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  • Количество слайдов: 39

America: Past and Present Ninth Edition Chapter 27 America and the World, 1921– 1945 America: Past and Present Ninth Edition Chapter 27 America and the World, 1921– 1945 America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands Copyright © 2011, © 2007, © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Retreat, Reversal, and Rivalry • 1920 s: American diplomacy permeated by a sense of Retreat, Reversal, and Rivalry • 1920 s: American diplomacy permeated by a sense of disillusionment • Did not join League of Nations • U. S. refused to be bound by any agreement to preserve international peace • Kellogg-Briand Pact outlaw war America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands Copyright © 2011, © 2007, © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Retreat in Europe • U. S. emerge as rich nation – creditor nation and Retreat in Europe • U. S. emerge as rich nation – creditor nation and banker of the world • U. S. quarreled with former allies over repayment of $10 billion in wartime loans • U. S. refused recognition of Soviet Union but increased trade – ideological differences with Soviet Union remain problem America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands Copyright © 2011, © 2007, © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Rivalry in Asia • U. S. and Japan on collision course • 1920: Japanese Rivalry in Asia • U. S. and Japan on collision course • 1920: Japanese occupied Korea, parts of Manchuria • U. S. Open Door policy blocked Japanese dominance of China America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands Copyright © 2011, © 2007, © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Rivalry in Asia: Washington Conference of 1921 • England agreed to U. S. naval Rivalry in Asia: Washington Conference of 1921 • England agreed to U. S. naval equality • Japan accepted as third largest naval power • All nations agreed to limit naval construction • Five Power Treaty – Nations agreed to limit navies America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands Copyright © 2011, © 2007, © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Rivalry in Asia: Washington Conference of 1921 • Nine-Power Treaty: Open Door Policy reaffirmed Rivalry in Asia: Washington Conference of 1921 • Nine-Power Treaty: Open Door Policy reaffirmed • Four-Power Treaty: Established alliance among U. S. , Great Britain, Japan, France America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands Copyright © 2011, © 2007, © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Isolationism • Depression shifted focus to domestic affairs • Rise of militaristic regimes threatened Isolationism • Depression shifted focus to domestic affairs • Rise of militaristic regimes threatened war: – – – Germany Italy Japan America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands Copyright © 2011, © 2007, © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

GERMANY • • • Rise of Adolph Hitler – Aryan Race Blame Jews for GERMANY • • • Rise of Adolph Hitler – Aryan Race Blame Jews for WW I and problems Left League of Nations Denounced Treaty of Versailles Reoccupied Rhineland Wants to unit all Germans in Third Reich America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands Copyright © 2011, © 2007, © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

ITALY • • • Benito Mussolini – Dictator of Italy High unemployment/inflation Wants to ITALY • • • Benito Mussolini – Dictator of Italy High unemployment/inflation Wants to be the new Roman Empire Invaded Ethiopia, Africa - got away with it Mussolini has private army of blackshirts Promise to help poor after war America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands Copyright © 2011, © 2007, © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

JAPAN • • • Militarists dominate country – General To. Jo Left League of JAPAN • • • Militarists dominate country – General To. Jo Left League of Nations Repudiated Washington Treaties 1931 - took Manchuria - puppet state of Japan U. S. ignored Japan 1937 Japan, Italy, and Germany sign anti. Comintern Pact (Axis Powers) • 1937 – Japan invaded China America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands Copyright © 2011, © 2007, © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

LEADERS Germany – Hitler (Nazism) Italy – Mussolini (Fascism) Japan – General To. Jo LEADERS Germany – Hitler (Nazism) Italy – Mussolini (Fascism) Japan – General To. Jo (Military/Emperor) Soviet Union - Stalin (Communism) Great Britain – Churchill (Democracy/Capitalism • France – De Gaulle (exile government) • United States – Roosevelt (Democracy/Capitalism) • • • America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands Copyright © 2011, © 2007, © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Lure of Pacifism and Neutrality • • Americans against another meaningless war Pacifist The Lure of Pacifism and Neutrality • • Americans against another meaningless war Pacifist movement strong on College Campuses Blame Munitions Industry (Merchants of Death) Senator Nye investigated munitions industry, led pacifist movement and passage of Neutrality legislation (1935) – – Ban sale of arms to nations at war Ban on loans to nations at war All trade other than munitions be conducted on a cash and carry basis Ban U. S. citizen travel on ships of countries at war America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands Copyright © 2011, © 2007, © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Munich Conference • 1938 – Hitler seized Austria • Demands Sudentenland of Czechoslovakia • Munich Conference • 1938 – Hitler seized Austria • Demands Sudentenland of Czechoslovakia • France and Great Britain respond to Hitler’s aggression by appeasement • Chamberlain – “I have bought peace in our time” • Hitler seized Sudentenland America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands Copyright © 2011, © 2007, © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

