- Количество слайдов: 43
American Foreign Policy 1945 -1952 & The Early Cold War:
Part I: “Reconstruction & Confrontation”
“The Holocaust was the systematic, bureaucratic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of approximately six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators…
Country Men in war Battle deaths Wounded Australia 1, 000 26, 976 180, 864 Austria 800, 000 280, 000 350, 117 Belgium 625, 000 8, 460 55, 5131 40, 334 943 4, 222 339, 760 6, 671 21, 878 Canada 1, 086, 3437 42, 0427 53, 145 China 3 17, 250, 521 1, 324, 516 1, 762, 006 Czechoslovakia — 6, 6834 8, 017 Denmark — 4, 339 — Finland 500, 000 79, 047 50, 000 France — 201, 568 400, 000 20, 000 3, 250, 0004 7, 250, 000 Greece — 17, 024 47, 290 Hungary — 147, 435 89, 313 India 2, 393, 891 32, 121 64, 354 Italy 3, 100, 000 149, 4964 66, 716 Japan 9, 700, 000 1, 270, 000 140, 000 Netherlands 280, 000 6, 500 2, 860 New Zealand 194, 000 11, 6254 17, 000 75, 000 2, 000 — — 664, 000 530, 000 650, 0005 350, 0006 — 410, 056 2, 473 — — 6, 115, 0004 14, 012, 000 5, 896, 000 357, 1164 369, 267 16, 112, 566 291, 557 670, 846 3, 741, 000 305, 000 425, 000 Brazil 2 Bulgaria Germany Norway Poland Romania South Africa U. S. S. R. United Kingdom United States Yugoslavia WW II Casualties 1. Civilians only. 2. Army and navy figures. 3. Figures cover period July 7, 1937 to Sept. 2, 1945, and concern only Chinese regular troops. They do not include casualties suffered by guerrillas and local military corps. 4. Deaths from all causes. 5. Against Soviet Russia; 385, 847 against Nazi Germany. 6. Against Soviet Russia; 169, 822 against Nazi Germany. 7. National Defense Ctr. , Canadian Forces Hq. , Director of History.
The Nuremberg Military Tribunal 1945 The victorious Allies—France, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States—agreed to establish an international tribunal to try Germany’s leaders for complicity in the deaths of twelve million people. In October 1945, the International Military Tribunal met in Nuremberg where its prosecutors indicted 22 principal Nazi leaders on crimes against peace, war crimes, and crimes against humanity.
The Yalta Conference 1945 • In February 1945, Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin met at the Black Sea resort town of Yalta to make decisions about: • Germany and Poland • Germany is divided into four zones of occupation, by one of four Allied nations: Great Britain, the USSR, the U. S. , and France. • United Nations. • “Stalin agrees to “Self Determination of “eastern block” areas The “Big Three” at Yalta • Polish sovereignty was far from settled.
*Divisions within postwar Germany
The *Potsdam Conference July 1945 • U. S. = Harry Truman. • Britain = Prime Minister Clement Attlee, • USSR – Joseph Stalin governing Germany’s future, outlawing Nazism dismantling the German military, reorganizing the German economy, and instituting representative government. Attlee, Truman, and Stalin at Potsdam
U. S. Occupation of Japan 1945 -1950 • General Douglas Mac. Arthur • five year American occupation of Japan. • Japan had been devastated by the war, and Mac. Arthur supervised the reconstruction of the country’s infrastructure as well as the creation of a new government based on democratic principles. • Limited military capabilitiy • Japan would prosper under Capitalism and become an ally to the U. S. Mac. Arthur and Emperor Hirohito
The United Nations International peacekeeping organization FDR was the “principal architect” of the UN Goal = Peacekeeping World Bank for reconstruction The UN kept peace in Kashmir and other trouble spots, created the new Jewish state of Israel, formed such groups as UNESCO (U. N. Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization), FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization), and WHO (World Health Organization), bringing benefits to people all over the globe.
The De-Colonization of European Empires
The Emergence of Third World Nationalist Movements
7 Future American Presidents Served in World War II
The Postwar World Order Of all the Allied nations, the United States emerged strongest from World War II. Other than Pearl Harbor, no fighting had taken place on American soil The Soviets used the threat of their military might to install communist-led government in the eastern European countries along Russia’s western border, turning them into “satellite” nations.
