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American History I Unit 2 Part 4
The election of 1824 n No issue divides the country as deeply as slavery, politics divided along sectional lines n Although Jackson wins the popular vote, John Quincy Adams is nominated for presidency by the House (helped by Henry Clay)
Election of 1824 • Candidates – John Quincy Adams (Secretary of State) – Andrew Jackson (Senator, Hero of New Orleans and Seminole Wars) – William H. Crawford (Secretary of the Treasury) – Henry Clay (Speaker of the House)
To the House • Jackson wins plurality of popular vote and electoral votes but not the majority needed for presidency • Top three voted on by house – 4 th place Clay supports Adams, who wins the vote • Adams appoints Clay as his secretary of state
Corrupt Bargain • Jackson and his supporters decry “corrupt bargain” and immediately begin planning 1828 election campaign • Supporters organize a grass roots campaign in each state – founding of modern Democratic Party • 1828 – Jackson wins – “white man’s democracy” – first non-elite and westerner elected president
New political divisions following the election of 1824 n Jackson= Jacksonians= Democratic. Republicans=Democrats; emphasize states’ rights and fiscal conservatism n Adams= Nationalists= National Republicans; advocate a more active role for the government
J. Q. Adams as President n Adams embraces a Hamiltonian view and seeks to promotes projects beneficial to the national interest
Symbol for an Age n “…What was he? He was the embodiment of the true spirit of the nation in which he lived. What did he do? He put himself at the head of the great movement of the age in which he lived…Because his countrymen saw their image and spirit in Andrew Jackson, they bestowed their honor and admiration upon him. ”
The Fundamental Tenets of Jacksonian Democracy n The Union n Manifest Destiny n Ordinary Americans can do anything n Jackson’s popularity and success were primarily the result of his personality and leadership, rather than expert knowledge of the issues or his genius as an administrator.
1828: Jacksonian Democracy: The New Party System in Embryo n 1828: Adams goes down in one of the filthiest elections in American history n Jackson sweeps the South, West, and Northwest, Adams wins in New England.
“democratizing politics” n Ordinary citizens can determine what is right n Parties become powerful institutions n The country evolves into a democracy n Elimination of property qualifications for voting and holding office
President of all the people n Jackson conceives of himself as the direct representative of the people and the embodiment of national power n Was the nineteenth century the age of Jackson or was Jackson the creation of the times?
The Spoils System n The principle of rotation (rotating offices) n Rhetoric and theory aside; was Jackson successful or should party workers be rewarded with political office after a successful campaign?
Sectional tensions revived The tariff and “constitutional” internal improvements n The nature of the Union: Jackson: individual liberty depends on the perpetuation of the (federal) Union n Jackson: “The Bank…I will kill it!” n Jackson believes that the Second National Bank is unconstitutional despite the Supreme Court; the politician who pushed for renewal of the Bank to provide himself a campaign issue against Jackson was Henry Clay n
Jackson v. Bank of the U. S. n “The present corporate body…enjoys an exclusive privilege of banking under the authority of the general government, of its favor and support, and as a necessary consequence, almost a monopoly of the foreign and domestic exchange…I cannot perceive the justice…of this course…
Jackson v. Bank of the U. S. (con’t) “…If our government must sell monopolies…let them not be bestowed on the subjects of a foreign government nor upon a…favored class of men in our country. ” n Jackson’s most powerful weapon against the Bank of the U. S. was the ability to withdraw government revenues from the bank. n
Next Round • Bank has time left on its original charter • Jackson orders Treasury to withdraw all the government’s gold and silver reserves and deposit it in state banks • The Senate censures Jackson • Second Bank closes in 1836 – no further national bank will be chartered in American history
The Tariff Act • “Tariff of Abominations” – Tariff Act of 1828 – enacted a high protective tariff • Strongly opposed by Southerners, strongly favored by Northeasterners – Why? • South Carolina leads the opposition – becomes embroiled in sectionalism and states’ rights
Nullification • VP John Calhoun condemns protective tariffs and promotes the idea of nullification as a protection against an oppressive central government • Nullification – extreme form of states’ rights – the right of a state to hold a convention and nullify an act of Congress and ultimately secede from the union if nullification is not accepted
The nullification crisis n n n South Carolina’s planters object to a new tariff law passed in 1832; duties lowered less then they hope “The tyranny of the majority” Jackson ”disunion by armed force is treason” The Force Bill South Carolina eventually repeals the Nullification Ordinance; Jackson’s attitude toward nullification was to oppose it because of his devotion to the Union
Why didn’t South Carolina secede in 1832?
n The outcome of the nullification crisis convinces the radical South Carolina planters that nullification and secession could succeed only with the support of other states and that both the protective tariff and the agitation against slavery were examples of tyranny of the majority.
