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ACost. E Rallying Point Event Cost Engineering – roles & organisations during early product ACost. E Rallying Point Event Cost Engineering – roles & organisations during early product design Steve Wiseall – Rolls-Royce plc Lucy Bolton & Chris Clegg – Leeds Univ Business School 3 rd Nov 2009 © 2009 Rolls-Royce plc The information in this document is the property of Rolls-Royce plc and may not be copied or communicated to a third party, or used for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without the express written consent of Rolls-Royce plc. This information is given in good faith based upon the latest information available to Rolls-Royce plc, no warranty or representation is given concerning such information, which must not be taken as establishing any contractual or other commitment binding upon Rolls-Royce plc or any of its subsidiary or associated companies.

Agenda l. Background and context – Aerospace focus l. Leeds University Business School feasibility Agenda l. Background and context – Aerospace focus l. Leeds University Business School feasibility study l. Individual Questionnaire l. Open Discussion Questions l. Conclusions & next steps l. Appendices Rolls-Royce proprietary data

l. Many companies that develop complex products utilise a gated New Product Introduction process, l. Many companies that develop complex products utilise a gated New Product Introduction process, (NPI) l. In Rolls-Royce this is called the Product and Introduction and Life. Cycle Management process, (PILM) Manages business and technical risk through process l. Stage 0 – Innovation & opportunity selection - ongoing l. Stage 1 – prelim concept design – typically 6 months l. Stage 2 – full concept definition – typically 6 months l. Stage 3 – product realization – ~ 24 - 30 months l. Stage 4 – Production & in-service support ~ 20 - 30 years l. Stage 5 - Continuing in-service support ~ 10 - 20 years l. Stage 6 – End of life disposal Rolls-Royce proprietary data

CUMULATIVE LIFE CYCLE COST New Product Introduction Life Cycle Costs Are Locked In Early CUMULATIVE LIFE CYCLE COST New Product Introduction Life Cycle Costs Are Locked In Early 100% Committed Cost 75% 50% 25% 95% 85% 70% Knowledge of the Design 50% Significant opportunity to influence cost outcome 1% 0% Conceptual Design Rolls-Royce proprietary data Incurred Cost 18% 7% Preliminary Design Detail Design Production Product Use TIME

Cost of Correction vs. Time of Detection l. Cost outcomes are determined at early Cost of Correction vs. Time of Detection l. Cost outcomes are determined at early stages of NPI process l. X 10 rule – problems discovered late in the process are expensive to fix l. Significant opportunity to influence cost is associated with early stages of design – architecture selection, concept down selection… Rolls-Royce proprietary data

Project organisation NPI Future Programmes Fleet Dedicated Engine Project team – NPI, Fleet Operations Project organisation NPI Future Programmes Fleet Dedicated Engine Project team – NPI, Fleet Operations l. Chief Cost Engineer, (Civil - Future Programmes) l. Business case iteration l. Chief Cost Engineer (eg Trent XWB) l. Sub-system and component preliminary to detail design (NPI) l. Long range Forecasting, timescales for realisation may be up to 20 -30 years l. Design to Target Cost l. Business cost targets (system - engine) l. Cost model integration into design systems to improve balance of design, cost as a design attribute l. Short/medium/ long term concept studies, many paper engine studies l. High fidelity cost models l. Concept down selection – stage 1 l. Integrated Project Team, (IPT) operation & product definition decision making l. It’s about good decision making and de-risking NOT final design l. Supply chain increasingly decided through Stage 2 onwards l. Major partners may not be fully decided Rolls-Royce proprietary data

In the early stages of design: l. Significant opportunity to influence cost, associated with In the early stages of design: l. Significant opportunity to influence cost, associated with – architecture selection, concept down selection… l. Can the concept definition meet the business case cost targets ? – requires a prediction of absolute cost in the future l. Architectural choices and concept down selection is the design focus requires prediction of relative cost differences between concept options, may not require absolute cost ? l. Further opportunity at PILM stage 2/3 at component level to support IPT operation to get a better ‘balanced design’ where cost is considered concurrently as a tradeable attribute not a consequence of the design. l. New - Cost Methods group formed to help develop and embed the capability to answer these questions and support the application of the capability Rolls-Royce proprietary data

Rolls-Royce COST ENGINEERING VISION ‘To embed cost engineering processes, skills and tools into the Rolls-Royce COST ENGINEERING VISION ‘To embed cost engineering processes, skills and tools into the organisation such that unit cost is understood and ‘ traded’ enabling optimum business solutions (product and supply chain) to be designed concurrently in a timely and efficient manner’ Rolls-Royce proprietary data

Adopted Socio-Technical view of Cost Methods capability development Process People / Organ Information Rolls-Royce Adopted Socio-Technical view of Cost Methods capability development Process People / Organ Information Rolls-Royce proprietary data Engineers tend to focus on the technological part - Tools and Methods Lessons learnt from IT implementation benchmarking studies and internal RR studies show that to embed changes in a broad way requires an increased emphasis on: organisational design, people, training, skills, roles, support. Tools & Methods

