- Количество слайдов: 37
An everyday sequence: Feeling bad? We’ll call the doctor • How bad is it? So what happens next?
Depression Toward a working protocol David P. Armentrout, Ph. D. , C. T. S.
Depression? Everyone has a bad day, so what’s the big deal?
What do these people have in common? Renowned Child Psychologist Academic Scientists Inventor of FM Inventor of EEG
White House Counsel …and these people? Ex-President South Korea Roman General Wife of German Chancellor Politics, Leaders US Secretary of Defense
…and ? Popular Actress Nobel author Popular Syndicated Author Actor, SNL Creative Artists Acclaimed musician Man of Steel
“For godly grief and the pain God is permitted to direct, produce a repentance that leads and contributes to salvation and deliverance from evil, and it never brings regret; but worldly grief, the hopeless sorrow that is characteristic of the pagan world, is deadly – breeding and ending in death. ” II Corinthians 7: 10
Vince Foster 1993 gunshot Hemingway 1969 Sleeping pill overdose …, it kills Kurt Cobain 1994 Shotgun Amy Vanderbilt 1974 Jumped from apt. Roh Moo-hyun 2009 Jumped, 100 ft cliff Hannelore Kohl 2001 Sleeping pill overdose James Forrestal Jumped 16 th fl window Hans Berger 1991 hanging B Bettelheim 1990 Self suffocation Steeve Reeves 1959 Luger shot to head Edwin Armstrong Jumped 13 floor John Belushi Barbiturate overdose Marilyn Monroe 1962 Sleeping pill overdose Marc Antony 30 BC Fell on own sword
Depression also has a morbidity… • 18. 8 mil. Americans a year (9. 5%) • 100 million worldwide at any given time • Life time prevalence – 15. 3% - 17. 9% M. D. D. , 35. 4% any depression • Leading cause of disability in US & market economies • Suicide = 7 th leading cause of death, 3 rd in 1524 year olds
Disease Burden (Adjusted Life Years) • M. D. D. 2 nd only to ischemic heart disease in magnitude of disease burden • Costs over 44 billion dollars per year in US • By 2020 WHO projects unipolar depression to be second only to ischemic heart disease in disease burden, and the leading disease burden for women and in developing countries.
An Increasing/Pandemic Problem – 1982 Hagnell, et al: Sweden, 1/10 mid 60 s, 1/6 in mid 70 s. Ten fold increase in young men (20 s & 30 s) – 1989 Klerman & Weissman: Incidence and prevalence of depression increasing and age of onset decreasing for successive birth cohorts. Increase for all ages from 1960 to 1975. – 1992 Cross-National Collaborative Group: reported overall increase in rates of depression over time. – 1993 Lewinsohn, et. al: Confirmed the increasing rates in younger cohorts in 1, 710 Ss. Robust controls for current mood, social desirability response bias, labeling, & time since episode did not reduce the Age Cohort Effect.
Increasing rates cont. – 1994, Wittchen, et. al: Successively more recently born cohorts have greater depression & more depressive sx; positive affect stable over time, depressive affect decreases over the adult life span. – 1996 Prosser & Mc. Ardle: Major depression and the incidence of suicide increasing in US and UK in adolescents, particularly among males. – 1999 Sandanger, et. al. : Incidence rates for depression increased significantly in Norway from 1930 and 1991.
All this in the face of increased resources: • From 1988 to 1999 # psychiatrists increased to 39 k, 1. 3 k/yr = 43% increase from 1988 to 2007. • Ratio in 1998 md to non-md, @ 1: 3 : addiction counselors, forensic counselors, grief counselors, marriage counselors, pastoral counselors, lay ministries, rehab counselors, social workers, developmental psychologists, neuropsychologists, geropsychologists, school counselors, psychiatric nurses, psychologists (clinical, school, counseling, etc), etc. • California 2007: 1 counselor for every 815. 3 students, 1 psychologist for every 1, 363. 6, 1 social worker for every 18, 118 and 1 librarian for every 5, 123. 8 students.
And Then There’s Medication • 1950 s-1988 tricyclics, MAO inhibitors • 1988 Fluoxetine (Prozac) released by FDA • 103% increase in prescriptions in U. S. (13. 3 to 27 million) from 1996 to 2005.