Foreign policy n Reciprocal trade arrangements with Britain n France agrees to compensation
The Jacksonians n Rich & poor, westerners & easterners, slaveholders & abolitionists n Rise of the Whigs (Jackson’s opposition)
Democratic Party • Supporters of Jackson – rich and poor, a national party • Heart of ideology – the conflict between the producing and nonproducing classes – taps into the fears of those caught up in the market revolution
Whigs • Opposed to Jackson and the Democrats – the second national party • For the next two decades strong competition between the two parties with a clear choice for the American voters
the Jacksonians v. the Whigs Democrats n Small government n Government should protect rights of all n Small farmers, workers, Catholics, immigrants n Whigs: n Active government n Government should help business and reform society n Business, large planters, Protestants n
Martin Van Buren takes office just as the panic of 1837 hits n The depression hurts the Democrats n The Whigs better organized in 1840 n
The Trail of Tears
The Indian Removal Act of 1830 n The first important bill enacted under Jackson’s guidance n Jackson takes a states’ rights position in the controversy between the Cherokee Indians and Georgia
The Five Civilized Tribes n The Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole n Why were they removed?
The “usual” justification: n Indians were not using their land properly, moreover, they kept out those who could put it to proper use
Greed and philanthropy (Limerick) n White people were not greedy and mean-spirited, Indians were the greedy ones keeping so much land to themselves! n Land liberated for its proper use!
The acculturation of the Five Civilized Tribes n. A written alphabet, a newspaper, n Indians: Americans were nomads! n Indians: the unfortunate victims of progress
Philanthropy goes even further n After all, the Indian policies were in the Indians’ interest! n But was their decline really inevitable?
Indian removal would benefit both settlers and Indians n Indians liberated from savagery n Settlers able to acquire Indian lands n President Jackson: Progress should not be held up!
Indian Policy • Reflected western concerns • Wants to remove all Indians to west of the Mississippi to “preserve” Indian life and culture • Real reason – 100, 000 Indians occupy 100 million acres of land east of the Mississippi • Plan – exchange public lands in the west for Indian lands in the east, pay transportation and compensation costs and provide limited assistance
Georgia and the Cherokees • State government wants Cherokees off land in north Georgia (prime farmland some gold found) • US Supreme court rules in favor of the Cherokees • Jackson continues to support Georgia’s efforts
Trail of Tears • Indian Removal bill barely passes over objections of moral reformers in Congress • Most tribes refused to leave their homes (recognized by treaty) • Jackson sends the army to round them up and send them to Indian territory
The Indian Removal Act n Called for the creation of an Indian Territory (which later became the state of Oklahoma) n The federal government supposed to provide transport, food, and some tools to ease the transition of the Indians to their new homes
Cherokee take their complaint to the U. S. Supreme Court n Georgia declares all Cherokee laws void and their land parts of Georgia n Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831): The tribe not subject to state laws n Jackson: “John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it!”
Jackson compared Indian removal To white westward migration Jackson: “How many thousands of our own people would gladly embrace the opportunity of removing to the West on such conditions? ”
The Trail of Tears: n “one of the greater official acts of inhumanity and cruelty in American history” n “the wise, humane, and undeviating policy of the government in this the most difficult of all our relations foreign or domestic”
The Trail of Tears n An 800 -mile journey of sickness, misery, and death n 18, 000 Cherokee removed from their homeland n 4, 000 died along the way
Final thoughts • Age of Jackson was a pivotal period, transitioning from the Early Republic to the era of Manifest Destiny • Saw the rise of mass democracy and the modern party system • To some, Jackson was a popular hero (New Orleans and Florida) and a common man – not an elite • To others, he was a tyrant grasping for power • And for the Indians of the east, his policies led to tragedy
“To populate is to govern” • Spain, and later Mexico, initiate an immigration program designed to bring settlers to Texas • They intend to attract Americans and European immigrants as well as Mexican migrants
Missions Presidios • They marked Spain’s presence in Texas • They attempted to convert the Natives • Military forts and garrisons • They defended the missions and helped keep the local economies going and expanding
