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Ancient Chinese Civilization Ancient Chinese Civilization

Geographic and Cultural n n n China Proper…”Heart of China” ¡ Region that runs Geographic and Cultural n n n China Proper…”Heart of China” ¡ Region that runs inland from the eastern seacoast ¡ Contains The Huang, Chang, and Xi Rivers The Huang or Yellow River ¡ Chinese built dikes to help control the flooding China’s isolation ¡ Great distance, mountains, deserts separated China from the India and the West ¡ Infrequent contact gave China a strong sense of identity and superiority ¡ Regarded China as Zhongguo or Middle Kingdom

The Shang Dynasty n Objectives: ¡ Examine how the Chinese explained their early history The Shang Dynasty n Objectives: ¡ Examine how the Chinese explained their early history ¡ Describe how the Shang government and economy were organized ¡ Identify the religious beliefs held by the Shang ¡ Explain why the Shang dynasty collapsed

Ancient China Legends n Pangu, the 1 st man ¡ Created the universe n Ancient China Legends n Pangu, the 1 st man ¡ Created the universe n Yu ¡ ¡ ¡ n Mythological figure Drained away flood waters Established line of Kings called Xia ruled over the Neolithic people in China

Shang Dynasty n First historic Dynasty n Between 1750 BC and 1500 BC n Shang Dynasty n First historic Dynasty n Between 1750 BC and 1500 BC n Stretched over 40, 000 sq miles n Shang strengthened rule by introducing irrigation and flood control systems

Shang Government n n n Stretched over 40, 000 sq miles Ruled by a Shang Government n n n Stretched over 40, 000 sq miles Ruled by a bureaucracy- government organized into different levels and tasks Well organized government allowed culture to spread

Shang Economy and Crafts n n Based on Agriculture Raised silkworms to make silk Shang Economy and Crafts n n Based on Agriculture Raised silkworms to make silk cloth Artisans known for their use of kaolin- fine white clay Artisans worked in bone, ivory, and jade

Astronomy & Calendar n n n Used 2 calendars ¡ Sun and Moon Lunar Astronomy & Calendar n n n Used 2 calendars ¡ Sun and Moon Lunar Calendar ¡ based on the movements on the moon ¡ Each month began with new moon (29 days) ¡ 12 lunar months made a year with 365 days Priest-Astronomers had control over planting times

Religion n n Animism- the belief that spirits inhabited everything Worshiped Gods of the Religion n n Animism- the belief that spirits inhabited everything Worshiped Gods of the sun, wind, clouds, and the moon Believed in Shangdi- god who controlled human destiny and forces of nature Priests tried to predict the future by reading oracle bones

Language and Writing n n n Spoke many dialects- variations of their language Assigned Language and Writing n n n Spoke many dialects- variations of their language Assigned symbols to words: a signifier and a phonetic sound Writings became known as calligraphy

Fall of the Shang Dynasty n n n Wealth and Lifestyle of the China Fall of the Shang Dynasty n n n Wealth and Lifestyle of the China Proper ¡ Created constant battles for the Shang Dynasty ¡ Military efforts exhausted the Shang rulers around 1100 BC The Shang Dynasty was overthrown by the Zhou (JOH) Zhou justified their conquest by claiming the Shang was corrupt and unfit to rule

Zhou Dynasty 1050 BC- 256 BC n n n No centralized form of government Zhou Dynasty 1050 BC- 256 BC n n n No centralized form of government Granted territories to members of royal families and allies Believed in the “Mandate of Heaven” ¡ God determined who ruled China Rebels would overthrow dynasty if “Mandate of Heaven” was lost Decline of Zhou ¡ Local leaders fought each other ¡ Military attacks by outsiders

The Qin Dynasty: 221 BC – 206 BC n n Came to power by The Qin Dynasty: 221 BC – 206 BC n n Came to power by military might lead by Cheng Established an autocracy ¡ n Great Wall of China ¡ ¡ n n Cheng suppressed and executed scholars Walls built to protect from invasions 1500 miles in length Force labor policy for public works anger people Liu Bang overthrew the Qin Dynasty ¡ Founded the Han Dynasty

The Han Dynasty n Civil Service System ¡ Runs the day-to-day business of Government The Han Dynasty n Civil Service System ¡ Runs the day-to-day business of Government ¡ Created system of examinations ¡ Established an imperial university to train peoples for Government service ¡ Remained in China until early 1900’s AD

The Han Dynasty: Accomplishments n n Began economic policy of leveling- price control to The Han Dynasty: Accomplishments n n Began economic policy of leveling- price control to balance surplus and shortages Silk Road ¡ Trade route from China to the Mediterranean Sea ¡ Traded jade and silk with wealthy Greeks and Romans Population grew to about 50 million people Invention of Paper ¡ Spread from China to the Western World

Ancient Chinese Beliefs n Supported dualism ¡ Everything in the world results from a Ancient Chinese Beliefs n Supported dualism ¡ Everything in the world results from a balance between two forces n YIN- female, dark, and passive n Yang- male, bright, and active n Belief that balance in human affairs is a normal condition

Confucius 551 BC- 479 BC n Followers collected his ideas in Analects n 3 Confucius 551 BC- 479 BC n Followers collected his ideas in Analects n 3 factors of importance ¡ Family, respect for ones elders, and reverence for the past and ones ancestors

Confucius Teachings n n n Concerned with the causes of social and political unrest Confucius Teachings n n n Concerned with the causes of social and political unrest Concerned with how moral and ethical leadership would solve problems 2 ways ¡ ¡ n Accept role in society Government and leaders should be virtuous Rulers should be honest and trustworthy

Confucius Teachings n n Encouraged only moral, well educated officials lead government Mencius (372 Confucius Teachings n n Encouraged only moral, well educated officials lead government Mencius (372 Bc – 289 BC) ¡ Strong supporter of Confucianism ¡ Believed rulers who ruled by strong moral and ethical guidelines would win support of people ¡ Believed rulers who oppressed people would surrender the right to rule

Laozi n n n Founded the philosophy of Daoism Dao = “the way” Saw Laozi n n n Founded the philosophy of Daoism Dao = “the way” Saw Dao as the force that governed the universe and all of nature People should withdraw from the world and contemplate nature Shunned politics ¡ n Advised not to seek power People should be humble, quite, and thoughtful

Legalism n Believed in power and harsh laws n Believed people were by nature Legalism n Believed in power and harsh laws n Believed people were by nature selfish and untrustworthy ¡ Peace and prosperity could be achieved only by threatening severe punishment

Buddhism in China n n Late years of the Han Dynasty brought violence and Buddhism in China n n Late years of the Han Dynasty brought violence and lawlessness After the fall of the Han Dynasty people converted to Buddhism Factors that lead to conversion ¡ Temples and ceremonies offered a sense of peace and safety ¡ Emphasized universal charity and compassion Accepted Mahayana Buddhism

Family and Social Life n n Most important factor in Chinese society was family Family and Social Life n n Most important factor in Chinese society was family Each upper-class family kept a genealogy Role of the Father ¡ Ruler of the house ¡ Arranged children’s and Grand Children's Marriages ¡ Decided how much education the son would receive ¡ Choose the son’s career Women ¡ Gained power by bearing children

Arts and Science n Five Classics ¡ Texts used to train scholars and civil Arts and Science n Five Classics ¡ Texts used to train scholars and civil servants ¡ Book of Poems, History, Changes, Summer & Spring Annals, and Rites n Early Inventions ¡ ¡ Seismograph- warned of earthquakes Paper- produced in 150 BC Medicines from herbs and minerals Acupuncture-developed by Daoists