War in Europe • FDR approved appeasement of Hitler • 1938: Hitler seized Czechoslovakia War in Europe • FDR approved appeasement of Hitler • 1938: Hitler seized Czechoslovakia • FDR attempts to revise the neutrality acts, to give edge to England, France • September, 1939: World War II began when Hitler invades Poland • FDR declares neutrality America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands Copyright © 2011, © 2007, © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Road to War • U. S. remains at peace 1939– 1941 • Popular The Road to War • U. S. remains at peace 1939– 1941 • Popular sympathy for Allies, distaste for Germany and Japan • Roosevelt openly expresses favor for Allies, moves cautiously to avoid outcry from isolationists • Germany signs nonaggression treaty with Russia to stay out of war - allows Germany to avoid a two front war America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands Copyright © 2011, © 2007, © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

From Neutrality to Undeclared War • 1939– 1941: FDR sought help for England without From Neutrality to Undeclared War • 1939– 1941: FDR sought help for England without actually entering the war • November, 1939: Belligerents may buy U. S. goods on “cash and carry” basis • 1940: German occupation of France • America drifts toward war realizing that Hitler’s victories could effect U. S. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands Copyright © 2011, © 2007, © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

From Neutrality to Undeclared War: Increased Aid to England • U. S. greatly increases From Neutrality to Undeclared War: Increased Aid to England • U. S. greatly increases military spending and begins a first-ever peacetime draft • Roosevelt gives fifty destroyers to England • German victories surprise U. S. – “blitzkrieg” - (lightening war) • Eventual consensus that a Nazi victory in Europe will threaten western civilization • Hitler may use British navy to attack America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands Copyright © 2011, © 2007, © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

LEND LEASE POLICY • Lend Lease way to help England without going to war LEND LEASE POLICY • Lend Lease way to help England without going to war and way to appease isolationists • Loan and give war supplies to England allies • End Cash and Carry part of old policy • Ensure British access to American war supplies • U. S. Navy ships escort British ships America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands Copyright © 2011, © 2007, © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Showdown in the Pacific • 1937: Japanese occupation of coastal China • U. S. Showdown in the Pacific • 1937: Japanese occupation of coastal China • U. S. applies economic pressure on Japan through an embargo of certain supplies • 1940: Japan allies with Germany, Italy • Japanese invasion of Indochina prompts U. S. to end all trade America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands Copyright © 2011, © 2007, © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Showdown in the Pacific: Pearl Harbor • 1941: U. S. –Japanese negotiations • Japan’s Showdown in the Pacific: Pearl Harbor • 1941: U. S. –Japanese negotiations • Japan’s demands – – Free hand in China Restoration of normal trade relations • U. S demands Japanese troops out of China • December 7, 1941: Pearl Harbor attack • U. S. caught by surprise because of human error and miscalculation • December 8: U. S. declares war on Japan America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands Copyright © 2011, © 2007, © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Turning the Tide Against the Axis • December, 1941: Axis on the offensive • Turning the Tide Against the Axis • December, 1941: Axis on the offensive • 1941 Hitler invades Russia • 1942– 1943: U. S. , England, Russia fight to seize the initiative • U. S. major ally in war is England • Supreme Commander of Allied forces in Europe – Dwight D. Eisenhower • 1944– 1945: Offensive to crush Axis America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands Copyright © 2011, © 2007, © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Wartime Partnerships • Personal friendship between FDR and Churchill cements alliance between U. S. Wartime Partnerships • Personal friendship between FDR and Churchill cements alliance between U. S. and England • U. S. - Soviet Union relations strained by ideological differences • Soviet Union often perceives itself alone in conflict • Wartime tensions persist after victory America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands Copyright © 2011, © 2007, © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Halting the German Blitz • November, 1942: U. S. invaded North Africa • May, Halting the German Blitz • November, 1942: U. S. invaded North Africa • May, 1943: U. S. , England invaded Italy – – Mussolini fell from power Slow advance up the Italian peninsula • Summer, 1943: Battle of Stalingrad – – Russia defeated Germans Russia advanced into eastern Europe America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands Copyright © 2011, © 2007, © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Checking Japan in the Pacific • Two-pronged drive against Japan – Douglas Mac. Arthur Checking Japan in the Pacific • Two-pronged drive against Japan – Douglas Mac. Arthur and Chester Nimitz lead drive • June, 1942: Victory at Midway launches advance into Japanese-held territories • Pacific strategy is “Island Hopping” America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands Copyright © 2011, © 2007, © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

