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Aim: How did the Scientific Revolution ultimately lead to the Enlightenment?
The Scientific Method http: //physics. ucr. edu/~wudka/Physics 7/Notes_www/node 6. html
Major Figures of the Scientific Revolution • • • Galileo Kepler Vesalius Harvey Newton
Galileo (1564 -1642) proved the heliocentric theory http: //www-history. mcs. st-andrews. ac. uk/Mathematicians/Galileo. html
Why did the Catholic Church support the Geocentric Theory? http: //people. physics. carleton. ca/~watson/Physics/NSCI 1000/Pseud o-science/Copernicus_vs_Ptolemy. html
• Joshua 10: 12 • On the day the LORD gave the Amorites over to Israel, Joshua said to the LORD in the presence of Israel: "O sun, stand still over Gibeon, O moon, over the Valley of Aijalon. " • Joshua 10: 13 • So the sun stood still, and the moon stopped, till the nation avenged itself on its enemies, as it is written in the Book of Jashar. The sun stopped in the middle of the sky and delayed going down about a full day.
Reading and Analyzing a Primary Source- Letter from Galileo Galilei to Grand Duchess Christina • Read pages 39 -41 in The Human Record. Answer the questions of p. 39; class discussion will follow. Be prepared to back up responses with evidence from the text.
Kepler (1571 -1630) demonstrated how planets orbit the sun http: //www-history. mcs. st-andrews. ac. uk/Pict. Display/Kepler. html
Kepler’s Laws Warning: This website contains seriously complex physics concepts. You are not required to know these models/formulas. You can relax now. • http: //hyperphysics. phyastr. gsu. edu/hbase/kepler. html
Andreas Vesalius (1514 -1564) Founder of modern anatomy http: //www. pbs. org/wnet/redgold/innovators/bio_vesalius. html
Andreas Vesalius: De corporis humani fabrica libri septem http: //www. nlm. nih. gov/exhibition/historicalanatomies/vesalius_home. html
Harvey (1578 -1657) explained the circulation of blood http: //www. sjsu. edu/depts/Museum/harvey. html
William Harvey (1578 -1657) Courtesy of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh One of the most important works in the history of medicine Harvey, an English physician, demonstrated how the heart and blood circulation worked…Harvey was able to work out how the blood passed from the heart through the lungs then back to the heart to be pumped round the rest of the body. His discovery of the ‘double’ circulation of the blood, however, did not change medical practice for many years.
Newton (1643 - 1727) formulated the laws of gravity http: //www-history. mcs. st-andrews. ac. uk/Mathematicians/Newton. html
What does it mean to be “Enlightened? ”
The Enlightenment (1700 s) Enlightened thinkers believed in • Science and natural law (that laws govern human nature) • Rationalism (the power of human reason) • People can live by these laws and solve society’s problems Q: What role did the Scientific Revolution play in the development of Enlightened philosophy?
Enlightened Principles • End to injustice, inequality, and superstition • Tolerance of all religions • Breakdown of institutions like the Church that were corrupt and were not based on natural law and human reason Q: Why do you think Enlightened philosophers were against superstition? Peterson’s AP Success World History 3 rd Edition
SALONS • Salons were parlors where people met to have enlightened discussions. • Guests would include philosophes, writers, poets, and artists. • Both men and women attended salons. • One of the great salons was hosted by Marie. Therese Geoffrin. Voltaire attended her salon.
