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Alternative Energy Sources Bill Pyke Hilbre Consulting Limited October 2012 Delivered to: Harnessing Solar Alternative Energy Sources Bill Pyke Hilbre Consulting Limited October 2012 Delivered to: Harnessing Solar Power 1

Outline Solar thermal Concentrated Solar power (CSP) Solar Heating/ Cooling Solar-PV Photovoltaics 0. 1% Outline Solar thermal Concentrated Solar power (CSP) Solar Heating/ Cooling Solar-PV Photovoltaics 0. 1% electricity generation in 2010 11% by 2050? ? 2

Solar Energy to Earth’s Surface Solar 1. 2 x 105 TW at Earth surface Solar Energy to Earth’s Surface Solar 1. 2 x 105 TW at Earth surface 600 TW practical 0. 005% of incident energy! 3

Solar Thermal • Ideally suited to areas with clear, sunny climate for most of Solar Thermal • Ideally suited to areas with clear, sunny climate for most of the year- Spain, Southern France, North Africa • Direct heating of fluid. Fluid heated to 4000 C • Passes through heat exchanger to generate steam • Steam runs turbine to generate electricity • Surplus heat energy stored in salt solution to be used if dark or overcast 4

Economies of Scale: Upscaling Large Solar? An Extreme Scenario • 0. 15% of global Economies of Scale: Upscaling Large Solar? An Extreme Scenario • 0. 15% of global landmass in an equatorial location (220, 000 km 2) covered with solar panels could provide all the global annual energy demand! • When prices fall below 4 c/k. Wh delivered price it will be in a competitive zone versus fossil fuel. 5

Desertec • 15% of Europe’s energy by 2050? • Price tag $400 bn • Desertec • 15% of Europe’s energy by 2050? • Price tag $400 bn • Politics? 6

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October 2012 Solar Thermal Power Generating Plant 8 October 2012 Solar Thermal Power Generating Plant 8

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Solar Farms The world's biggest solar farm, where more than 400, 000 mirrors cover Solar Farms The world's biggest solar farm, where more than 400, 000 mirrors cover four square miles (10. 3 square kilometres) of California's Mojave desert, was built in the 1980 s and still churns out 354 megawatts of electricity, enough for 90, 000 homes. 10

Global Growth of Solar Energy 11 BP Statistical Review, 2010 Global Growth of Solar Energy 11 BP Statistical Review, 2010

Photovoltaics • The photovoltaic process converts sunlight directly into electricity • Sun emits photons Photovoltaics • The photovoltaic process converts sunlight directly into electricity • Sun emits photons (light), which generate electricity when they strike a photovoltaic cell • Solar cells are made of silicon consisting of two or more thin layers of semi conducting material • When sunlight strikes the solar cell, electrons are knocked loose and move toward the treated front surface of the solar cell. • Electron imbalance between the front and back of the cell and causes electricity to flow – the greater the intensity of light, the greater the flow of electricity. 12

Photovoltaic Microgeneration • Photovoltaics (PVs) are not generally cost-effective in U. K. at present. Photovoltaic Microgeneration • Photovoltaics (PVs) are not generally cost-effective in U. K. at present. • 6 panels of solar PVs on a typical new three-bedroom house could reduce that household's carbon emissions by over 20% • Solar PV panels don't need direct sunlight to work as electricity is generated from daylight. So if it’s cloudy, the power output may be slightly lower but nonetheless it will still be there • This technology could supply almost 4% of UK electricity demands • Reduce domestic sector CO 2 emissions by up to 3%. 13

Solar-Powered Trains 6 th June 2011 • High-speed international trains linking Paris and Amsterdam Solar-Powered Trains 6 th June 2011 • High-speed international trains linking Paris and Amsterdam as of Monday became the first in Europe to use electricity generated by solar panels installed in a tunnel on the line • Cost of € 15. 6 million • 3. 6 -kilometre tunnel crossing Antwerp, fitted with 16, 000 solar panels covering 50, 000 square metres • 3, 300 megawatts per hour 14

Solar Costs, Prices • Solar radiation energy provides 7, 000 times total annual global Solar Costs, Prices • Solar radiation energy provides 7, 000 times total annual global energy needs • Solar Radiation provides 2, 895 x 1027 joules/year • Global Energy consumption 400 x 1024 joules/year • 500 MW Solar Thermal Power Station $3 bn. • Photovoltaic (PV) cells are 3 times more effective in producing electrical energy than in the 1970 s • Prices of PV cells now 1/40 th of 1970 s price 15