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Anatomy of groups dr. hab. Jerzy Supernat Institute of Administrative Studies University of Wrocław Anatomy of groups dr. hab. Jerzy Supernat Institute of Administrative Studies University of Wrocław

Anatomy of groups George Caspar Homans (1910 -1989) in the book Human Group published Anatomy of groups George Caspar Homans (1910 -1989) in the book Human Group published in 1950: We mean by a group a number of persons who communicate with one another often over a span of time, and who are few enough so that each person is able to communicate with all others, not at secondhand, through other people, but face-toface. dr hab. Jerzy Supernat

Anatomy of groups David J. Lawless: […] a group (sometimes called a psychological group) Anatomy of groups David J. Lawless: […] a group (sometimes called a psychological group) consists of two or more persons interacting. This interaction requires that the behavior of each member influences the behavior of each other member and that the members share some common perceptions, beliefs, values, and objectives. dr hab. Jerzy Supernat

Anatomy of groups Tres faciunt collegium. Omne trinum perfectum. dr hab. Jerzy Supernat Anatomy of groups Tres faciunt collegium. Omne trinum perfectum. dr hab. Jerzy Supernat

Anatomy of groups E. Frank Harrison: The most important characteristics of a group: Ü Anatomy of groups E. Frank Harrison: The most important characteristics of a group: Ü interpersonal consensus Ü interaction among the members Ü communication among the members Ü common interest Ü proximity or nearness in place or location Ü norms or informal rules that guide the behavior of members Ü structure dr hab. Jerzy Supernat

Anatomy of groups E. Frank Harrison: […] the profile of a group shows a Anatomy of groups E. Frank Harrison: […] the profile of a group shows a number of individuals who come together. Through close interaction and openness of communication they seek interpersonal consensus. And they assume membership roles, subject to informal rules and guidelines for acceptable conduct, that will ensure the attainment of the group’s common purpose. dr hab. Jerzy Supernat

Anatomy of groups Theories of group behavior dr hab. Jerzy Supernat Anatomy of groups Theories of group behavior dr hab. Jerzy Supernat

Anatomy of groups Homan’s system theory According to Homans the behavior of members of Anatomy of groups Homan’s system theory According to Homans the behavior of members of a group must be considered as a system of behavior, not as separate actions unrelated to each other (a change in one behavior will lead to a change in others). The elementary forms of behavior are: activities (the things people do with human or nonhuman objects) interactions (special kind of activity directed toward another person and taking the other person’s reaction or reciprocal behavior into account) sentiments (refer to feelings, attitudes, or beliefs) dr hab. Jerzy Supernat

Anatomy of groups Blau’s theory of social integration This theory explains why and how Anatomy of groups Blau’s theory of social integration This theory explains why and how individuals become accepted as members of groups. According to Peter M. Blau integration depends on both attractiveness and approachability: attractiveness: a prospective new member must impress the group with good personal qualities approachability: a prospective new member must demonstrate personal approachability with well-chosen modesty. Nota bene a prospect perceived by the group as too attractive, may be assessed as unapproachable and a threat to the established relations among the members, and – in consequence – not accepted. dr hab. Jerzy Supernat

Peter M. Blau (1918 -2002) Peter M. Blau (1918 -2002)

Anatomy of groups Kelmans’s theory of social influence Herbert C. Kelman has described how Anatomy of groups Kelmans’s theory of social influence Herbert C. Kelman has described how a group exerts social influence on the individual members. He found three processes of influence that operate in group relations: compliance (the process can be observed in peer groups) identification (identification can be exemplified by the influence that authority figures exert over their admirers or supporters) internalization (internalization may be the kind of influence that doctors exert over their patients) dr hab. Jerzy Supernat

Herbert C. Kelman Herbert C. Kelman

Anatomy of groups Lewin’s theory of group dynamics (field theory) Kurt Lewin (1890 -1947): Anatomy of groups Lewin’s theory of group dynamics (field theory) Kurt Lewin (1890 -1947): […] a group has life space, it occupies a position relative to other objects in this life space; it is oriented toward goals; it locomotes in pursuit of these goals; and it may encounter barriers in the process of locomotion. Field theorists are especially concerned with cohesion or the forces that bind members of a group to each other and to group as a whole. These forces include: Ü the satisfaction that members obtain from being in a group Ü the degree of closeness and warmth the members of a group feel for each other Ü the pride felt by the members as a result of their membership in a group Ü the ability of the members to meet emergencies and crises that confront them as a group Ü the willingness of the members of the group to be frank and honest in their expression of ideas and feelings dr hab. Jerzy Supernat

The house in Mogilno in kujawsko-pomorski region, in which Kurt Lewin was born. A The house in Mogilno in kujawsko-pomorski region, in which Kurt Lewin was born. A part of commemorative plaque fixed to this house. A successful individual typically sets his next goal somewhat but not too much above his last achievement. In this way he steadily raises his level of aspiration. Kurt Lewin