World War II in the Pacific America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine • World War II in the Pacific America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands Copyright © 2011, © 2007, © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Home Front • War ends depression • Economy gears for military output • The Home Front • War ends depression • Economy gears for military output • Automobile factories convert to tank and airplane production • Women move into the workplace America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands Copyright © 2011, © 2007, © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Arsenal of Democracy • American factories turn out twice as many goods as The Arsenal of Democracy • American factories turn out twice as many goods as German and Japanese factories • Rationing of scarce goods • Income of lowest-paid laborers increases faster than the rich America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands Copyright © 2011, © 2007, © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

A Nation on the Move: Improving Conditions • Women’s income increases 50% • Mexican A Nation on the Move: Improving Conditions • Women’s income increases 50% • Mexican Americans take urban factory jobs • Migration from South and West America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands Copyright © 2011, © 2007, © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

A Nation on the Move: Improving Conditions • African Americans – – Fair Employment A Nation on the Move: Improving Conditions • African Americans – – Fair Employment Practices Commission to insure equal opportunities in war-related industry Surging migration from the rural South Segregation and discrimination still problems Wartime experience lays groundwork for postwar Civil Rights Movement America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands Copyright © 2011, © 2007, © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

A Nation on the Move: Japanese Internment • 120, 000 Japanese move from the A Nation on the Move: Japanese Internment • 120, 000 Japanese move from the West Coast to detention camps • 1944: Supreme Court rejects appeal for release • 1988: Congress votes indemnity of $1. 2 billion for survivors America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands Copyright © 2011, © 2007, © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Japanese American Internment Camps America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine • Breen • Japanese American Internment Camps America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands Copyright © 2011, © 2007, © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Win-the-War Politics • New Deal became Win-the-War • 1944 election: – FDR names Truman Win-the-War Politics • New Deal became Win-the-War • 1944 election: – FDR names Truman as Vice President – FDR wins fourth term America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands Copyright © 2011, © 2007, © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Victory • Allies disagreed about when and where to open second front against Germany Victory • Allies disagreed about when and where to open second front against Germany • June 6, 1944 – D-day • Battle of the Bulge – last battle and end of Hitler’s army • April 25, 1945: U. S. , Russian forces are outside Berlin • May 7, 1945: Unconditional German surrender America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands Copyright © 2011, © 2007, © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

War Aims and Wartime Diplomacy • Soviets did bulk of fighting against Germany – War Aims and Wartime Diplomacy • Soviets did bulk of fighting against Germany – 300 Soviet divisions, only 58 U. S. and British – Contribution larger than that of U. S. • Soviets decide to control Eastern Europe to prevent another German attack • U. S. wants collective security at the United Nations America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands Copyright © 2011, © 2007, © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

War Aims and Wartime Diplomacy • Yalta Conference February, 1945 – Agreement let Soviets War Aims and Wartime Diplomacy • Yalta Conference February, 1945 – Agreement let Soviets control elections in Eastern Europe – victory for Soviets – Soviets agree to enter war against Japan 3 months after Germany surrendered • April 12, 1945: Death of FDR America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands Copyright © 2011, © 2007, © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

World War II in Europe and North Africa America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition World War II in Europe and North Africa America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands Copyright © 2011, © 2007, © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Triumph and Tragedy in the Pacific • June 21, 1945: U. S. captured Okinawa, Triumph and Tragedy in the Pacific • June 21, 1945: U. S. captured Okinawa, complete control of Pacific, defeat of Japan only a matter of time • May–August: Intense air attacks on Japan America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands Copyright © 2011, © 2007, © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Triumph and Tragedy in the Pacific • Manhattan Project offered way to crush Japan Triumph and Tragedy in the Pacific • Manhattan Project offered way to crush Japan without invasion and end war quickly – August 6: Atom bomb destroyed Hiroshima – August 9: Atom bomb destroyed Nagasaki • Result of bombs - August 14: Japan unconditional surrender – end of war – death of thousands – postwar arms race America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands Copyright © 2011, © 2007, © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Transforming Power of War • U. S. the most powerful nation on earth The Transforming Power of War • U. S. the most powerful nation on earth • Unprecedented economic prosperity • Federal government a permanent force in daily life America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine • Breen • Frederickson • Williams • Gross • Brands Copyright © 2011, © 2007, © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.