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An Overview of Grid Computing Jonathan Schisler Advanced DBMS 2/10/2005 An Overview of Grid Computing Jonathan Schisler Advanced DBMS 2/10/2005

Topics • • Grid Computing Example Grids Grid History Grid Services GT 3 Example Topics • • Grid Computing Example Grids Grid History Grid Services GT 3 Example Challenges in Grid Computing The Uof. A and Grid

What is “Grid Computing” • Grid computing is way of organizing computing resources • What is “Grid Computing” • Grid computing is way of organizing computing resources • So that they can be flexibly and dynamically allocated and accessed – Processors, storage, network bandwidth, databases, applications, sensors and so on

What is Grid (cont) • The objective of grid computing is to share information What is Grid (cont) • The objective of grid computing is to share information and processing capacity so that it can be more efficiently exploited – Offer QOS guarantees (security, workflow and resource management, fail-over, problem determination, … )

Elements of Grid Computing • Resource sharing – Computers, storage, sensors, networks, … – Elements of Grid Computing • Resource sharing – Computers, storage, sensors, networks, … – Sharing always conditional: issues of trust, policy, negotiation, payment, … • Coordinated problem solving – Beyond client-server: distributed data analysis, computation, collaboration, … • Dynamic, multi-institutional virtual organizations – Community overlays on classic org structures – Large or small, static or dynamic

Types of Grids • Computational grids – reducing execution time • Data grids – Types of Grids • Computational grids – reducing execution time • Data grids – large scale data management problems

Oversimplified Comparison of SMP, MPP SC 04: HLRS Oversimplified Comparison of SMP, MPP SC 04: HLRS

Why Use Grid • • • Commodity Parts - Cheap Custom Supercomputer - Expensive Why Use Grid • • • Commodity Parts - Cheap Custom Supercomputer - Expensive Reduce Application run-time Increased Availability Dynamic Allocation of Resources For Large Datasets

www. top 500. org www. top 500. org

www. top 500. org www. top 500. org

www. top 500. org www. top 500. org

Online Access to Scientific Instruments Advanced Photon Source Wide-Area Dissemination Real-Time Collection archival Archival Online Access to Scientific Instruments Advanced Photon Source Wide-Area Dissemination Real-Time Collection archival Archival storage Storage desktop clients with shared controls DOE X-ray grand challenge: ANL, USC/ISI, NIST, U. Chicago

Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation • NEESgrid: national infrastructure to couple earthquake engineers with Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation • NEESgrid: national infrastructure to couple earthquake engineers with experimental facilities, databases, computers, & each other • On-demand access to experiments, data streams, computing, archives, collaboration NEESgrid: Argonne, Michigan, NCSA, UIUC, USC

Collaborative Engineering: NEESgrid U. Nevada Reno, www. neesgrid. org Collaborative Engineering: NEESgrid U. Nevada Reno, www. neesgrid. org

USA Tera. Grid Computing, B. Wilkinson USA Tera. Grid Computing, B. Wilkinson

Broader Context • “Grid Computing” has much in common with major industrial thrusts – Broader Context • “Grid Computing” has much in common with major industrial thrusts – Business-to-business, Peer-to-peer, Application Service Providers, Storage Service Providers, Distributed Computing, Internet Computing, Web Services, … • Sharing issues not adequately addressed by existing technologies – Complicated requirements: “run program X at site Y subject to community policy P, providing access to data at Z according to policy Q” – High performance: unique demands of advanced & highperformance systems

Grid Evolution • First Generation (mid 80’s to 1990’s) - “Grid” coined in 1989 Grid Evolution • First Generation (mid 80’s to 1990’s) - “Grid” coined in 1989 - Objective: provide computational resources to a range of high performance apps - Ex) FAFNER (Factoring via Network. Enabled Recursion) - Basic Services such as distributed file systems, site-wide single sign on - Gigabit test beds extended Grid distance

Grid Evolution • Second Generation (late 1990’s to now) - Condor, I-WAY (origin of Grid Evolution • Second Generation (late 1990’s to now) - Condor, I-WAY (origin of Globus) and Legion Heterogeneity Scalability Adaptability Use of middleware to integrate applications Few standards, no interoperability Deployment requires significant customization

Grid Evolution (cont) • Third Generation (recent past and the present) - Global Grid Grid Evolution (cont) • Third Generation (recent past and the present) - Global Grid Forum standards (1999) - OGSA published (June, 2002) - OGSI, Version 1. 0, published (July, 2003) - Globus Toolkit 3 (GT 3) available (June, 2003)

Grid Evolution (cont) – Administrative Hierarchy – Communication and Information Services – Naming Services Grid Evolution (cont) – Administrative Hierarchy – Communication and Information Services – Naming Services – Distributed File Systems – Security and Authorization – System Status and Fault Tolerance – Resource Management and Scheduling