2012: 125 branded SSRIs, SNRIs, TCA, Te. CAs: • Celexa, Cipramil, Cipram, Dalsan, Recital, Emocal, Sepram, Seropram, Citox, Cital, Priligy, Lexapro, Cipralex, Seroplex, Esertia, Prozac, Fontex, Seromex, Seronil, Sarafem, Ladose, Motivest, Flutop, Fluctin (EUR), Fluox (NZ), Depress (UZB), Lovan (AUS), Prodep (IND), Luvox, Fevarin, Faverin, Dumyrox, Favoxil, Movox, Upstene, Paxil, Seroxat, Sereupin, Aropax, Deroxat, Divarius, Rexetin, Xetanor, Paroxat, Loxamine, Deparoc, Zoloft, Lustral, Serlain, Asentra, Viibryd, Zelmid, Normud, Effexor, Pristiq, Cymbalta, Yentreve, Dalcipran, Ixel, Savella, Levomilnacipran, Meridia, Reductil, Bicifadine, SEP-227162, Edivoxetine, Elavil, Tryptizol, Laroxyl, Amioxid, Ambivalon, Equilibrin, Evadyne, Anafranil, Deparon, Tinoran, Norpramin, Pertofrane, Noveril, Victoril, Istonyl, Miroistonil, Prothiaden, Adapin, Sinequan, Tofranil, Janimine, Praminil, Imiprex, Elepsin, Lomont, Gamanil, Deanxit, Dixeran, Melixeran, Trausabun, Timaxel, Pamelor, Aventyl, Norpress, Agedal, Elronon, Nogedal, Azafen/Azaphen, Depressin, Vagran, Vivactil, Kevopril, Kinupril, Adeprim, Quinuprine, Asendin. Deprilept, Ludiomil, Psymion, Mazanor, Sanorex, Bolvidon, Norval, Tolvon, Remeron, Avanza, Zispin, Tecipul
The Banished Child: • Nemifitide – 80% effective, no side effect vs. 40% for the SSRIs – 10 IM injections in 6 w, then 1 per year –UK, FDA approved, then blocked by gov & big pharma
Not the expected/desired panacea: • Medication Problems: – Side effect, discontinuance, improper dosage – BMJ 2005, adults taking SSRIs have higher than expected rates of suicide – 2005 FDA launches a review of antidepressants & adult suicidality – 2005, Moncrief & Kirsch – “very poor outcomes in longitudinal follow-up studies for people treated for depression, both in hospital & community – Kirsch & Moore, 2002 – 80% of response to antidepressant medication (SSRIs) duplicated in placebo control groups, and the mean difference between drug and placebo was 2 pts on the HAM-D
Basics for Understanding Depression: Taxonic (42) or Dimensional • • • • • • Neurotic Post Partum Pure Depressive Diseas Psychotic Melancholic Schizophrenic Reactive Vital Atypical Endogenous Symptomatic Seasonal Affective Exogenous Periodic Physiological S Type Involutional Somatic Depressive Spectrum Disease e Unipolar Simple Physiological J Type Cyclothymic Normal Adjstmnt. Dis with dep mood Mourning Hostile Major Depressive Disorder Masked Dysthymia Physiological Retardation Bipolar Primary Bereavement Personal Secondary Schizo-Affective Severe Biological Exhaustion Depression Mild One Dimension Secondary to prob. of living
Our understanding of depression is a mess. If we don’t do something different -
And, we have ignored the spiritual nature of our being… • 1987. Fehring, Brennan & Keller. Spiritual well being is inversely associated with depression and negative mood. • 1990. Brown, et al. Inverse relationship between religiosity and depression for both males and females with lower levels of depression seen in respondents with higher levels of religiosity. • 1991. Genia & Shaw. Intrinsic religious commitment is associated with lower levels of depression.
A seminal spiritual study. . • 1991. Balk. Religion may play role in helping youth (14 -19) face the death of a sibling. Religious youth had far more depressive symptoms than non-religious youth at the time following the death of their sibling. By the time of the interview av. = 24 mos) religious youth had only mild symptoms while non-religious were still feeling depressed and confused.