Anatomy of groups Bale’s theory of group behavior Robert F. Bale (1916 -2004) has Anatomy of groups Bale’s theory of group behavior Robert F. Bale (1916 -2004) has offered a valuable tool for analyzing group behavior. In his analytical scheme he especially considers four main problems that confront a group : Ü Ü adaptation to factors outside the group that influence the group, such as the need to consider the objectives of the larger organizartion of which the group is a part instrumental control over those things in the group that are relevant to performing its tasks, such as dividing the work or making decisions the expression and management of feelings of the members, such as showing pleasure or dissatisfaction and relieving personal or interpersonal tensions the development and maintenance of integration of the members with each other and of the group as a whole The problems of adaptation and instrumental control are handled primarily by the expression of question and answers. The problems of the expression and management of feelings and the development and maintenance of integration are dealt with largely by the expression of positive and negative reactions. dr hab. Jerzy Supernat

Anatomy of groups Jackson two-dimensional theory of membership According to Jay M. Jackson group Anatomy of groups Jackson two-dimensional theory of membership According to Jay M. Jackson group membership may be based on attraction (the force that leads an individual to join and remain in a group) or on acceptance (the degree to which an individual’s ability and behavior will fit the roles defined in a group). Consequently there are four types of membership: Ü Ü psychological membership (positive attraction to membership and full acceptance) preferential membership (positive attraction to membership and minimal acceptance) marginal membership (little or no attraction to membership and full acceptance) alienative membership (negative attraction to membership and negative acceptance) dr hab. Jerzy Supernat

Anatomy of groups Group norms and conformity dr hab. Jerzy Supernat Anatomy of groups Group norms and conformity dr hab. Jerzy Supernat

Anatomy of groups G. C. Homans A norm is an idea in the minds Anatomy of groups G. C. Homans A norm is an idea in the minds of a group’s members that can be stated to specify what the members are expected to do under given circumstances. The members’ social standing in the group depends largely upon their compliance with established norms: ´ noncorformity is punished ´ conformity is reworded dr hab. Jerzy Supernat

Anatomy of groups Conformity is secured by at least three social processes: enforcement of Anatomy of groups Conformity is secured by at least three social processes: enforcement of group norms (education, surveillance, warning, disciplinary actions, rewarding actions) internalization of group norms (norms set by a group become personal standards of conduct that the member feels are right) (real or imagined) social pressure (there are three principal elements that determine the influence of such pressure on the inividual: the existence of allies, the setting for the group pressure, and the personality of the member) dr hab. Jerzy Supernat

Anatomy of groups Individuals with independent personalities Ü Ü Ü they may be quite Anatomy of groups Individuals with independent personalities Ü Ü Ü they may be quite confident that their perceptions are correct (even though they know they are different from the group, they may still persist firmly in their opinions) they often tend to be withdrawn from the group (they may be conspicuous for rigidly adhering to the principles of individuality, rather than vigorously claiming the accuracy of their perceptions) they may feel a lot of tension and uncertainty about the differences in their perceptions, but still stick to their opinions because they honestly believe them necessary to get the job done dr hab. Jerzy Supernat

Anatomy of groups Submissive individuals Ü Ü Ü they may actually distort their perceptions Anatomy of groups Submissive individuals Ü Ü Ü they may actually distort their perceptions and see the majority choices as the correct ones they may doubt the validity of their perception and demonstrate a lack of confidence in their own confidence they may perceive the situation quite accurately, but still go along with the majority because it is too uncomfortable to be different

Anatomy of groups Group structure Ì types of groups: Ü a formal group (D. Anatomy of groups Group structure Ì types of groups: Ü a formal group (D. J. Lawless: formal groups are those set up with relatively clear and official roles for members, rules for interactions, and goals for achievement; they reflect the psychological and administrative assumptions of those who designed them) and an informal group (B. J. Kolasa: informal groups are those unplanned sets of subgroups, friendship relations, and other informal relationships which inevitably develop when a number of people are placed in necessary contact with one another) Ü a membership group (one in which a person actually belongs) and a reference group (one that a person indentifies with or would like to belong to) Ü a primary group (individuals in a close, face-to-face relationship for a fairly long time) and a secondary group (the relationships are more general and remote) Ü team (actually there is no significant difference between an effective group and a team) Ì relationships within the group; sociometry dr hab. Jerzy Supernat

