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ACT - Ectoparasite Id and Lifecycles 1 ACT - Ectoparasite Id and Lifecycles 1

Arthropods Invertebrate animals that have jointed limbs, a segmented body, and an exoskeleton. Examples Arthropods Invertebrate animals that have jointed limbs, a segmented body, and an exoskeleton. Examples are – Insects – Arachnids – Centipedes – Crustaceans ACT - Ectoparasite Id and Lifecycles 2

Arthropods As Parasites Certain insects and arachnids become parasites when they transmit pathologic organisms, Arthropods As Parasites Certain insects and arachnids become parasites when they transmit pathologic organisms, cause skin irritations, and produce toxins. ACT - Ectoparasite Id and Lifecycles 3

Insect Characteristics Insects have six legs Many have wings But some are wingless ACT Insect Characteristics Insects have six legs Many have wings But some are wingless ACT - Ectoparasite Id and Lifecycles 4

Arachnid Characteristics Have eight legs Wingless Some produce toxins Some are so small must Arachnid Characteristics Have eight legs Wingless Some produce toxins Some are so small must be seen under a microscope ACT - Ectoparasite Id and Lifecycles 5

Flies “That person is so nice. ” “He wouldn’t even harm a fly”. These Flies “That person is so nice. ” “He wouldn’t even harm a fly”. These two statements sometimes give the impression that the fly, although sometimes annoying, is harmless. This is far from the truth. ACT - Ectoparasite Id and Lifecycles 6

Flies Running from flies will cause the animal to use up energy which sometimes Flies Running from flies will cause the animal to use up energy which sometimes will result in weight loss. Some flies bite, (female mosquitoes), which causes blood loss, tissue damage, and can transmit bacterial, viral, and parasitic diseases to the host. ACT - Ectoparasite Id and Lifecycles 7

Biting and Nuisance Flies Biting – – – Nuisance – House flies – Face Biting and Nuisance Flies Biting – – – Nuisance – House flies – Face flies – Bottle flies Mosquitoes Black flies Horse flies Deer flies Stable flies – Photo credit: Bastiaan (Bart) Drees ACT - Ectoparasite Id and Lifecycles 8

Biting and Nuisance Flies Biting Nuisance – Deliver painful bites – Loose weight – Biting and Nuisance Flies Biting Nuisance – Deliver painful bites – Loose weight – Carry diseases – The do not bite – Carry diseases – Annoy by feeding on eye and nose secretions ACT - Ectoparasite Id and Lifecycles 9

The Stable Fly Carriers of disease Annoying blood suckers Require moist places to lay The Stable Fly Carriers of disease Annoying blood suckers Require moist places to lay eggs Photo by : Jim Kalisch, UNL Entomology ACT - Ectoparasite Id and Lifecycles 10

Horn Flies Blood suckers and very annoying Half the size of the housefly Majority Horn Flies Blood suckers and very annoying Half the size of the housefly Majority of lifecycle spent on or near cattle Cow spends a majority of her time trying to get away from the pests thus reducing production Photo by : Jim Kalisch, UNL Entomology Photo by: Jack Campbell, UNL Entomology ACT - Ectoparasite Id and Lifecycles 11

Bot Flies Cause animals to panic which is called “Gadding” CREDITS: J. F. Butler, Bot Flies Cause animals to panic which is called “Gadding” CREDITS: J. F. Butler, University of Florida ACT - Ectoparasite Id and Lifecycles 12

Bot Flies Eggs hatch and penetrate the skin CREDITS: Dr. Donald A. Rutz Dr. Bot Flies Eggs hatch and penetrate the skin CREDITS: Dr. Donald A. Rutz Dr. Phillip E. Kaufman, Cornell University, Dept. of Entomology ACT - Ectoparasite Id and Lifecycles 13

Bot Flies Maggots (larvae) are parasitic Migrate to back, form warbles, cut breathing holes Bot Flies Maggots (larvae) are parasitic Migrate to back, form warbles, cut breathing holes Damage to the hide CREDITS: Dr. Donald A. Rutz - Dr. Phillip E. Kaufman, Cornell University, Dept. of Entomology ACT - Ectoparasite Id and Lifecycles 14

Cuterebra Infect rabbits, mice, rats, and squirrels but rarely problem in cats and dogs Cuterebra Infect rabbits, mice, rats, and squirrels but rarely problem in cats and dogs ACT - Ectoparasite Id and Lifecycles 15

Cuterebra Also known as bots Photo by : Jim Kalisch UNL Entomology ACT - Cuterebra Also known as bots Photo by : Jim Kalisch UNL Entomology ACT - Ectoparasite Id and Lifecycles 16

Cuterebra Larvae known as wolf or wolf worms Courtesy of Shari Nelsen, Lincoln ACT Cuterebra Larvae known as wolf or wolf worms Courtesy of Shari Nelsen, Lincoln ACT - Ectoparasite Id and Lifecycles 17

Sheep Keds Wingless fly spending entire lifecycle on sheep Deposits fully develop larvae in Sheep Keds Wingless fly spending entire lifecycle on sheep Deposits fully develop larvae in the wool not eggs Adults feed off the blood causing intense pain Spring shearing and some insecticides ACT - Ectoparasite Id and Lifecycles 18

The Screwworm Fly Myiasis – Larval fly disease Eradication in U. S. in the The Screwworm Fly Myiasis – Larval fly disease Eradication in U. S. in the 1950’s Sterilization of the male Importation restrictions Photos by: The National Agricultural Library Special Collections ACT - Ectoparasite Id and Lifecycles 19

