- Количество слайдов: 44
America: Pathways to the Present Chapter 25 World War II: Americans at War (1941– 1945) Section 1 Mobilization
Chapter 25, Section 1 Mobilization • How did Roosevelt mobilize the armed forces? • In what ways did the government prepare the economy for war? • How did the war affect daily life on the home front?
Mobilizing the Armed Forces • • Before Pearl Harbor FDR strengthened the military in the event the US was to enter the war – Sept ’ 40: 1 st peacetime draft • Selective Training and Service Act: all males 21 to 36 to register for military service. – Raised defense spending from $2 billion to $10 billion. “Four Freedoms Speech” – Speech and expression, worship God in his own way, freedom from want (need), and freedom from fear 16 million American GIs “Government Issue” served as soldiers, sailors, and aviators during the war Diversity in the military – 300 k Mexican-Americans – 25 k Native Americans • Many served as “code talkers” – 1 million African Americans • Served in segregated units – 350 k women • All areas except combat
Preparing the Economy for War • The US came into the war when other Allies running out of supplies – FDR pushed industries to move into production of war equipment. • Govt established dozens of agencies to deal with war production, labor questions, and scarce resources. • James F. Byrnes named to head Office of War Mobilization. – “assistant President” • Production of consumer goods stopped & factories converted to war production. – Ford Motor Company built B-24 bombers – Henry J. Kaiser used mass-production techniques for ship building • cut time to build one ship from 200 days to 40 days. • Liberty ships- large merchant ships to carry supplies or troops. • By 1944 US production doubled that of all Axis powers combined
The Wartime Work Force and Financing the War production ended the massive unemployment of the 1930 s. – weekly wages rose by over 50% Financing the War • Govt vowed to spend whatever was necessary to sustain the war effort. • Federal spending increased from $8. 9 billion in 1939 to $95. 2 billion in 1945 – GNP more than doubled. – Govt spent $321 billion betw 1941 -1945 • Higher taxes paid for about 41 percent of the war. – Govt borrowed the rest through bonds, etc • High levels of deficit spending helped pull the US out of the Depression. – also boosted national debt from $43 billion in 1940 to $259 billion in 1945. •
Daily Life on the Home Front • • • War effected EVERYONE Wartime jobs gave many people their first extra $ since the Depression. – Shortages/rationing limited goods that people could buy. Supply of food fell short of demand. – Office of Price Administration (OPA) created to control inflation by limiting prices and rents. – Oversaw rationing • Sugar, coffee, meat, butter, canned fruit, shoes, metal, fuel – Citizens given ration books With goods unavailable, people looked for other ways to spend $. – More books/magazines. – Went to baseball games and movies. Govt understood the need to maintain morale. – Encouraged citizens to participate in the war effort. – Office of War Information worked with the media to create posters and ads that stirred patriotism. Victory Gardens: home vegetable garden planted to add to home food supply & replace farm produce sent to feed the soldiers. – 1/3 of US vegetables by 1943
America: Pathways to the Present Chapter 25 World War II: Americans at War Section 2 Retaking Europe
Americans Join the Struggle Chapter 25, Section 2 • US entered war as Germany looked unstoppable – British being bombed – France occupied by Nazis – Soviet Union invaded by Germany in June 1941 & enter war on Allied side • Suffering heavy losses • The Battle of the Atlantic: GB & US try to control Atlantic trade routes – Wolfpacks (packs of 20+ German U-boats) left from France, attacked & destroyed merchant ships. • Sank hundreds of Allied ships by 1942 • Convoys and anti-sub aircraft eventually helped US and GB regain trade routes
Americans Join the Struggle • North Africa: 1940 -1943 (42 -43 for the US) – Early victories to Nazi General Rommel “The Desert Fox” – US (led by Eisenhower) and GB troops fight back, win decisive victories in 1943 – Churchill, FDR meet in Casablanca, Morocco and agree to continue “Europe first” strategy but decide not to attack France yet • Italy: 1943, Allies attack on Sicily in July • “Soft underbelly” of Europe, looking to eliminate Hitler’s strongest ally • Allies eventually conquer it – King Victor Emmanuel III fired and arrests Mussolini • New Italian PM surrendered to the Allies – Hitler attacked Rome, rescued Mussolini and put him in charge of puppet state in Northern Italy • Allies finally conquered Rome – Mussolini executed and Italy “freed”
Chapter 25, Section 2 • • • War in the Soviet Union Hitler broke pact with Stalin and attacked Soviet Union. German advance (1941– 1942): – 6/41: 3 mil Axis troops invade USSR – By fall, German armies threatened Moscow and Leningrad – Stalin begs US and GB for an invasion of Europe to relieve pressure – Russian winter of ‘ 41 halted German advance until the summer ‘ 42. Battle of Stalingrad (1942– 1943): – Germans began a two-month firebombing campaign at Stalingrad. – November ‘ 42, Soviets take advantage of winter conditions and counterattack. • German army surrounded in ruined city w no supplies/hope of escape. – Feb ‘ 43, Germans surrendered. HUGE losses – 300 k Germans – Over 1 million Russians Turning point of the war in the East Stalin continues to ask for European invasion
Chapter 25, Section 2 The Allied Air War • British Royal Air Force (RAF) fighting Luftwaffe and bombing German cities. • RAF begins carpet bombing – German cities/civilians suffer heavy damage. • Spring ‘ 43: US, British intensify bombing – Bomb factories, rr, bridges and cities – Summer ‘ 43: 40 k+ civilians killed in firebombing raids of Hamburg • By 1944, British and US bombing by day and night.