Leeds University Business School, (LUBS) Feasibility Study (six months) Objectives l. To gather initial Leeds University Business School, (LUBS) Feasibility Study (six months) Objectives l. To gather initial data & information from identified stakeholders on the “As-Is” Cost Engineering environment in Rolls-Royce, (covering processes, tools, roles, organisation, expectations and flow of information) l. To benchmark other identified organisations (in the same topic areas) l. To feedback and analyse the information and identify areas for improvement l. To utilise the outcome of the feasibility study to develop a more comprehensive change programme in 2010/2011 Rolls-Royce proprietary data

LUBS - Project status Six month feasibility study 2009 Approach l. Internal structured interviews LUBS - Project status Six month feasibility study 2009 Approach l. Internal structured interviews l. External structured interviews l. ACost. E event – Questionnaire & round table discussion l. Analysis of data Deliverables l Scenarios planning workshop l Reports – RR internal/external l. ACost. E report l. Two year programme plan Rolls-Royce proprietary data Two year programme 2010 2011 l. Comprehensive study l. Training, trials and workshops 2012

Input to the benchmarking process today… l Audience engagement by inputting your thoughts and Input to the benchmarking process today… l Audience engagement by inputting your thoughts and ideas on the roles and organisation of Cost Engineering in early product design from within your organisation. l Data collection via two routes: round table discussion and feedback + anonymous questionnaire l These data will be collated & analysed, the proposal is to provide a report that would be published to the ACost. E website. l If interested further, please let us know if you want to be engaged in the planned two-year follow-on benchmark study. Please leave contact details Rolls-Royce proprietary data

“Cost needs to be more of a priority” l “There a lot of people “Cost needs to be more of a priority” l “There a lot of people in the organisation with ‘cost’ in their titles who are not actually responsible for cost - So who is accountable? ” l “It is a struggle working over different functions and cost is always between these things as there is no ownership. ” l “Most people are just not interested in cost and don’t think about it until they are told that a project is not affordable!”It’s really important to have people thinking about cost upfront. ” l “A cultural problem; we need to change people’s views of cost. ” Rolls-Royce proprietary data DRAFT

“We need to have one heartbeat running through the organisation when it comes to “We need to have one heartbeat running through the organisation when it comes to Cost Engineering” l “A management push is required; everyone should consider cost whether you are a Cost Engineer or not. ” l “There are plenty of good costing tools out there, it’s about getting the people and methods in place. ” l “From a people point of view we need to be clear who the owners of the cost are and give them the skills to manage it. ” l “It would be really powerful if Cost Engineers worked as a single community, yet still recognising that they have different types of customers. ” Rolls-Royce proprietary data

LUBS Questionnaire – 18 questions Rolls-Royce proprietary data LUBS Questionnaire – 18 questions Rolls-Royce proprietary data

Key Questions for Round Table Discussions 1. Based on experiences in your professional career, Key Questions for Round Table Discussions 1. Based on experiences in your professional career, what have been the biggest barriers and enablers in embedding and achieving a cost-aware culture? 2. Please produce a list of the top five barriers and top five enablers to feedback to the group. Rolls-Royce proprietary data

Conclusions & next steps l. Individual questionnaire responses and round table feedback will be Conclusions & next steps l. Individual questionnaire responses and round table feedback will be analysed, a report generated and made available to attendees via ACost. E l. Proposal that the report will be published on ACost. E website under the Engineering & Manufacturing subcommittee l. Further engagement opportunity in 2010/2011 in benchmarking project with Rolls-Royce & Leeds University Business School Rolls-Royce proprietary data

Appendix Rolls-Royce proprietary data Appendix Rolls-Royce proprietary data

Cost Methods group - positioning Rolls-Royce proprietary data Cost Methods group - positioning Rolls-Royce proprietary data

Model development approach Stakeholder Requirements capture and analysis Develop, build and trial cost model Model development approach Stakeholder Requirements capture and analysis Develop, build and trial cost model Publish model Rolls-Royce proprietary data Mo. M Information capture at Op level by commodity house style type including op level scaling rules Verify, validate and Document cost model Use model ME - engagement high ME - engagement medium Validate information capture and search ability Further model trials including link with WECM Maintain model

Vanguard Cost Modelling System, (VCMS) l. Vanguard studio investment after DATUM capability acquisition project Vanguard Cost Modelling System, (VCMS) l. Vanguard studio investment after DATUM capability acquisition project – ‘go live’ date Oct 08 l. Supports cost knowledge capture, re-use and design iteration & what-if evaluations l. Cost models considered in the same way as other analytical models e. g. stress, aerodynamics – vision for MDO l. Key cost tool for Chief Cost Engineer - XWB programme l. Key features of the product l. Visual hierarchical structure l. Object-Oriented – library re-use l Risk Analysis capability l. Sensitivity l. Traceability – units, metadata Rolls-Royce proprietary data

Analysis should include Cost in Design Optimisation Geometry Analysis KBE Optimisation Framework tool Move Analysis should include Cost in Design Optimisation Geometry Analysis KBE Optimisation Framework tool Move credibility of cost models up maturity / credibility axis to enable MDO/Robust Design with cost included in the trade study Rolls-Royce proprietary data