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ALGEBRAIC VOCABULARY An Underestimated Factor in Learning Algebra Presented by Dr. Terrence R. Sundeen and Dr. Nancy J. Mc. Cormick NADE 2003 Austin, Texas
READABILITY The readability of a textbook involves the determination of an approximate grade level at which materials are written.
READABILITY FORMULAS • Fry Readability Graph - Based on length of sentences and number of syllables in a selection http: //school. discovery. com/schrockguide/fry. html • Mc. Laughlin’s SMOG Readability Formula - Based on the number of polysyllabic words http: //web. ucdmc. ucdavis. edu/Health. Ed/Guide/Read. htm • Gunning’s FOG Index - Based on sentence length and words with three or more syllables http: //www. fpd. finop. umn. edu/groups/ppd/documents/information /writing_tips. cfm • Raygor’s Readability Estimate - Based on sentence length and long words (those with six or more letters) http: //engfac. byu. edu/Novelinks/reading strategies/Anthem/raygor general. htm
READABILITY All of these readability formulas consider only two elements in determining the level of a material – vocabulary and sentence length. There are many other elements to consider some of which are prior student experiences, teacher’s introduction of information, format of materials, student involvement in learning, awareness of purpose for reading, organization of information, and interest in content.
EXAMPLES OF WELL AND POORLY DEFINED VOCABULARY TERMS • Constants – numbers that do not contain variables. • Discriminant – If the discriminant is positive or zero, the quadratic equation will have real number solutions. • Constant – a number whose value does not vary. • Discriminant – When b² 4 ac simplifies to 0, …. Thus there is only one rational solution, -b/2 a. Whenever the discriminant is positive, there will be two real number solutions.
A SUGGESTED CORE PRE-ALGEBRA VOCABULARY LIST • NUMBERS Number Systems: Natural (or Counting) Numbers Whole Numbers Integers Rational Numbers Irrational Numbers Real Numbers Properties: Commutative (Addition and Multiplication) Associative (Addition and Multiplication) Distributive Sets: Subset Empty Set Union Intersection Opposite: (Additive Inverse or Negative of) Prime Number Composite Number
A SUGGESTED CORE PRE-ALGEBRA VOCABULARY LIST • VARIABLES Variable (English and Greek Letters) • TERMS Term Degree Like and Unlike terms Exponential: Exponent (or power) Base Radicals: Index Radical sign Radicand Root Rational • ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS Rational Expression Polynomial (monomial, binomial, and trinomial)
A SUGGESTED CORE PRE-ALGEBRA VOCABULARY LIST • EQUATIONS Equation: Linear Quadratic Open Sentence Function: Domain Range Inverse Absolute Value Equations • INEQUALITIES Inequality Symbols (<, >, <, or >) Absolute Value Inequalities • SOLUTIONS Solution Set Graph: Number Line • PROBLEM SOLVING METHODS Factoring Graphing: Rectangular (or Cartesian) Coordinate System
A SUGGESTED CORE PRE-ALGEBRA VOCABULARY LIST X- and Y-Axes Quadrants Ordered Pair Origin Line Slope Y-intercept X-intercept
TECHNIQUES FOR PRESENTATION Techniques to accommodate different learning styles: • Visual • Auditory • Tactile
VOCABULARY GAMES • www. quia. com 30 -day free trial period to create your activities which can include: Ø Flashcards Ø Concentration Game Ø Matching Ø Word Search Create a list of words and their definitions. Quia automatically makes the activities and gives URL for students to access. Example: www. quia. com/jg/326260. html 1 -yr subscription is $49.
Vocabulary For Activities
JEOPARDY TEMPLATES Search engine (www. google. com) to find “jeopardy in the classroom” • www. teachnet. com Power. Point template to make your own game of jeopardy • www. netxv. net/esc/technology/Instructional. T echnology/templates/powerpoint. htm Example of a jeopardy. ppt file • Many Others
ORAL QUIZZES • Like the spelling tests in elementary school, students are read the definitions and they write the correct vocabulary word that corresponds with each definition. • For students to access outside of the classroom, you can make Power. Point slides, to put on your Web site, that incorporate the “sound” of spoken definitions.
AUDIO FLASHCARD 1 • Definition • Vocabulary Word
AUDIO FLASHCARD 2 • Definition • Vocabulary Word
VOCABULARY ACTIVITY TO FORM GROUPS • Give each student a card as they come into the classroom that has either a vocabulary word or a definition. • Have the students find the student with the word or the definition that corresponds with their card. • After the students are in pairs, you can form groups of two or three pairs for a group activity.
PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM • The sum of the squares of the legs of a right triangle is equal to the square of the hypotenuse. • Let students see this definition “illustrated” with a hands on activity using graph paper. • Internet activities using manipulations online http: //www. ies. co. jp/math/ java/geo/pytha 2. html
TOOLS OF ASSESSMENT • Vocabulary Quizzes (written and oral). • Vocabulary on Tests (matching, true/false, multiple choice items). • In-Class Worksheets for Daily Grades • Games for Review Work