The Chinese Influence on the Enlightenment • In 1601 an Italian Jesuit, Matteo Ricci began a Catholic mission in China. • By 1700 the Catholic mission had converted about 250, 000 Chinese to Christianity. • The Europeans there were very welleducated and the Board of Astronomy was placed under their charge until 1838. Columbia. edu
Ricci in China Matteo Ricci (left) and Xu Guangqi(徐光啟 ) (right) in the Chinese edition of Euclid's Elements (幾何原本). 1602 map of Far East by Ricci Images wikipedia
Why were there Jesuits in China? • Protestant Reformation • Counter/Catholic Reformation • Council of Trent 1545
European Views of the East • The Europeans in China wrote home about the advanced culture of the Chinese during the 18 th century. • This inspired European thinkers because the Chinese were not Christian, and yet maintained a moral society. • The form of government was most inspiring to European philosophes. Columbia. edu
Chinese Government • Although he was seemingly an absolute monarch, the Chinese emperor was limited by Confucian principles. • “The people are the most important element in the state; the sovereign is the least. ” • The Chinese were viewed as a people that did not have an unfair feudal system. Their government was admired because of the civil service exam. Columbia. edu Google images
But was this view completely accurate? On the Birth of his Son (Su Tung-p'o (1036 -1101 CE) Families, when a child is born Want it to be intelligent. I, through intelligence, Having wrecked my whole life, Only hope the baby will prove Ignorant and stupid. Then he will crown a tranquil life By becoming a Cabinet Minister. http: //acc 6. its. brooklyn. cuny. edu/~phalsall/texts/c-poet 1. html
Is this surprising? The Chinese had other ideas that traveled to the West! Shutterstock. com
http: //afe. easia. columbia. edu/chinawh/web/s 10/ideas. pdf Google images
Famous Figures of the Enlightenment • • Kant Smith Locke Hobbes Rousseau Montesquieu Voltaire
Immanuel Kant “Enlightenment is man's emergence from his selfimposed immaturity. Immaturity is the inability to use one's understanding without guidance from another. This immaturity is self-imposed when its cause lies not in lack of understanding, but in lack of resolve and courage to use it without guidance from another. Sapere Aude! [dare to know] ‘Have courage to use your own understanding!’--that is the motto of enlightenment. ” (1784) http: //www. philosophypages. com/ph/kant. htm http: //www. english. upenn. edu/~mgamer/Etexts/kant. html Q: Why did Kant think it takes courage to become enlightened? Do you agree with him?
Adam Smith • Published Wealth of Nations in 1776 • Believed that a free economy could produce much more wealth than a governmentregulated economy (“laissez-faire”) • Three natural laws of economics – The law of self interest – The law of competition – The law of supply and demand
Thomas Hobbes “The condition of man [in the state of nature] …is a condition of war of everyone against everyone. ” -Leviathan Q: Based on this quote, why do you think Hobbes was a supporter of Absolutism? http: //oregonstate. edu/instruct/phl 302/philosophers/hobbes. html
John Locke Sec. 87. Man being born, as has been proved, with a title to perfect freedom, and an uncontrolled enjoyment of all the rights and privileges of the law of nature, equally with any other man, or number of men in the world, hath by nature a power, not only to preserve his property, that is, his life, liberty and estate, against the injuries and attempts of other men; but to judge of, and punish (those who break) that law… because no political society can be, nor subsist, without having in itself the power to preserve the property…of all those of that society…” -Two Treatises of Government http: //plato. stanford. edu/entries/locke/ 1690 http: //www. fordham. edu/halsall/mod/1690 locke-sel. html#CHAPTER%20 II: %20 Of%20 the%20 State%20 of%20 Nature
JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU “Man is born free, yet everywhere he is in chains. ” Q: What point is this introduction to The Social Contract (1762) trying to make?