Popular Systems • Condor – Specialized workload management – Job queuing mechanism – Scheduling Popular Systems • Condor – Specialized workload management – Job queuing mechanism – Scheduling policy, priority scheme – Resource monitoring and management – Transparent job migration – Checkpointing

Popular Systems (cont) • Globus (GT 3) – Uses a service-oriented approach – Grid. Popular Systems (cont) • Globus (GT 3) – Uses a service-oriented approach – Grid. FTP – GRAM – GSI – Provides Services to execute code on authorized machines

The Global Grid Forum • GGF developed standard interfaces, behaviors, core semantics, etc. for The Global Grid Forum • GGF developed standard interfaces, behaviors, core semantics, etc. for grid applications based upon web services. • GGF introduced the term Grid Service as an extended web service that conforms to the GGF OGSI standard. Grid Computing, B. Wilkinson

Grid Services • Common interface specification supports the interoperability of discrete, independently developed services Grid Services • Common interface specification supports the interoperability of discrete, independently developed services • Concept similar to Remote Procedure Call (RPC), Remote Method Invocation (RMI), only applied over HTTP • Based on extensions of Web Services

Web Services Architecture The Web Services Architecture is specified and standardized by the World Web Services Architecture The Web Services Architecture is specified and standardized by the World Wide Web Consortium (W 3 C), the same organization responsible for XML, HTML, CSS, etc.

Web Services Web Services

GGF Standards Open Grid Services Architecture (OGSA) – Defines standard mechanisms for creating, naming, GGF Standards Open Grid Services Architecture (OGSA) – Defines standard mechanisms for creating, naming, and discovering Grid service instances. – Addresses architectural issues relating to interoperable Grid services. Open Grid Services Infrastructure (OGSI) – Based upon Grid Service specification and specifies way clients interact with a grid service (service invocation, management data interface, security interface, . . . ). Grid Computing, B. Wilkinson

Grid and Web Services Convergence The definition of WSRF means that the Grid and Grid and Web Services Convergence The definition of WSRF means that the Grid and Web services communities can move forward on a common base. SC 04: www. globus. org

Differences between Web Services and Grid Service Grid services can be: – Stateful or Differences between Web Services and Grid Service Grid services can be: – Stateful or Stateless – Transient or Non-Transient. Web services are usually thought of as non-transient and stateless.

Web Services missing features • At the time the OGSI V 1. 0 spec Web Services missing features • At the time the OGSI V 1. 0 spec was published there was a gap between the need to define stateful Web Services and what was provided by the latest version of Web Services in WSDL 1. 1 – Web Services were stateless and non-transient • The result was the definition in OGSI of Service Data – a common mechanism to expose a service instance’s state data for query, update, and change notification • Also, Grid Services uses a Factory to manage instances – to allow transient and private instances

Grid Services Factory Grid Services Factory

Grid Services • The declared state of a service is accessed only though service Grid Services • The declared state of a service is accessed only though service operations that are defined as a part of the service interface (For those who know Java. Beans, Service Data is similar to Java. Bean properties) • I will show an example using GT 3. Since GT 3 uses Java, the whole example is in Java.

Grid Services Example Using GT 3 Step 1: Define the Service interface using Java Grid Services Example Using GT 3 Step 1: Define the Service interface using Java public interface Math { public void add(int a); public void subtract(int a); public int get. Value(); } In this example there is a value and it can be modified via add or subtract, and can be accessed via get. Value. GT 3 provides tools for converting the Java to WSDL

Step 2: Implement the Service public class Math. Impl extends Grid. Service. Impl implements Step 2: Implement the Service public class Math. Impl extends Grid. Service. Impl implements Math. Port. Type { private int value = 0; public Math. Impl() { super(“Math Factory Service”); } public void add(int a) throws Remote. Exception { value = value + a; } public void subtract(int a) throws Remote. Exception { value = value - a; } public int get. Value() throws Remote. Exception { return value; } }

Step 3: Write the Deployment Descriptor using Web Service Deployment Descriptor (WSDD) format <? Step 3: Write the Deployment Descriptor using Web Service Deployment Descriptor (WSDD) format

(Continued)

Step 4: Compile and deploy the Service using ant [aapon@kite tutorial]$. /tutorial_build. sh gt Step 4: Compile and deploy the Service using ant [[email protected] tutorial]$. /tutorial_build. sh gt 3 tutorial/core/factory/impl/Math. java You can see gar and jar files that ant creates from the source files. [[email protected]] newgrp globus [[email protected]] cd $GLOBUS_LOCATION [[email protected]] ant deploy Dgar. name=/home/aapon/tutorial/build/lib/gt 3 tutorial. core. factory. Math. gar

Step 5: Write and compile the client public class Math. Client { public static Step 5: Write and compile the client public class Math. Client { public static void main(String[] args) { try { // Get command-line arguments URL GSH = new java. net. URL(args[0]); int a = Integer. parse. Int(args[1]); // Get a reference to the Math. Service instance Math. Service. Grid. Locator my. Service. Locator = new Math. Service. Grid. Locator(); Math. Port. Type myprog = my. Service. Locator. get. Math. Service(GSH); // Call remote method 'add' myprog. add(a); System. out. println("Added " + a); // Get current value through remote method 'get. Value' int value = myprog. get. Value(); System. out. println("Current value: " + value); }catch(Exception e) … }