Invasion of Western Europe Chapter 25, Section 2 • • US Gen George Marshall, Army Chief of Staff convinces politicians to attack German forces in France. Operation Overlord – Gen Dwight D. Eisenhower: supreme commander of Allied forces. – Largest military op in history • Amphibious and air attack launched from GB. • 156 k soldiers, 5 k ships, 11 k planes – The Germans expected an invasion but did not know when it would occur – Spread forces along the French coast D-Day: June 6, 1944 – Allies bombed Normandy, dropped paratroopers, amphibious troops stormed the beaches – Heavy casualties suffered – Victory gave Allies a beach head and supply line into Europe for first time since 1940 – Late July, nearly 2 million Allied troops were in France. August, 1944, Paris freed from German occupation.
D-Day Invasion, June 6, 1944 Chapter 25, Section 2
Invasion of Western Europe • Allies start winning territory, marching towards Germany • Battle of the Bulge: December 1944, German counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg. – Pushed back U. S. Army, – forming a bulge in the Allied Line. • Largest battle in Western Europe during World War II – largest battle ever fought by the US Army. – 80 K Americans casualties – Germans lost 100 k – Most Nazi leaders realized that war was lost.
The Yalta Conference • February 1945 the “Big 3” met at Yalta (Stalin, Churchill, FDR) – Require unconditional surrender of Germany – Discussed dividing a post war Europe • Allies agreed to divide Germany and capital city of Berlin into 4 zones (Russian, G. B. , US, and French) • Vowed to disarm Germany and bring war criminals to justice • Stalin was asked to declare war on Japan as it looked as that war could go on for at least 2 more years – Stalin agreed to attack within 3 months after the end of the war in Europe
Chapter 25, Section 2 War in Europe Ends • Allies in Germany, Soviets in Poland liberate concentration camps - find starving prisoners, corpses, evidence of killing • March ‘ 45, US forces crossed the Rhine River and moved toward Berlin from west. • Soviet troops continued to fight their way to Berlin from the east. – Battles ended w 11 million Soviet troops (over 20 million total) & 3 million German soldiers killed – Soviets reach Berlin late April 1945. • Hitler commits suicide on April 30, 1945 • May 8, Germany surrendered. – Americans celebrate V-E Day (Victory in Europe Day) – BUT war with Japan still raging on
America: Pathways to the Present Chapter 25 World War II: Americans at War Section 3 The Holocaust
Chapter 25, Section 3 The Holocaust • In what ways did Germany persecute Jews in the 1930 s? • How did Germany’s policies toward Jews develop from murder into genocide?
Chapter 25, Section 3 • • Persecution in Germany Jews in Europe faced persecution for their religious beliefs for centuries. – 1800 s, theory that Europeans (Aryans) were superior to Middle Eastern peoples, called Semites. – anti-Semitism: discrimination or hostility, often violent, directed at Jews. When Hitler became Germany’s leader in 1933, anti-Semitism became the official policy of the nation. Holocaust, Nazi Germany’s systematic murder of European Jews. – some 6 million Jews and 5 million “others” lost their lives. – Communists, homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Gypsies, disabled, and the homeless Repression of Jews escalated during the 1930 s. – 1935 Nuremberg laws stripped Jews of their German citizenship. Kids excluded from public schools, forced sale of Jewish businesses, and marked identity cards. – Forced to sew yellow stars marked “Jew” on their clothing.
