Africa Fight for your rights w Why

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Africa: Fight for your rights Africa: Fight for your rights

w Why is Africa so poor? w Why is Africa so underdeveloped? w Why is Africa so poor? w Why is Africa so underdeveloped?

African Civilization and the Spread of Islam African Civilization and the Spread of Islam

Overview Overview

African Traits w Very complex societies-”Can’t Generalize” w Distinct cultures => lack of unity African Traits w Very complex societies-”Can’t Generalize” w Distinct cultures => lack of unity w Not known for empires or religions = stateless w Secret societies limit powers of rulers w Veneration of ancestors and gods w Bantu, animism, witchcraft, creator diety

Lack of “Organization”… => formation of states (p. 186) Lack of “Organization”… => formation of states (p. 186)

The rise of Islam w Islam spreads through north Africa w The message of The rise of Islam w Islam spreads through north Africa w The message of Islam is popular w 11 th century-Berbers (Almoravids) form puritanitcal reform movement in Spain and western and southern Sahara w 1130 -Almohadis follow same pattern w Spread through trade at first followed by invading armies

https: //maps. google. com/m aps? safe=active&q=sudan+ map&ie=UTF 8&hq=&hnear=0 x 15 d 91 cc 41 https: //maps. google. com/m aps? safe=active&q=sudan+ map&ie=UTF 8&hq=&hnear=0 x 15 d 91 cc 41 072 b 195: 0 xd 2 bf 70462 a 612 b 37, Sudan&gl=us&ei=HARp. U ry. GMIe. Ok. Ae. Xi. YGw. Aw&ved= 0 CCk. Q 8 g. Ew. AA

Key Features Islam offered many attractions within Africa (p. 187) w Equality w Belief Key Features Islam offered many attractions within Africa (p. 187) w Equality w Belief in uniting powers of the state

Ghana w Formed around 3 rd century w 8 th century active in trade Ghana w Formed around 3 rd century w 8 th century active in trade (gold) w 10 th century height of its power. Ghana rulers convert to Islam w 1076 Ghana invaded by Almoravids

Map of Kingdom of Ghana http: //www. metmuseum. org /toah/hd/ghan/hd_ghan. htm Map of Kingdom of Ghana http: //www. metmuseum. org /toah/hd/ghan/hd_ghan. htm

Map of Modern Day Ghana https: //maps. google. com/maps? safe=active&q=ghana+africa+m ap&ie=UTF 8&hq=&hnear=0 xfd 75 Map of Modern Day Ghana https: //maps. google. com/maps? safe=active&q=ghana+africa+m ap&ie=UTF 8&hq=&hnear=0 xfd 75 acda 8 dad 6 c 7: 0 x 54 d 7 f 230 d 093 d 236, Ghan a&gl=us&ei=xghp. Uvm 5 LZGGk. Qf h 2 YCw. AQ&ved=0 CCk. Q 8 g. Ew. AA

Mali Empire th 13 century w Malinke people (from Ghana) w Kingship reinforced by Mali Empire th 13 century w Malinke people (from Ghana) w Kingship reinforced by Islam w Malinke merchants (juula) carry out trade w Sundiata (great leader) unified Mali empire w Griots professional historians w Agriculture economic basis, gold is also important w Crime severely punished (protects merchants)

Map of Mali Empire http: //www. metmuseum. org /toah/hd/mali/hd_mali. htm Map of Mali Empire http: //www. metmuseum. org /toah/hd/mali/hd_mali. htm

Map of Modern Day Mali https: //maps. google. com/m aps? safe=active&q=mali+w est+africa+map&ie=UTF 8&hq=&hnear=0 xe Map of Modern Day Mali https: //maps. google. com/m aps? safe=active&q=mali+w est+africa+map&ie=UTF 8&hq=&hnear=0 xe 143 e 881 b 1073 cf: 0 xbb 3 a 5 be 2 a 0 bdcf 8 0, Mali&gl=us&ei=d. Qxp. Uq 27 BMy. Mk. Afh 2 o. Eo&sqi=2&ved =0 CCk. Q 8 g. Ew. AA

Songhay Empire w Formed after Mali Empire (7 th century) w Rulers become Muslim Songhay Empire w Formed after Mali Empire (7 th century) w Rulers become Muslim w Most population pagan w Sunni Ali most effective leader (1464 -1492)-Songhay gains imperial status w Defied Muslim authority

Map of Songhai Empire http: //www. metmuseum. org /toah/hd/sghi/hd_sghi. htm Map of Songhai Empire http: //www. metmuseum. org /toah/hd/sghi/hd_sghi. htm

http: //www. metmuseum. org /toah/ht/? period=08&region =afu http: //www. metmuseum. org /toah/ht/? period=08®ion =afu

Swahili Kingdom w Dotted with various ethnic groups w Immigration from 200 B. C. Swahili Kingdom w Dotted with various ethnic groups w Immigration from 200 B. C. E. 1000 C. E. w String (several) of Islamicized African ports-located along east coat of Africa w African customs and Bantu Swahili language remain strong w 8 th and 9 th century people from Oman and Persian Gulf arrive => ZENJ

w By 13 th century several east African trading ports were well established w w By 13 th century several east African trading ports were well established w Kilwa (p. 196) most famous port (13 th-15 th century) w Social stratification very pronounced w Portuguese arrive 1500 C. E. => decline begins

http: //www. metmuseum. org /toah/ht/? period=08&region =afu http: //www. metmuseum. org /toah/ht/? period=08®ion =afu

Yoruba, Benin, Congo, Great Zimbabwe Yoruba w Origin unclear (500 B. C. E. -200 Yoruba, Benin, Congo, Great Zimbabwe Yoruba w Origin unclear (500 B. C. E. -200 C. E. ) based on artifacts found at Nok w Agricultural, used iron tools w Rich artistic tradition w Ile-Ife main city (p. 197) w Ruled by family and an aristocracy w Organized into small city-states w Non-Bantu language

Benin w Emerged in the 14 th century w Edo people also with rich Benin w Emerged in the 14 th century w Edo people also with rich artistic tradition w Ewuare the Great (1440 -1473) w Contact with Portuguese in 1485 but remained relatively free w Important commercially until 19 th century




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