variables Dyop™ Variables

Field of Vision Dyop™ perception The Threshold Distance is the maximum distance where Threshold Field of Vision Dyop™ perception The Threshold Distance is the maximum distance where Threshold Image can still be perceived as rotating. Arc degree perception threshold remains constant. Dyop™ perception

What is the Optimum Dyop™? Dyop™ color = White vs. Black Dyop™ background = What is the Optimum Dyop™? Dyop™ color = White vs. Black Dyop™ background = Black vs. White Dyop™ sectors = stroke width? Dyop™ sectors = number of sectors? Dyop™ 20/20 diameter = 12 mm to 16 mm Dyop™ shape = dots vs. segments vs. triangles? What is the Optimum Dyop™?

What is the Optimum Dyop™? Black Dyop™ on a White Background? 2. 5 % What is the Optimum Dyop™? Black Dyop™ on a White Background? 2. 5 % stroke width Black Dyop™ on a White Background

What is the Optimum Dyop™? White Dyop™ on a Black Background 2. 5 % What is the Optimum Dyop™? White Dyop™ on a Black Background 2. 5 % stroke width White Dyop™ on a Black Background

Optimum Dyop™ Stroke Width Optimum Dyop™ Stroke Width

Optimum Dyop™ White Ring/Black Gap or Black Ring/White Gap? 12. 5 % stroke width Optimum Dyop™ White Ring/Black Gap or Black Ring/White Gap? 12. 5 % stroke width - 7. 5 arc minutes White Ring/Black Gap or Black Ring/White Gap?

Optimum Dyop™ White/Black Dyop™ on a Gray Background 12. 5 % stroke width - Optimum Dyop™ White/Black Dyop™ on a Gray Background 12. 5 % stroke width - 7. 5 arc minutes White/Black Dyop™ on a Gray Background

Optimum Dyop™ Rapid Dyop™ Acuity Range Determination You either see the rotation or you Optimum Dyop™ Rapid Dyop™ Acuity Range Determination You either see the rotation or you don’t Rapid Dyop™ Acuity Range Determination

Optimum Dyop™ Precise Dyop™ Acuity Determination 19 20 21 Acuity precision without over-refraction Precise Optimum Dyop™ Precise Dyop™ Acuity Determination 19 20 21 Acuity precision without over-refraction Precise Dyop™ Acuity Determination

Optimum Dyop™ Astigmatism Test Optimum Dyop™ Astigmatism Test

Optimum Dyop™ acuity compatible with current standards Optimum Dyop™ acuity compatible with current standards

Pacific University Validation Initials are those of Pacific University Faculty Members Initial Validation Test Pacific University Validation Initials are those of Pacific University Faculty Members Initial Validation Test Results

Pacific University Validation Anticipated tests • • • Landolt comparison Optimum stroke width Optimum Pacific University Validation Anticipated tests • • • Landolt comparison Optimum stroke width Optimum diameter Optimum background Color perception

Pacific University Validation Landolt Rings Pacific University Validation Landolt Rings

Pacific University Validation 20% Stroke Width Dyops™ Pacific University Validation 20% Stroke Width Dyops™

Pacific University Validation 12. 5% Stroke Width Dyops™ 10% Stroke Width Dyops™ Pacific University Validation 12. 5% Stroke Width Dyops™ 10% Stroke Width Dyops™

Pacific University Validation Dr. James Sheedy & Allan Hytowitz Pacific University Validation Dr. James Sheedy & Allan Hytowitz

Additional Dyop™ Applications • • • Adult Acuity Test Infant Acuity Test Color Perception Additional Dyop™ Applications • • • Adult Acuity Test Infant Acuity Test Color Perception Test Dyslexia Screening Test Diagnostic Testing Systems Additional Dyop™ Applications

Dyop™ Infant Acuity – 10 foot image Dyop™ rotation images move from Panel to Dyop™ Infant Acuity – 10 foot image Dyop™ rotation images move from Panel to Panel Dyop Infant Acuity – 10 foot image

Dyop™ Infant Acuity – 10 foot image Dyop™ rotation images move from Panel to Dyop™ Infant Acuity – 10 foot image Dyop™ rotation images move from Panel to Panel Dyop Infant Acuity – 10 foot image