Stephen F. Austin Contract between the Spanish government and Moses Austin to settle Americans in Texas (1821) Ø Stephen F. Austin assumes his father’s contract Ø
Ü The overwhelming majority of emigrants to Texas were citizens of the United States who possessed the resources necessary to take advantage of Mexico’s offer Ü The “Old Three Hundred” settle in San Felipe on the Brazos River, led by. Stephen F. Austin Ü Slavery not prohibited, indeed some of the Old Three Hundred brought slaves with them to Texas
Stephen F. Austin: “no one will be received as a settler, or even be permitted to remain in the country longer than is absolutely necessary to prepare for a removal who does not produce the most unequivocal and satisfactory evidence of unblemished character, good morals, sobriety, industrious habits, and he must also have sufficient property to begin with either as a farmer or mechanic besides paying for his land. No frontiersman who has no other occupation that of a hunter will be received- no drunkard, no gambler. ” n “The Roman Catholic is the established religion of the Mexican nation and the law will not allow of any other in the Colony. ” n
American settlers outnumber Mexicans in Texas First, the settlement program went forward smoothly, but the rapidly growing Anglo American population displayed only nominal loyalty to Mexico n they were not government officials, however, they could obtain a contract from the government thereby act in behalf of the state governments and select colonists, allocate land make sure the appropriate laws are obeyed, 41 empressario contracts signed between 1821 -1835 resulted in the arrival of some 13, 500 Anglo-American families n Stephen Austin received second contract, this time to settle 500 families, he received the total of 5 contracts, but managed to fulfill only the first one n
Relations between Anglo. Americans and Mexicans not all Anglo-Americans arrived in Texas legally n the Mexican government became worried about the Americans’ indifference toward obtaining Mexican citizenship, their worries became serious after the failed attempt of Haden Edwards to establish an independent Nacogdoches in 1826 n Austin led his militia to help the Mexican government suppress the insurrection n Teran, a high-ranking Mexican military officer reported that Texas was being flooded with Americans n
Mier y Teran fears Mexico may lose Texas (1830) n “As one covers the distance from Bejar to this town, he will note that Mexican influence is proportionately diminished until on arriving in this place he will see that it is almost nothing. And indeed, whence could such influence come? Hardly from superior numbers in population, since the ratio of Mexicans to foreigners is one to ten; certainly not from the superior character of the Mexican population, for exactly the opposite is true, the Mexicans of this town comprising what in all countries is called the lowest class- the very poor and very ignorant. ”
n “I am warning you to take timely measures. Texas could throw the whole nation into revolution. ”
The immigration law of 1830 n n n Upon Teran’s recommendations, Mexico toughens its immigration policy Further immigration to Mexico temporarily stopped Ban on importation of slaves to Texas (not on slavery in general) Mexico intends to replace Americans with Mexican migrants or European immigrants The Mexican government orders the building of more military garrisons
n Article 9. The introduction of foreigners across the northern frontier is prohibited under any pretext whatever. n Article 10. The government of each state shall most strictly enforce the colonization laws and prevent the further introduction of slaves.
n n n 53 Texas delegates assemble in the constitution of 1835 at San Felipe de Austin They want independence but they want to gain time in order to assure assistance from the United States The delegates establish a provisional government and elect Henry Smith as governor San Houston selected the commander of the Army A diplomatic mission sent to the United States
n When a government has ceased to protect the lives, liberty and property of the people, from whom its legitimate powers are derived, and for the advancement of whose happiness it was instituted, and so far from being a guarantee for the enjoyment of those inestimable and inalienable rights, becomes an instrument in the hands of evil rulers for their oppression.
n The Mexican government, by its colonization laws, invited and induced the Anglo-American population of Texas to colonize its wilderness under the pledged faith of a written constitution, that they should continue to enjoy that constitutional liberty and republican government to which they had been habituated in the land of their birth, the United States of America.