Anatomy of groups Sociometry identifies and measures relationships within groups. According to Jacob Levy Anatomy of groups Sociometry identifies and measures relationships within groups. According to Jacob Levy Moreno (1889 -1974) sociometry is the mathematical study of psychological properties of populations, the experimental technique of and the results obtained by application of quantitati-ve methods. Sociometry is based on the fact that people make choices. According to J. L. Moreno: Choices are fundamental facts in all ongoing human relations, choices of people and choices of things. It is immaterial whether the motivations are known to the chooser or not; it is immaterial whether [the choices] are inarticulate or highly expressive, whether rational or irrational. They do not require any special justification as long as they are spontaneous and true to the self of the chooser. They are facts of the first existential order. dr hab. Jerzy Supernat

Anatomy of groups Group communication E. Frank Harrison: It is essential to a group’s Anatomy of groups Group communication E. Frank Harrison: It is essential to a group’s effectiveness that there be a consensus among its members. Consensus results from interaction, which in turn is the product of open communication. Therefore, it is obvious that group effectiveness is directly or indirectly dependent upon open communication. In this context, communication can be defined as the means (any means) by which information (of any type) is transmitted among the members of a group. dr hab. Jerzy Supernat

Anatomy of groups Communication networks wheel network circle network chain network Y network completely Anatomy of groups Communication networks wheel network circle network chain network Y network completely connected network dr hab. Jerzy Supernat

Anatomy of groups Effective group Ü attains the organizational goals that gave rise to Anatomy of groups Effective group Ü attains the organizational goals that gave rise to the group’s formation Ü satisfies the needs of the group members

Anatomy of groups Characteristics of effective group (according to Douglas Mc. Gregor, 1906 -1964): Anatomy of groups Characteristics of effective group (according to Douglas Mc. Gregor, 1906 -1964): Ü the atmosphere tends to be informal, comfortable, and relaxed Ü there is a lot of discussion in which nearly everyone participates, but the discussion stays relevant to the task Ü the objectives are very well understood and accepted by all members of the group Ü the members listen to each other; every idea is given a hearing; no one is afraid of being considered foolish by putting forward even extreme ideas Ü there are disagreements, for disagreements are not overridden; the reasons for disagreements are examined, and there is an attempt to resolve them rather than suppress them Ü most decisions are reached by some form of consensus in which there is a general willingness to accept the decision; the group does not trust formal voting with a simple majority as the basis for the best action Ü criticism is frequent and frank but comfortable and shows little evidence of personal attack Ü members feel free to express their feelings as well as their ideas not only on the decision to be made but also on the group’s operation Ü assignments to members are clear and accepted Ü the group leader does not dominate, nor is there evidence of power struggle while the group works to achieve its task Ü the group is self-conscious about its own operations dr hab. Jerzy Supernat

Anatomy of groups Groupthink Irving L. Janis (1918 -1990): Groupthink occurs when a group Anatomy of groups Groupthink Irving L. Janis (1918 -1990): Groupthink occurs when a group makes faulty decisions because group pressures lead to a deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment. dr hab. Jerzy Supernat

Doublethink means the power of holding two contradictory beliefs in one's mind simultaneously, and Doublethink means the power of holding two contradictory beliefs in one's mind simultaneously, and accepting both of them. George Orwell An excellent example of doublethink in modern society is the war on drugs. If you ask people their opinion on alcohol prohibition in the 1920 s, most people would agree that it was a complete failure. People agree that it only caused more crime, it made gangsters rich, it corrupted politicians, and most importantly. . . it didn't keep people from drinking. Yet, we have almost the exact same situation today with war on drugs, yet most people think that our modern prohibition is a good idea. . . and more than that, they believe that anybody that thinks that the war on drugs isn't a good idea must be completely out of their minds. Newspeak Dictionary

Anatomy of groups Symptoms of groupthink according to I. L. Janis: • • • Anatomy of groups Symptoms of groupthink according to I. L. Janis: • • • Illusion of invulnerability – Creates excessive optimism that encourages taking extreme risks. Collective rationalization – Members discount warnings and do not reconsider their assumptions. Belief in inherent morality – Members believe in the rightness of their cause and therefore ignore the ethical or moral consequences of their decisions. • Stereotyped views of out-groups – Negative views of ‘enemy’ make effective responses to conflict seem unnecessary. • Direct pressure on dissenters – Members are under pressure not to express arguments against any of the group’s views. Self-censorship – Doubts and deviations from the perceived group consensus are not expressed. Illusion of unanimity – The majority view and judgments are assumed to be unanimous. Self-appointed ‘mindguards’ – Members protect the group and the leader from information that is problematic or contradictory to the group’s cohesiveness, view, and/or decisions. • • • dr hab. Jerzy Supernat

Anatomy of groups Groupthink and the decision about the outbreak of the Warsaw Uprising Anatomy of groups Groupthink and the decision about the outbreak of the Warsaw Uprising dr hab. Jerzy Supernat

Concluding remark There are basically two types of people. People who accomplish things, and Concluding remark There are basically two types of people. People who accomplish things, and people who claim to have accomplished things. The first group is less crowded. Mark Twain dr hab. Jerzy Supernat