• Senator from Missouri • Honest and unpretentious • Decisive and stubborn • Saw U. S. through the War in the Pacific • Dropped 2 Atomic Bombs on Japan • Civil Rights Advocate • “Give –em Hell” Speeches • Was President as the U. S. became the most respected “Superpower” in the world. • Revolutionary from Georgia (Russia) • Took the Stalin ( means steel) • Powerful in the Bolshevik party • Cruel both privately and publicly • Directly or indirectly be responsible for the deaths of tens of millions of human beings. • Brought the USSR out of feudalism and made them a an industrialized “Superpower”
The Cold War [1945 -1991]: An Ideological Struggle US & the Western Democracies GOAL “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world. [George Kennan] Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [“Iron Curtain”] GOAL spread worldwide Communism METHODOLOGIES: 1. Espionage [KGB vs. CIA] 2. Arms Race [nuclear escalation] 3. Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy] “proxy wars” 4. Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]
*The “Iron Curtain” The world had an entirely different attitude about “appeasement” after WWII From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe. -- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946
*Truman Doctrine  1. Civil War in Greece (Communist Uprising) 2. Turkey under pressure from the USSR for concessions in the Dardanelles. 3. The U. S. should support free peoples throughout the world who were resisting takeovers by armed minorities or outside pressures…We must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way. 4. The U. S. gave Greece & Turkey $400 million in aid to fight against “totalitarian regimes”
The Marshall Plan Europe’s economy was in shambles after World War II Marshall proposed aid to “all European countries who needed it” “European Recovery Program. ” Plan also worked to keep communism from spreading to western Europe “This move is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos” $12. 5 billion of US aid to Western Europe extended to Eastern Europe & USSR, [but this was rejected]. It Worked: Europe achieved self sustaining growth and American Economy Grew as did the rift between the US and USSR Secretary of State George Marshall
The Division of Berlin
Berlin Blockade & Airlift (1948 -49) Western powers wanted a economically independent Germany while Stalin wanted a weak Germany. Also Stalin wanted the Allies OUT of Berlin!! So he cut of all land access to the city. Truman takes a stand carries on with a major year long airlift campaign to keep west Germans in supplies. Stalin backs off but the division between East and West Germany becomes fixed and create 2 Germanys. A western ally & eastern Soviet satallite. Truman also sent 60 bombers CAPABLE of carrying nukes to England (PG. 552 -553 AP)
The Arms Race: } The Soviet Union exploded its first Abomb in 1949. } Now there were two nuclear superpowers! } ~1953 – U. S. HAS THE H- BOMB } 1954 USSR HAS H BOMB
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949) Pg. 553 -554 AP v United States v Belgium v Britain v Canada v Denmark v France v Luxemburg v Netherlands v Norway v Portugal v 1952: Greece & Turkey v Iceland v 1955: West Germany v Italy v 1983: Spain
Warsaw Pact (1955) } U. S. S. R. } East Germany } Albania } Hungary } Bulgaria } Poland } Czechoslovakia } Rumania
The Bipolarization of Europe
U. S. PRO-ACTIVE MILITARY POLICIES National Security Act 1947: MODERNIZE U. S. DEFENSE Department of Defense National Security Council (Cold War) Central Intelligence Agency NSC 68 Quadruple U. S. defense spending Form alliances Convince U. S. public to support Mc. Carthyism? ?
*George Kennan [“X Article”]: CONTAINMENT PG. 564 AP Goals Means Actual Application 1. Restoration of the balance of power Encouragement of selfconfidence in nations threatened by Soviet expansion. Long-term program of U. S. economic assistance [Marshall Plan] 2. Reduction of Soviet ability to project outside power. Exploitation of tensions in international communism. Cooperation with communist regimes
George Kennan [“X Article”]: CONTAINMENT Goals Means Actual Application 3. Modification of the Soviet concept of international relations. Negotiating settlement of outstanding differences. Using “carrots & sticks’; containing Germany with an embrace and Russia at arms length.