Further Persecution in Germany Chapter 25, Section 3 • • • When Hitler came to power he formed the SS, or the Schutzstaffel, an elite guard that became the private army of the Nazi Party. The SS guarded the concentration camps, or places where political prisoners are confined under harsh conditions. Nazi camps held people whom they considered undesirables—mainly Jews, but also Communists, homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Gypsies, and the homeless. Any hopes among Jews that they could survive German persecution under Hitler were dashed when, on the night of November 9, 1938, Nazi thugs throughout Germany and Austria looted and destroyed Jewish stores, houses, and synagogues. This incident became known as Kristallnacht, or “Night of the Broken Glass. ” Nearly every synagogue was destroyed and thousands of Jews were arrested and sent to concentration camps. After Kristallnacht many Jews sought any possible means to leave the country. Jewish refugees were not welcomed in many nations, in part because of the Depression. To deal with this problem, FDR called the Evian Conference in 1938. But still, most nations, including the United States, refused to open their doors to more immigrants.
From Murder to Genocide Chapter 25, Section 3 • • • As German armies invaded other European countries, more and more Jews (even those who had escaped) came under German control. Nazis dealt with these Jews by confining them in ghettos, areas in which minority groups are concentrated. Nazis confined more than 400, 000 Jews in the Warsaw ghetto in Poland. Thousands of Jews died in the ghetto as a result of disease. In 1942, Nazi officials met at the Wannsee Conference outside Berlin. They developed their plan to commit genocide, or the deliberate destruction of an entire ethnic or cultural group, against the Jewish people. To carry out their plan, the Nazis outfitted six camps in Poland with gas chambers. Unlike concentration camps, these death camps existed primarily for mass murder. The U. S. government knew about the mass murder of Jews for two years before President Roosevelt created the War Refugee Board (WRB) in January 1944. Despite its late start, the WRB’s programs helped save some lives. Horrified by the German death camps, the Allies conducted the Nuremburg Trials in November 1945. They charged a number of Nazi leaders with crimes against peace, crimes against humanity, and war crimes.
America: Pathways to the Present Chapter 25 World War II: Americans at War Section 4 The War in the Pacific
Japanese Advance, 1941– 1942 • First 6 months after Pearl Harbor, Japan conquers empire – Push aside US, GB and Dutch navy and take colonies • Mar ‘ 42 U. S. , Filipino troops trapped on Bataan Peninsula – May ‘ 42, Philippines fall • 76 k Filipinos and Americans held as POWs – Already weakened, forced to march 60+mi in tropical heat – 10 k died on journey (many executed) – Survivors of Bataan Death March sent to camps where 15 k more died – Violation of Geneva Convention/treatment of POWs
War at Sea • Pearl Harbor attack didn’t eliminate Pacific fleet like Japanese hoped – 2 carriers at sea, 1 in Cali • Doolittle’s Raid – April ‘ 42, Lt. Col. James Doolittle leads raid on Tokyo from carriers • Little damage but boosted morale • Japan intended to invade Australia in May ’ 42 • Battle of the Coral Sea – U. S. , Australian soldiers stop Japanese drive to Australia – For first time since Pearl Harbor, a Japanese invasion turned back
Allied Victories Turn the Tide Chapter 25, Section 4 Battle of Midway • Allies break Japanese code, win Battle of Midway, stop Japan again. – Japan lost 250 planes and most of their skilled pilots. – Unable to launch any more offensive operations in the Pacific. • US decides on “Island Hopping” strategy – Select important islands to attack – Break Japanese supply line – advance island by island to Japan • US looks to capture Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands – Japanese were building airfield there. • Aug ‘ 42: 11 k marines land on the island – Japanese flee into the jungle. • Battle of Guadalcanal provided marines with their first taste of jungle warfare. – Japanese defeated after 5 mo of brutal fighting.
Chapter 25, Section 4 Struggle for the Islands • Oct 1944, US troops invaded the Philippine island of Leyte – Ground troops battled inland – 280+ warships in three-day Battle of Leyte Gulf. • First battle in where Japanese used kamikazes – loaded aircraft with bombs and then deliberately crashed them into enemy ships. • Despite this tactic, the American force destroyed Japanese navy • Japanese land forces continued to resist – Took 2 months to liberate Leyte. • Battle for Manila was equally difficult – 100, 000 Filipino civilians dead. – June 1945 Allies finally control the Philippines.