These, and other grievances, were patiently borne by the people of Texas, until they reached that point at which forbearance ceases to be a virtue. We then took up arms in defence of the national constitution. We appealed to our Mexican brethren for assistance. Our appeal has been made in vain. Though months have elapsed, no sympathetic response has yet been heard from the Interior. We are, therefore, forced to the melancholy conclusion, that the Mexican people have acquiesced in the destruction of their liberty, and the substitution therefore of a military government; that they are unfit to be free, and incapable of self government. n The necessity of self-preservation, therefore, now decrees our eternal political separation. n
Mexico’s Secretary of War Jose Maria Tornel’s Response n “The charges of oppression and tyranny brought against our military officers are false and unfounded. Far from this, our soldiers have, on the contrary, been exposed to the same libelous charges as all our public officers. They have been disarmed and driven from their posts while holding them in the discharge of their duties. Every attempt made to enforce the law has been pointed out by the colonists as an attack, while the repression of crime has been called an insult and classed as an attempt upon individual liberties in their newly invented dictionary. ”
The Texas Question n 6, 000 Mexican soldiers led by Santa Anna himself pour into Texas in February of 1836 n A declaration of independence endorsed on March 2, 1836 by all 59 delegates, including 3 Mexicans n Sam Houston elected first president
Independent Texas n Santa Anna defeats the Americans at the Alamo and Goliad n Sam Houston’s army advancement on Santa Anna’s camp n The Americans defeat the Mexican army and capture Santa Anna
n Negotiations follow n The Mexican army retreats, while Santa Anna is still kept in captivity n Santa Anna promises full diplomatic recognition of Texas n Mexican congress refuses to accept the terms n Texas an independent republic
The election of 1836 in Texas n n n Sam Houston chosen President Texans wish to become a part of the United States Texans want to create a replica of the United States, preferably, of the South Mexico refused to recognize Texas as an independent republic Recognition by the United States
n The increase in population stimulates the growth of new towns and the expansion of the existing ones n For those who did not live in towns, agriculture became their way of life n Cotton and corn the most popular staple crops
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Farmers would not be successful had it not been for the work of their slaves n Slavery entrenched in Texas n The Constitution of 1836 guarantees “the legality of human property” n Slave codes n Mexico becomes a haven for runaway slaves
n The Constitution of 1836 also does not legitimize Indian rights to their land n Houston: conciliation and coexistence n Lamar: displacement of Indians
n “It meant expansion, prearranged by Heaven, over an area not clearly defined. ” (Frederick Merk. Manifest Destiny and Mission in American History. ” New York: Vintage Books, 1966.
n “Jacksonian Americans began to see and fulfill what they believed to be their destiny- to occupy all North American lands east and west of the Mississippi and Missouri valleys. During the 1830 s and 1840 s the members of Jefferson’s Empire of Liberty sparked into a new flame called manifest destiny. ” (Larry Schweikart and Michael Allen. A Patriot’s History of the United States: From Colombus’s Great Discovery to the War on Terror. ” New York: Sentinel, 2004.
n “It was only a further twist on the many ironies of Western history that the mainstream patriotism of the nineteenth century had become the rallying point for the latest variety of Western outlaw. ” (Patricia Nelson Limerick. The Legacy of Conquest: The Unbroken Past of the American West. ” New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1987. )
n “No other sovereign entity ever grew so large so fast to become so rich and so strong. ” (Richard Kluger. Seizing Destiny: How America Grew from Sea to Shining Sea. ” New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2007. ) n “Manifest Destiny as an expression of White superiority is but one explanation for what became a clear rise of anti-Mexican sentiments in the 1850 s. ” (Ricardo Romo. “Mexican Americans: Their Civic and Political Incorporation. ” In Origins and Destinies: Immigration, Race, and Ethnicity in America. Silvia Pedraza and Ruben G. Rumbaut, eds. Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1996. )
Manifest Destiny n By the 1840 s, Americans had come to believe that it was their destiny to explore, settle, and exploit the entire continent and to unify it into one nation
Caleb Cushing n “It happens that men, nations, races, may, must, will perish before us. That is inevitable. There can be no change for the better save at the expense of that which is. Out of decay springs fresh life”
July 1845, The Democratic Review is wholly untrue, and unjust to ourselves, the pretence that the Annexation has been a measure of spoliation, unrightful and unrighteous--of military conquest under forms of peace and law--of territorial aggrandizement at the expense of justice, and justice due by a double sanctity to the weak” n “It
n If Texas became peopled with an American population, it was by no contrivance of our government, but on the express invitation of that of Mexico herself; accompanied with such guaranties of State independence, and the maintenance of a federal system analogous to our own, as constituted a compact fully justifying the strongest measures of redress on the part of those afterwards deceived in this guaranty, and sought to be enslaved under the yoke imposed by its violation.
n She was released, rightfully and absolutely released, from all Mexican allegiance, or duty of cohesion to the Mexican political body, by the acts and fault of Mexico herself, and Mexico alone. There never was a clearer case. .
n Nor is there any just foundation for the charge that Annexation is a great pro-slavery measure-calculated to increase and perpetuate that institution. Slavery had nothing to do with it.
n The far-reaching, the boundless future, will be the era of American greatness. In its magnificent domain of space and time, the nation of many nations is destined to manifest to mankind the excellence of divine principles; to establish on earth the noblest temple ever dedicated to the worship of the Most High, the Sacred, and the True.
n And that claim is by the right of our manifest destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federated self-government entrusted to us.
Manifest Destiny… n …refers to the supposedly God-given right of Americans to occupy the entire continent and spread the ideas of democracy, selfgovernment, hard work, and economic progress. A high birth rate, a recent depression of 1839, and the search for new markets and new land combined to push many Americans to support expansion that, according to the author of the editorial, John. L. O’Sullivan, required the annexation of Texas, which had achieved independence from Mexico in 1836.