Designed by God Nehemiah Jesus “For Godly grief and the pain God is permitted to direct, produce a repentance that leads to salvation and deliverance from evil, and it never brings regret; But worldly grief (the hopeless sorrow that is characteristic of the pagan world) is deadly, breeding and ending in death. ” II Cor 7: 10
A Biblical Model of Depression • • Universality of depression Both Taxonic and Dimensional Process is important Etiology is important
Two Pathways(taxons): God’s Path & The Deadly Spiral
Assessment: What should a dog do when he catches the car? • Emotion-driven: Myth of the black hole • If there’s muck I’m stuck • I have to fix it right now • Assessment-Driven: • Course of action determined by wisdom/discernment • The data can be made objective
A 4 -Level Approach to Screening 1. Incidence (categorical) 2. Severity (Dimensional) 3. Etiology - Psychosocial Spiritual Etiologies (Dimensional) Biological Etiologies (Dimensional) 4. Process (Dimensional &Taxonic)
Level 1: Incidence • The One Question Assessment (90% sensitive) • The Two Question Assessment (Arroll, et al. , 2003) • During the past month have you often been bothered by feeling down, depressed or hopeless? • And, during the past month have you often been bothered by little interest or pleasure in doing things?
Level 2: Subjective Severity • SIGECAPS – Sleep: increase or decrease in sleep pattern – Interest: anhedonia – loss of normal interest – Guilt: feelings of guilt or worthlessness – Energy: low energy or fatigue – Concentration: difficulty focusing attention – Appetite: wt. increase or decrease, 5%/month – Psychomotor: agitation/restless or slowing – Suicide: life worth living? Active ideation? (Criteria: MDD: 5+/2 w/mood, Dysthymia: 2+/2 y/MOOD? )
Level 2: Objective Severity • HDI (Hamilton Depression Inventory, CRS & BDI (Beck Depression Inventory) – Most frequently used in research (Ham-D), r =. 95. r =. 93 with BDI. HAM-D includes anxiety & somatic component, BDI severity, subjective distress- commercially available • SDS (Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale) – Quick, 1 transformation to index, scoring easy, readily available from Eli Lily Pharmaceutical – For severity estimates, tracks progress • PHQ-9 (from PRIME-MD) – Quick, most easily scored, readily available from Pfizer Pharmaceutical – Severity estimate, tracks progress – Sensitivity for MDD, 78%; specificity 85% • CES-D (Cntr Epidem. Study-Depression) – Frequency may be measured
Lack of Intimacy Level 3: Etiology Purposelessness Busyness Anger/Self-Indulgence Guilt Loss Exhaustion Separation from God Self Worth
Level 3 Biological Etiologies • One resident’s patient’s reported that God had told her she was depressed secondary to a chemical brain imbalance. • True biological etiology – Disease – Medications – Sleep loss
Level Four: Process, Dimensional Screening For The Spiral – Least responsive to simple intervention – Higher risk patients – >somatic sx = delayed response to fluoxetine • Elements – Overwhlemed – Feeling Control – Worthlessness/Helplessness/Hopelessness – Behavioral Involvement – Cognitive Distortion – Multiplying, interactive factors
A useful initial workup covers all four levels: Incidence Severity Etiology Process
Depression Assessment Inventory • Symptoms (Incidence & Severity) – DSM frequency & intensity, patterns (including familial) – Morbid thinking • Etiology – Depressogenic illnesses and/or drugs – Distance from God, Anger, Guilt, Lack of Purpose, Exhaustion, Loss, Overwhelmed, Busyness, Worth/value, Intimacy/connection, Self-indulgence • Spiral (Process) – Emotion Dominance, Distortion Triad, Behavioral Elements, Cognitive Distortions
Final Thoughts • “Keep your heart with all vigilance and above all you guard, for out of it flow the springs of life. ” Proverbs 4: 23 Be Blessed !
Criteria • Major Depression – 5 or more of the sx present for two weeks – mood change or anhedonia present – significant distress or impaired function – not due to substance abuse or med illness – not due to bereavement – no manic episode • Dysthymia – Depressed mood most of the day, most days x 2 y – never w/o sx for more than 2 months – not recurrent MD – no manic history – not due to substance abuse or med illness – significant distress or impaired function
Criteria • Recurrent Major Depression – Multiple episodes separated by periods of reduced sx • Adjustment Disorder w/ Depressed Mood – onset w/in three months or identifiable stressor – does not continue more than 6 months – significant distress or impaired function