Chapter 25, Section 4 • • • Iwo Jima and Okinawa Feb 1945, US marines stormed beaches of Iwo Jima. – Took more than 100 k US troops one month to defeat 25 k Japanese • fought almost to the last defender. – US forces suffered 25 k casualties. • Awarded 27 Medals of Honor Admiral Nimitz described the island as a place in which “uncommon valor was common virtue. ” April-June ‘ 45 Battle of Okinawa – Island was last obstacle to an invasion of the Japanese home islands. Japanese flew 2 k kamikaze attacks vs the 1, 300 U S ships – US almost 50, 000 casualties – the costliest engagement of the Pacific war. • Roughly 100 k Japanese killed • Only 7 k Japanese surrendered American forces were victorious, and the Allies had a clear path to Japan. – BUT battles showed that, although the US was winning, Japan would not give up Allies weighed costs of an invasion of Japan – Casualty estimates were high. ½ to 1. 5 million Allied casualties
Flag Raising at Iwo Jima
Chapter 25, Section 4 • • The Manhattan Project Aug ‘ 39, FDR received letter from Albert Einstein, – suggested that an incredibly powerful new type of bomb could be built by Nazis – FDR creates top-secret Manhattan Project to develop the atomic bomb first FDR dies in April ’ 45, VP Harry Truman takes over July 16, 1945, scientists field-tested the 1 st atomic bomb in the NM desert – Explosion of blinding light & blew a huge crater in the earth – shattered windows 125 miles away. Same month the US issued an ultimatum for unconditional surrender to the Japanese. Potsdam Declaration – Japan refused and decision was made to use the weapon August 6, 1945 the US dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima – More than 60% of the city was leveled – 80 k dead, 37 k injured, 10 k missing – Japanese still refused to surrender August 9, 2 nd bomb dropped on Nagasaki – 2 square miles wiped out – Over 200, 000 civilian casualties in 3 days After days of deliberation, Emperor Hirohito surrendered – August 15, 1945 V-J Day – War officially over on September 2, 1945 Most destructive war in human history had finally come to an end.
Options • a massive invasion of Japan, expected to cost millions of Allied casualties • a naval blockade to starve Japan, along with continued conventional bombing • a demonstration of the new weapon on a deserted island to pressure Japan to surrender • a softening of Allied demands for an unconditional surrender
Atomic Bomb Little Boy Fat Man
Estimated World War II Deaths Chapter 25, Section 4 Country Military Deaths Civilian Deaths Total Deaths Germany 3, 250, 000 2, 350, 000 5, 600, 000 Italy 226, 900 60, 000 286, 900 Japan 1, 740, 000 393, 400 2, 133, 400 France 122, 000 470, 000 592, 000 Great Britain 305, 800 60, 600 366, 400 United States 405, 400 ----- 405, 400 Soviet Union 11, 000 6, 700, 000 17, 700, 000 China 1, 400, 000 8, 000 9, 400, 000 Axis Allies SOURCE: World War II: A Statistical Survey
America: Pathways to the Present Chapter 25 World War II: Americans at War Section 5 The Social Impact of the War
Chapter 25, Section 5 • • African Americans In 1941, industries searched for workers to meet demands of Lend-Lease program. – But 1 of 5 African Americans still jobless June, 1941, FDR signed Executive Order 8802 – opens jobs and training programs in defense plants to all Americans “without discrimination because of race, creed, color, or national origin. ” – During the ‘ 40 s, more than 2 mil African Americans migrated from the South to Northern cities African American and white soldiers risked their lives equally in the war. – Segregated on the front/discriminated against at home. African Americans began to campaign for “Double Victory” – Fighting against the Axis and also discrimination • 1942, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) founded. – use nonviolent techniques to end racism – NAACP membership increases
Chapter 25, Section 5 Mexican Americans • Mexican American citizens served in armed forces, contributed to economy – faced discrimination in the US • Shortage of farm workers forces US to seek help from Mexico. – 1942, they agree to provide transportation, food, shelter, and medical attention for thousands of braceros • Mexican farm laborers brought to US. • The program brought a rise in the Latino population of southern California. – lived in barrios • Spanish speaking neighborhoods.
Chapter 25, Section 5 Native Americans • 25 k Native Americans in military – Many worked as “code-talkers” – many more moved to cities/defense plants. • New experience for Native Americans who had lived on reservations. • Cultural transition brought a sense of having lost their roots.
Chapter 25, Section 5 Japanese Americans • Japanese Americans suffered official discrimination during the war. – Hostility grew into hatred and hysteria after Pearl Harbor. • In 1942, Executive Order 9066, War Relocation Authority removed all people of Japanese ancestry from the West Coast. – both citizens and non-citizens – Over 100 k interned (confined) in camps in remote areas far from the coast. – Lost homes, possessions, and businesses • Some people were uncomfortable with the similarities between the internment camps and the German concentration camps. • Supreme Court upheld their constitutionality. • 1988, Congress awarded $20, 000 to each surviving Japanese American internee, and issued an official apology.
Chapter 25, Section 5 Working Women • Women of all ages went to work • Factory jobs vacant so many entering work force for the first time – New types of jobs • Steel workers and welders • Rosie the Riveter: women who worked in war-production jobs. • Gave them self-confidence and economic independence. • In spite of the benefits of working, women, especially African American women, faced discrimination. • Hostility from other workers, they received less pay for the same work, and many had to make arrangements for child care. • After the war, the government encouraged women to leave their jobs and return home.
Women in WWII- Rosie the Riveter