Jean Jacques Rousseau • In the earliest times people lived in a “state of nature. ” • As people became civilized the strongest forced others to obey unjust laws; freedom was destroyed • The people should be dominant- the only legitimate government is one that has the consent of the people (freedom would prevail in a state where the “general will” of the people was all-powerful) Perspectives on the Past
Montesquieu: The Spirit of the Laws, 1748 “When the legislative and executive powers are united in the same person…there can be no liberty. ” “Again, there is no liberty if the judiciary power be not separated from the legislative and executive power. ” “Power should be a check to power” Q: Why would ‘one man not need be afraid of another’ if the powers of government were divided among different branches? Perspectives on the Past
MONTESQUIEU SEPARATION OF POWERS
Voltaire • Wrote brilliant letters, plays, satires • Jailed twice by Louis XV , then exiled to England for two years • Admired the English government • Raised doubts about Catholicism, infuriated French bishops • Moved to Switzerland where he could write more freely • Against prejudice, superstition, intolerance
Voltaire: A Treatise on Toleration (1763) • Chapter 22: On Universal Tolerance • It does not require great art, or magnificently trained eloquence, to prove that Christians should tolerate each other. I, however, am going further: I say that we should regard all men as our brothers. What? The Turk my brother? The Chinaman my brother? The Jew? The Siam? Yes, without doubt; are we not all children of the same father and creatures of the same God? Fordham. edu
Modern History Sourcebook: Cesare Beccaria: Essay on Crimes and Punishments “No man can be judged a criminal until he be found guilty; nor can society take from him the public protection until it have been proved that he has violated the conditions on which it was granted. What right, then, but that of power, can authorize the punishment of a citizen so long as there remains any doubt of his guilt? This dilemma is frequent. Either he is guilty, or not guilty. If guilty, he should only suffer the punishment ordained by the laws, and torture becomes useless, as his confession is unnecessary. If he be not guilty, you torture the innocent; for, in the eye of the law, every man is innocent whose crime has not been proved. ” Q: According to Beccaria, why is torture never acceptable? Do you agree with his contention? Fordham. edu
To what extent were women affected by the Enlightenment?
• Women were still legally controlled by their husbands • Elite women influenced rococo style (feminine, couples with cupids, pastels, etc. ) • Madame Geoffrin started a salon even though her husband protested (who was 33 years older than her)
Rococo Art • http: //www. metmuseum. org/toah/hd/bouc/h d_bouc. htm
Madame Geoffrin (1699 -1777) https: //www. mtholyoke. edu/courses/rschwart/hist 255 s 01/paris_homework/Mme_Geoffrin. html
From Memoir of Baron de Grimm • From Memoir of Baron de Grimm “However deficient the poor man was, he was permitted to sit down to dinner, at the end of the table, upon condition that he never attempted to join in conversation. A foreigner who was very assiduous in his visits to Madame Geoffrin, one day, not seeing him as usual at table, enquired after him: "What have you done, Madam, with the poor man whom I always used to see here, and who never spoke a word? " -"Oh, that was my husband-he is dead. " http: //www. fordham. edu/halsall/mod/18 salons. asp
From the Autobiography of Marie Therese Geoffrin • “[My grandmother]…taught me to think, and made me reason; she taught me to know men, and made me say what I thought of them, and told me how she herself judged them…she could not endure the elegancies that dancing masters teach; she only desired me to have the grace that nature gives to a well-informed person. ” Q: According to Mme. Geoffrin, how did her grandmother’s influence result in her becoming the most significant salon hostess of the Enlightenment period?
• On Julie de Lespinasse From Memoir of Baron de Grimm Her circle met daily from five o'clock until nine in the evening. There we were sure to find choice men of all orders in the State, the Church, the Court, -military men, foreigners, and the most distinguished men of letters. Every one agrees that though the name of M. d'Alembert may have drawn them thither, it was she alone who kept them there. Devoted wholly to the care of preserving that society, of which she was the soul and the charm, she subordinated to this purpose all her tastes and all her personal intimacies…Politics, religion, philosophy, anecdotes, news, nothing was excluded from the conversation, and, thanks to her care, the most trivial little narrative gained, as naturally as possible, the place and notice it deserved. News of all kinds was gathered there in its first freshness. http: //www. sscnet. ucla. edu/classes/cluster 21/wiki/index. pl? Salon. Life
MARY WOLLSTONECRAFT “It would be an endless task to trace the variety of meannesses, cares, and sorrows, into which women are plunged by the prevailing opinion, that they were created rather to feel than reason, and that all the power they obtain, must be obtained by their charms and weakness. ” http: //www. bartleby. com/144/
Kaibara Ekken or Kaibara Token: Greater Learning for Women in Japan (1762) • More precious in a woman is a virtuous heart than a face of beauty. The vicious woman's heart is ever excited; she glares wildly around her, she vents her anger on others, her words are harsh and her accent vulgar. When she speaks it is to set herself above others, to upbraid others, to envy others, to be puffed up with individual pride, to jeer at others, to outdo others, --all things at variance with the "way" in which a woman should walk. The only qualities that befit a woman are gentle obedience, chastity, mercy, and quietness. Fordham. edu
Aim: To what extent were philosophes able to influence European Despots?