Dyop™ Infant Acuity – 4 foot image Dyop™ rotation images move from Panel to Dyop™ Infant Acuity – 4 foot image Dyop™ rotation images move from Panel to Panel Dyop Infant Acuity – 4 foot image

Dyop™ Infant Acuity – 4 foot image Dyop™ rotation images move from Panel to Dyop™ Infant Acuity – 4 foot image Dyop™ rotation images move from Panel to Panel Dyop Infant Acuity – 4 foot image

Additional Dyop™ Applications • • • Adult Acuity Test Infant Acuity Test Color Perception Additional Dyop™ Applications • • • Adult Acuity Test Infant Acuity Test Color Perception Test Dyslexia Screening Test Diagnostic Testing Systems Additional Dyop™ Applications

Dyop™ Color Acuity Dyop™ Color Acuity

Dyop™ Color Acuity Dyop™ Color Perception @ 12. 5% Stroke Width White = Yellow Dyop™ Color Acuity Dyop™ Color Perception @ 12. 5% Stroke Width White = Yellow = Green = 100% Red = 90% Blue = 80%

Additional Dyop™ Applications • • • Adult Acuity Test Infant Acuity Test Color Perception Additional Dyop™ Applications • • • Adult Acuity Test Infant Acuity Test Color Perception Test Dyslexia Screening Test Diagnostic Testing Systems Dyslexia Screening Test

Dyslexia Screening Perceptual Dyslexia treatment with colored transparencies Potential Dyop™ Dyslexia Screening Test Perceptual Dyslexia Screening Perceptual Dyslexia treatment with colored transparencies Potential Dyop™ Dyslexia Screening Test Perceptual Dyslexia – colored transparencies

Dyop™ Dyslexia Applications Types of Perceptual Dyslexia Blurry Effect Rivers Effect Perceptual Dyslexia – Dyop™ Dyslexia Applications Types of Perceptual Dyslexia Blurry Effect Rivers Effect Perceptual Dyslexia – Blurry & Halo Effect Seasaw Effect Shaky Effect Swirl Effect Washout Effect Overlapping Writing

Dyop™ Dyslexia Screening Perceptual Dyslexia diagnosis with Dyops™ Dyop™ Dyslexia screening test Dyop™ Dyslexia Screening Perceptual Dyslexia diagnosis with Dyops™ Dyop™ Dyslexia screening test

Additional Dyop™ Applications • • • Adult Acuity Test Infant Acuity Test Color Perception Additional Dyop™ Applications • • • Adult Acuity Test Infant Acuity Test Color Perception Test Dyslexia Screening Test Diagnostic Testing Systems Additional Dyop™ Applications

Dyop™ Diagnostic Testing • • Military Vision Screening Drivers License Testing Pilot Screening Tests Dyop™ Diagnostic Testing • • Military Vision Screening Drivers License Testing Pilot Screening Tests Peripheral Vision Testing Comprehension Measurement Sobriety Screening Distance Measurement Dyop™ Diagnostic Testing Systems

Dyop™ Diagnostic Testing Dyop™ Military Vision Screening What is the rotation direction of the Dyop™ Diagnostic Testing Dyop™ Military Vision Screening What is the rotation direction of the smallest Dyop™? Dyop™ Military Vision Screening

Dyop™ Diagnostic Testing Dyop™ Drivers License Testing 19 20 21 20/20 acuity = you Dyop™ Diagnostic Testing Dyop™ Drivers License Testing 19 20 21 20/20 acuity = you either see Dyop™ rotation or you don’t Dyop™ Drivers License Testing

Dyop™ Diagnostic Testing Dyop™ Pilot Screening Testing Which Dyops™ were moving? Dyop™ Pilot Screening Dyop™ Diagnostic Testing Dyop™ Pilot Screening Testing Which Dyops™ were moving? Dyop™ Pilot Screening Testing

Dyop™ Diagnostic Testing Dyop™ Peripheral Vision Test How many Dyops™ can you correctly see? Dyop™ Diagnostic Testing Dyop™ Peripheral Vision Test How many Dyops™ can you correctly see? Dyop™ Peripheral Vision Test