Fleas They bite the animal and eat the blood. Can be an intermediate host; Fleas They bite the animal and eat the blood. Can be an intermediate host; i. e. tapeworm Carries several diseases; i. e. Bubonic plague Life cycle can be as short as 16 days or as long as 2 years The adult will lay her eggs but they do not stick to the host “Flea dirt” is the source of food for the larvae ACT - Ectoparasite Id and Lifecycles 20

Flea Lifecycle - Ctenocephalides 1. Female flea feeds on host’s blood and lays eggs Flea Lifecycle - Ctenocephalides 1. Female flea feeds on host’s blood and lays eggs 5. Adult emerges and looks for new host 2. Eggs fall off host 4. Larvae pupates for 7 days to 2 years 3. Eggs hatch in 2 to 12 days ACT - Ectoparasite Id and Lifecycles 21

Are These Mites or Lice? Two Orders of Lice Anoplura – Sucking Lice Mallophaga Are These Mites or Lice? Two Orders of Lice Anoplura – Sucking Lice Mallophaga – Biting Lice ACT - Ectoparasite Id and Lifecycles 22

Lice can infest dogs and cats year round Horses and cattle usually get lice Lice can infest dogs and cats year round Horses and cattle usually get lice in the winter Lice are very host specific They must live on their host at all times Can cause intense itching, pain, and hair loss ACT - Ectoparasite Id and Lifecycles 23

Lice Lifecycle 2. Adult lice must live on the host at all times 1. Lice Lifecycle 2. Adult lice must live on the host at all times 1. Lice are passed to others by direct contact with an infested host 4. Nit develops into an immature adult stage (nymph), then into an adult 3. Adult lice lay eggs called nits that stick to host’s hair ACT - Ectoparasite Id and Lifecycles 24

Lice Versus Mites Hog Louse – Insect – 6 legs – Can be seen Lice Versus Mites Hog Louse – Insect – 6 legs – Can be seen Scroptic Mange Mite – Arachnids – 8 legs – Cannot be Seen ACT - Ectoparasite Id and Lifecycles 25

Mites Not know if host specific Transmission to humans is by physical contact. Secondary Mites Not know if host specific Transmission to humans is by physical contact. Secondary infections from scratching Female burrows into skin, lays eggs, larvae migrate to the top and wanders around causing intense irritation of the skin ACT - Ectoparasite Id and Lifecycles 26

Demodectic Mange Affects dogs Caused by Demodex mite Extreme itching, edema, and bleeding Secondary Demodectic Mange Affects dogs Caused by Demodex mite Extreme itching, edema, and bleeding Secondary bacterial infections follow Considered a genetic defect ACT - Ectoparasite Id and Lifecycles 27

Sarcoptic Mange Affects several different animal species including humans Also known as scabies Caused Sarcoptic Mange Affects several different animal species including humans Also known as scabies Caused by the Sarcoptes scabiei mite Extreme itching, edema, and bleeding Secondary bacterial infections follow ACT - Ectoparasite Id and Lifecycles 28

Notoedric Mange Feline mange mite called Notoedres cati Similar to Sarcoptes Ears, Face, and Notoedric Mange Feline mange mite called Notoedres cati Similar to Sarcoptes Ears, Face, and Neck Highly contagious Dry and crusty skin Secondary infections ACT - Ectoparasite Id and Lifecycles 29

Ticks Largest of the arachnids Annoying, blood suckers, carry disease Difficult to control because Ticks Largest of the arachnids Annoying, blood suckers, carry disease Difficult to control because of the variety of hosts ACT - Ectoparasite Id and Lifecycles 30

Tick Families Hard Ticks – Ixodids – Brown Dog Tick Soft Ticks – Argasids Tick Families Hard Ticks – Ixodids – Brown Dog Tick Soft Ticks – Argasids – Fowl Tick ACT - Ectoparasite Id and Lifecycles 31

Lifecycle of Ixodes dammini 4. Nymph develops and feeds on dogs, other mammals, and Lifecycle of Ixodes dammini 4. Nymph develops and feeds on dogs, other mammals, and humans 1. Adults mate and feed on deer 2. Eggs are laid and hatch 3. Larvae develops feeds on small animals ACT - Ectoparasite Id and Lifecycles 32

Tick Classifications ONE HOST The easiest to control because they spend all three of Tick Classifications ONE HOST The easiest to control because they spend all three of their feeding stages on one host. ACT - Ectoparasite Id and Lifecycles 33

Tick Classifications TWO HOST Remains on one host for one stage of its life Tick Classifications TWO HOST Remains on one host for one stage of its life cycle and the other two stages on a different host. ACT - Ectoparasite Id and Lifecycles 34

Tick Classifications THREE HOST Spend the larvae and nymph stage on one animal and Tick Classifications THREE HOST Spend the larvae and nymph stage on one animal and the adult stage feeds on a different animal. ACT - Ectoparasite Id and Lifecycles 35

Ectoparasite Review 1. What are ectoparasites? 2. Ectoparasites are either ______ or _______. 3. Ectoparasite Review 1. What are ectoparasites? 2. Ectoparasites are either ______ or _______. 3. True or False - Important insect parasites are grouped as flies, fleas, and lice. 4. True or False - Mosquitoes are parasitic flies. 5. Describe the damage that is caused by flies. ACT - Ectoparasite Id and Lifecycles 36

Ectoparasite Review 6. How do fleas harm animals? 7. How long is a flea’s Ectoparasite Review 6. How do fleas harm animals? 7. How long is a flea’s life cycle? 8. True or False – Mites and lice are both the same parasite. 9. True or False - Scroptic mange is caused by the Brown dog tick. 10. True or False - Ticks have only one host. ACT - Ectoparasite Id and Lifecycles 37

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