Enlightened Despots Is this term an oxymoron?
Frederick II: Essay on Forms of Government “Rulers should always remind themselves that they are men like the least of their subjects. The sovereign is the foremost judge, general, financier, and minister of his country, not merely for the sake of his prestige. Therefore, he should perform with care the duties connected with these offices. He is merely the principal servant of the State. Hence, he must act with honesty, wisdom, and complete disinterestedness in such a way that he can render an account of his stewardship to the citizens at any moment. Consequently, he is guilty if he wastes the money of the people, the taxes which they have paid, in luxury, pomp and debauchery. He who should improve the morals of the people, be the guardian of the law, and improve their education should not pervert them by his bad example. ” Social studies school service Fordham. edu
Frederick the Great • Granted religious freedom to Catholics and Protestants • Discriminated against Jews • Reduced but did not abolish use of torture • Allowed freedom of press • Admitted serfdom was wrong but did not end it
Frederick the Great and Voltaire • Voltaire lived at Frederick’s palace at Potsdam for three years (1750 -1753) • Both men dressed shabbily and paid each other compliments • But then they got on each other’s nerves. Voltaire on Frederick- “A nasty monkey, perfidious friend, wretched poet. ” • Frederick on Voltaire- “A miser, dirty rogue, coward. ”
Catherine the Great • Catherine had enlightened ideas- to stop capital punishment, end torture, end serfdom • She called a convention (1767) to discuss these matters, but lost patience with the debates and arguments • She did limit the use of torture (kept death penalty) • Said that Jews should be treated 'without distinction of race or creed' but confined them to the Pale of Settlement • Encouraged education • Bought the philosophe Denis Diderot’s library from him • Pugachev rebellion made her keep serfdom in place
Catherine the Great (ruled 1762– 1796) • 13. What is the true End of Monarchy? Not to deprive People of their natural Liberty; but to correct their actions, in order to attain the supreme Good. • 33. The Laws ought to be so framed, as to secure the Safety of every Citizen as much as possible. • 34. The Equality of the Citizens consists in this; that they should all be subject to the same Laws. Draft of a Russian law code by Catherine in 1767 Fordham. edu Social studies school service
Joseph II (ruled 1765– 1790) • Ruled as coregent with his mother until 1780 • Joseph’s reforms • Allowed freedom of the Press (unlike mom!) • Religious toleration- Jews and protestants could buy land, attend schools • Control over the Catholic Church (who had favored censorship) • Abolition of serfdom caused turmoil. Nobles rebelled, peasants rose up against landlords Social studies school service https: //preview. cua. edu/www_crvp/book/Series 07/VII-14/chapter 5. cfm
Scientific Advances of the 18 th century • Wealthy families invited guests to use their scientific instruments (i. e. telescope, microscope) • Oxygen was recognized as a gas (Antoine Lavoisier 1779) • Electricity- Benjamin Franklin sent up a kite with a key attached to it during a thunderstorm; electric sparks resulted (DO NOT TRY THIS!)
New Knowledge of Geography • Captain James Cook (1768) charted the South Pacific • Astronomers, artists, and a botanist went with Cook to gather information • Captain Cook died during a fight with Hawaiian islanders in 1779
New Forms of Music • 1600 s-early 1700 s Baroque (dramatic and complex) • Johann Sebastian Bach • George Frederick Handel • Mid 1700 s- Classical period • Joseph Haydn • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart • Ludwig van Beethoven