Manifest Destiny… …combined a fervent, idealistic, even mystical expression of Romantic nationlaism with the realistic, practical consequences of extroardinary technological and economic developments as well as unprecedented movement of Americans to distant parts of the continent.
Not all voices sang in harmony n George Caitlin: Manifest Destiny became “an unrequited account of sin and injustice” and U. S. citizens became “cruel dispossessors. ”
n Overall, a belief in Manifest Destiny cut across partisan and sectional lines; Whigs as well as Democrats, Southerners as well as Northerners expressed it. n Manifest Destiny virtually synonymous with territorial expansion
Tyler and Polk n The Webster-Ashburton Treaty n 1844: The Whigs nominate Calhoun, the Democrats nominate Polk n Joint occupation of Oregon ends n Congress passes a joint resolution to annex Texas
President Polk: n “The title of numerous Indian tribes to vast tracts of country has been extinguished. New states have been admitted into the Union, new Territories have been created and our jurisdiction and laws extended over them. It is confidently believed that our system may be safely extended to the utmost bounds of our territorial limits, and that as it shall be extended the bonds of our Union, so far from being weakened, will become stornger. ”
Anglophobia: a missing ingredient in most discussions of Manifest Destiny n Americans concerned that Great Britain might try to block annexation and turn Texas into a British protectorate, and thus effectively counter U. S. expansion. n The specter of British abolitionism worried slaveholders n
n President John Tyler proposes the annexation of the republic through a joint resolution of Congress and Senate n President Polk signs the Texas Admission Act on December 29, 1845 n In February of 1846, James Pinckney Henderson assumes the office of governor of Texas
What did annexation mean for Texas? n The status of Texas greatly enhanced by the annexation n Texas more closely aligned with the culture, politics, and economy of the Deep South n Slavery entrenched in eastern and southeastern Texas
The War with Mexico the Mexican minister in Washington immediately protests the approval of the joint resolution n On May 9, 1846, General Tyler, whose forces were posted near the Rio Grande, informed Polk that first skirmishes with the Mexican army had already occurred n Polk delivers a war message to Congress and Congress approves the war resolution a few days later n
Causes n Mexican belligerency, irrationality, and failure to act in good faith towards resolving the boundary question? n President Polk manipulated the U. S. into the war in order to acquire California and New Mexico (Manifest Destiny)?
War The war itself provided one military victory after another for the United States n The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo on February 2, 1848 n the treaty confirmed the United States’ title to Texas. Mexico turned over California and New Mexico to the United States for $18. 25 million, thus giving away half of Mexico n
End of the Lone Star Republic n “Manifest Destiny had brought the nation to a new era in its history, one that generated pride in what had been accomplished, especially the acquisition of a territorial empire. But the consequences of the Mexican War also brought a series of crises during the next decade that ended in secession and civil war”
The fruits of victory n The Mexican War results in enormous territorial gains for the United States
But the consequences of the Mexican War… n …bring a series of crises that…ends in secession and civil war!
Slavery: Storm clouds gather n n Wilmot Proviso takes everyone by surprise, passes the House but not the Senate: “neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said territory. ” n “Hell breaks loose in the House”
Remini: “The House became one continuous riot of angry and frustrated men who frequently ended their outbursts with challenges to meet on the dueling ground. ” n Calhoun: Congress has no right to bar slavery from any territory. n Popular sovereignty v. possible extension of the Missouri Compromise line. n
The election of 1848 n The Whigs nominate Zachary Taylor along with Millard Fillmore n The Democrats nominate Lewis Cass n The Liberty party nominates Van Buren
An event in California necessitates… n …immediate congressional action concerning the territories acquired from Mexico
The Gold Rush n Gold discovered in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada n Between 1849 and 1860, over 200, 000 people migrate to California n California draws up a constitution that outlaws slavery and demands admission as a state
The Compromise of 1850 n How many times can the South threaten to leave the Union only to find an excuse to remain? n The quarreling in the House becomes intense n The Great Compromiser (Henry Clay) proposes…a compromise
The Compromise of 1850 California brought directly into the Union as a free state n Congress to pass a more effective fugitive slave law n Congress denied the authority in the interstate slave trade n A single package of eight proposals goes down to defeat; each of the proposals are then brought up for a separate vote n
The significance of the Compromise of 1850 n It postpones secession by a decade, thus…making possible the salvation of the Union (HOW? ? ? )
The Legacy of Conquest n “The American West: an important meeting ground, the point where Indian America, Latin America, Afro-America, and Asia intersected”a contest for cultural dominance