National Defense Budget [1940 -1964]
COLD WAR IN ASIA
• U. S. = NO invasion, $$ 400 mill instead… of which 80 % lands in Communist hands. • U. S. will not recognize communist China for 30 years = 1979 • 1950 Mao & Stalin signed Sino – Soviet Pact = to most proof of World Communist Conspiracy. Mao’s Revolution: 1949 China, the communist forces, led by Mao Zedong, defeated the nationalist forces (Kuomintang), led by Chiang Kai-shek, who then fled to the island of Formosa (Taiwan) in 1949. With this defeat, one-quarter of the world population plunged under the Communist flag. Truman and Democrats are blamed for being to “soft” on Communism and Americans see the Sino- Soviet Pact as proof of worldwide communist conspiracy
*The Korean War: A “Police Action” (1950 -1953) Syngman Rhee and Kim Il-Sung General Douglas Mac. Arthur and Mao Ze. Dong “Domino Theory” Containment Policy in Action
The Korean War: A “Police Action” (1950 -1953) Post WWII Japan lost it’s former colony of Korea: Soviets controlled North and U. S. the South. 1949 both Russian and American withdrew, but left weapons behind that would be used to arm rival regimes (communist North and democratic South). Then, on June 25, 1950, North Korean forces suddenly invaded South Korean, taking the South Koreans by surprise and pushing them dangerously south toward Pusan. Truman ordered U. S. military spending to be quadrupled “UN Force” led by American General Mac. Arthur’s Japan-based troops sent to liberate South Korea.
The Shifting Map of Korea [1950 -1953]
The Korean War: A “Police Action” (1950 -1953) General Mac. Arthur drove the North Koreans back across the 38 th parallel, towards China and the Yalu River in 09 -1950. Mac. Arthur boasted that he’d “have the boys home by Christmas, ” but in November 1950, Chinese volunteers flooded across the border and pushed the South Koreans back to the 38 th parallel. Mac. Arthur, humiliated, wanted to blockade China and bomb Manchuria, but Truman didn’t want to enlarge the war, but when the angry general began to publicly criticize President Truman, Harry had not choice but to remove him from command on grounds of insubordination. Pg. 557 AP
The Shifting Map of Korea [1950 -1953]
The Korean War: A “Police Action” (1950 -1953) LEGACY Mac. Arthur returned to cheers while Truman was scorned as a “pig, ” an “imbecile, ” an appeaser to Communist Russian and China, and a “Judas. ” Truman and the Democrats were seen as appeasers and “Soft of communism” WAR = STALEMATE = Back to 38 th Parallel ~54, 000 Americans Died in Korea! “Containment Policy” worked Stopped communits aggression w/ out “all out war” A Conservative American public calls for an aggressive policy towards communist! “No substitute for victory” = better than containment and “limited war” according the American public at large. U. S. dramaticlly increases the military & defense spending
2 nd RED SCARE Ferreting Out Alleged Communists Loyalty Review Board, which investigated more than 3 million federal employees. In 1949, 11 communists were convicted of violating the Smith Act of 1940, The first peacetime anti-sedition law since 1798. They were sent to prison, and their conviction was upheld by the 1951 case Dennis vs. United States. Congress Passed (over Truman’s veto) the Mc. Carran Internal Security Bill: Unlawful to support totalitarianism, and authorized detention camps for subversives The Soviet success of developing nuclear bombs so easily was probably due to spies, and in 1951, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were brought to trial, convicted, and executed. Their sensational trial, electrocution, and sympathy for their two children began to sober America zeal in red hunting.
Mc. Carthyism Committee on Un-American Activities (“HUAC”) to investigate “subversion, ” and in 1948, committee member Richard M. Nixon prosecuted Algier Hiss. Senator Joseph R. Mc. Carthy charged that there were scores of unknown communists in the State Department. FEAR LACK OF ANY PROOF BLACKLISTED WNET AFTER THE ARMY… DUG HIS OWN GRAVE *** But conservative attitude of toughness toward the Communist was firmly entrenched and would shape American Foreign Policy for the next 4 decades!
Premier Nikita Khrushchev About the capitalist states, it doesn't depend on you whether we (Soviet Union) exist. If you don't like us, don't accept our invitations, and don't De-Stalinization invite us to come Program to see you. Whether you like it our not, history is on our side. We will bury you. -- 1956
Communism in the 20 th Century