Dyop™ Diagnostic Testing Dyop™ Comprehension Measurement As comprehension decreases so does Dyop™ visual acuity Dyop™ Diagnostic Testing Dyop™ Comprehension Measurement As comprehension decreases so does Dyop™ visual acuity Dyop™ Comprehension Measurement

Dyop™ Diagnostic Testing Dyop™ Sobriety Test 1 Getting correct less than 4 out of Dyop™ Diagnostic Testing Dyop™ Sobriety Test 1 Getting correct less than 4 out of 5 Dyops™ gets you a ride Dyop™ Sobriety Test

Cyclops World’s Largest Visual Acuity Test BSA Camp Rainey Mountain, Georgia • • Practical Cyclops World’s Largest Visual Acuity Test BSA Camp Rainey Mountain, Georgia • • Practical Application Proof of Concept Guinness Book of Records Publication in “ 20/20” magazine Cyclops - World’s Largest Visual Acuity Test

Cyclops Google Map to Camp Rainey Mountain Atlanta Cyclops Google Map to Camp Rainey Mountain Atlanta

Cyclops Google Map of Camp Rainey Mountain Big Rock Admin Bldg Google Map of Cyclops Google Map of Camp Rainey Mountain Big Rock Admin Bldg Google Map of Camp Rainey Mountain

Cyclops Map of Camp Rainey Mountain Big Rock Admin Bldg Map distance of 3600 Cyclops Map of Camp Rainey Mountain Big Rock Admin Bldg Map distance of 3600 feet Map of Camp Rainey Mountain

Cyclops Front view – 10 foot maximum diameter Cyclops Front view – 10 foot maximum diameter

Cyclops Rear view with location of Big Rock Back of Cyclops Parade Field Rear Cyclops Rear view with location of Big Rock Back of Cyclops Parade Field Rear view with location of Big Rock

Cyclops Location of Big Rock Cyclops Location of Big Rock

Cyclops 60 foot distance Cyclops Admin Bldg 60 foot distance 2010 -07 -09 Cyclops 60 foot distance Cyclops Admin Bldg 60 foot distance 2010 -07 -09

Cyclops 160 foot distance Cyclops Admin Bldg 160 foot distance Cyclops 160 foot distance Cyclops Admin Bldg 160 foot distance

Cyclops 270 foot distance Cyclops 270 foot distance

Cyclops 700 foot distance Cyclops 700 foot distance

Cyclops Allan & Scoutmaster Friends Cyclops Allan & Scoutmaster Friends

Cyclops – World’s Largest Visual Acuity Test Cyclops Cyclops – World’s Largest Visual Acuity Test Cyclops

Close up view Cyclops Close up view Cyclops

Cyclops & Allan Cyclops Allan Cyclops & Allan Cyclops Allan

Cyclops World’s Largest Visual Acuity Test 3700 feet Distance (feet) Diameter (feet) Yes Rotation Cyclops World’s Largest Visual Acuity Test 3700 feet Distance (feet) Diameter (feet) Yes Rotation No Rotation 4000 10. 00 11 0 3900 9. 75 9 2 3800 9. 50 6 5 3700 9. 25 4 7 3600 9. 00 2 9 Control 0. 00 1 10 11 test subjects - July 23, 2010

Animated Vision Associates “Magic Numbers” U. S. Patent Application Number 12/583, 225 August 17, Animated Vision Associates “Magic Numbers” U. S. Patent Application Number 12/583, 225 August 17, 2009 Estimated to be published ~ February 11, 2011 PCT Request Number US 10/45798 August 17, 2010

Animated Vision Associates “Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic. ” Arthur C. Animated Vision Associates “Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic. ” Arthur C. Clarke’s Third Law

Animated Vision Associates When a distinguished but elderly scientist states that something is possible, Animated Vision Associates When a distinguished but elderly scientist states that something is possible, he is almost certainly right. When he states that something is impossible, he is probably wrong. Arthur C. Clarke’s First Law

Animated Vision Associates “The benefit of technology is NOT in what it lets people Animated Vision Associates “The benefit of technology is NOT in what it lets people accomplish, but in how it improves the character of people. ” Allan Hytowitz




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