Step 6: Start the Service and execute the client Start the Service: [aapon@kite] globus-start-container Step 6: Start the Service and execute the client Start the Service: [[email protected]] globus-start-container -p 8081 Create the service instance: This client does not create a new instance when it runs; thus, the instance needs to be created the first time. [[email protected]] ogsi-create-service http: //localhost: 8081/ogsa/services/tutorial/core/factory/Math. Factory. Service myprog This ogsi-create-service has two arguments: the service handle GSH and the name of the instance we want to create. Execute the client: [[email protected] tutorial] java gt 3 tutorial. core. factory. client. Math. Client http: //localhost: 8081/ogsa/services/tutorial/core/factory/Math. Factory. Service/myprog 4 You will see the following result: Added 4 Current value: 4

Problems with GT 3 and OGSI • I didn’t tell you the whole story Problems with GT 3 and OGSI • I didn’t tell you the whole story – there a lot of environmental variables, a lot of setup is required! • You have to be very proficient at Java to use GT 3. • Not only that, it is quite slow. • Oops, OGSI is not completely interoperable with Web Services!

Changes to Grid Standards • Introduction of Web Services Resource Framework (WSRF), January, 2004 Changes to Grid Standards • Introduction of Web Services Resource Framework (WSRF), January, 2004 – Web services vendors recognized the importance of OGSI concept but would not adopt OGSI as it was defined (Summer 2003) – Globus Alliance teamed up with Web services architects and came up with WSRF – Add the ability to create, address, inspect, discover, and manage stateful resources

WSRF changes the terms slightly WS-Resource (instead of Grid services) The concepts are the WSRF changes the terms slightly WS-Resource (instead of Grid services) The concepts are the same: • Grid service has an identity, service data, and a lifetime management mechanism • WS-Resource has a name, resource properties, and a lifetime management mechanism So, the GT 3 tutorial is still relevant!

WS-Resource Guaranteed to have these four characteristics (the ACID properties): Atomicity - Stateful resource WS-Resource Guaranteed to have these four characteristics (the ACID properties): Atomicity - Stateful resource updates within a transactional unit are made in an all-or-nothing fashion. Consistency - Stateful resources should always be in a consistent state even after failures. Isolation - Updates to stateful resources should be isolated within a given transactional work unit. Durability - Provides for the permanence of stateful resource updates made under the transactional unit of work.

Planned Components in GT 4. 0 SC 04: www. globus. org Planned Components in GT 4. 0 SC 04: www. globus. org

Distributed computing is complex • There are many advantages to working within a standard Distributed computing is complex • There are many advantages to working within a standard framework – Single sign-on – Remote deployment of executables – Computation management, data movement – Benefits of working with an international community of developers and users – A framework enables the definition of higher-level services

Uof. A Grid Computing Possibilities • Acxiom work: Self-Regulation of the Acxiom Grid Environment Uof. A Grid Computing Possibilities • Acxiom work: Self-Regulation of the Acxiom Grid Environment • Computational chemistry: exploit 10, 000 computers to screen 100, 000 compounds in an hour • DNA computational scientists visualize, annotate, & analyze terabyte simulation datasets • Environmental scientists share volcanic activity sensing data that has been collected from a widely dispersed sensor grid

Uof. A “Grid” for Sharing Digital Map Data • Geo. Stor digital map data Uof. A “Grid” for Sharing Digital Map Data • Geo. Stor digital map data delivery system • http: //www. cast. uark. edu/cast/geostor/ • Contains all publicly available geographic data for the state of Arkansas • Oracle database is used for access to metadata and some maps

Uof. A “Grid” for Sharing Digital Map Data • Geo. Surf • A Java Uof. A “Grid” for Sharing Digital Map Data • Geo. Surf • A Java based product • User queries and downloads data from Geo. Stor • User specifies geographic clip boundaries, projection, data format • Could be a Grid service

Red Diamond • 128 -node (256 CPUs) Cluster • Funded by NSF Major Research Red Diamond • 128 -node (256 CPUs) Cluster • Funded by NSF Major Research Initiative (MRI) • 3. 2 GHz Xeon 64 processors, each with 4 GB memory, 72 GB hard drives • High-performance Infini. Band system area network • 10 Terabytes of external storage • 1 Teraflop/s (more than 1 trillion floating point operations every second) • Justification included research with Acxiom • http: //archie. csce. uark. edu/

Research Areas: • • • Initial Partitioning Dynamic Re-partitioning Scalability Load Balancing High Throughput Research Areas: • • • Initial Partitioning Dynamic Re-partitioning Scalability Load Balancing High Throughput and Overall Performance • Failover

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