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ACME Applying CLEANER PRODUCTION to MULTILATERAL ENVIRONMENTAL AGREEMENTS Case Studies and Success Stories SESSION ACME Applying CLEANER PRODUCTION to MULTILATERAL ENVIRONMENTAL AGREEMENTS Case Studies and Success Stories SESSION 10 United Nations Environment Program Division of Technology Industry and Economy Swedish International Development Agency

OUTLINE Objectives of this session 1/ Cases studies on CP and UNFCCC > Case OUTLINE Objectives of this session 1/ Cases studies on CP and UNFCCC > Case #1 - Pulp and Paper > Case #2 - Textile > Other examples 2/ Cases studies on CP and Basel Convention > Case #1 - Tannery > Case #2 - Electroplating > Other examples 3/ Cases studies on CP and Stockholm Convention > Case #1 - Pulp and Paper > Other examples ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 2 / 36

CP & UNFCCC Case #1 - Pulp and Paper Name of the Company: Agarwal CP & UNFCCC Case #1 - Pulp and Paper Name of the Company: Agarwal Duplex LTD. , Muzaffarnagar, INDIA Production: Kraft paper and board from waste paper. Context: Cleaner Production studies were conducted in the industry. The CP Team was formed and the entire plant was taken as focus area. ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 3 / 36

CP & UNFCCC Case #1 - Pulp and Paper CAUSE ANALYSIS OF THE WASTE CP & UNFCCC Case #1 - Pulp and Paper CAUSE ANALYSIS OF THE WASTE STREAM Operation Electricity Generation Sources of waste DG sets Nature of waste Probable Causes of waste generated - GHG emissions - Due to frequent power failures of the electricity through grid supply the paper machines use to stop and there by the waste of paper because of breaking of paper while rolling them into reels - Noise - The capacity utilization of the machines was low - Solid - High GHG emissions from the use of Diesel in DG Sets - Capacity Utilization Steam Production Coal fired Boile GHG - Low quality of electricity supplied - Use of fossil fuel ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 4 / 36

CP & UNFCCC Case #1 - Pulp and Paper CLEANER PRODUCTION OPTIONS IDENTIFIED CP CP & UNFCCC Case #1 - Pulp and Paper CLEANER PRODUCTION OPTIONS IDENTIFIED CP technique used: > Process optimization > Input material change > Technology change CP options identified: 1. Replace the existing boiler with a new fluidised boiler of hogh pressure which uses bagasse as a fuel in place of coal in the old boiler. 2. Replace the diesel generating set for electricity production with a extraction cum condensing turbine and use the steam from the new high pressure boiler. ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 5 / 36

CP & UNFCCC Case #1 - Pulp and Paper RESULTS OF THE CP OPTION CP & UNFCCC Case #1 - Pulp and Paper RESULTS OF THE CP OPTION IMPLEMENTATION Investment 2 million US$ Operational cost same as earlier Net annual savings 1. 5 million US$ Payback period 16 months Reduction in GHG emissions ~ 37. 366 Tons per year ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 6 / 36

CP & UNFCCC Case #2 - Textile Name of the Company: Luthra Dyeing and CP & UNFCCC Case #2 - Textile Name of the Company: Luthra Dyeing and Printing Mills, Surat, INDIA Production: Printed and dyed fabric of polyester, cotton, rayon. Context: Cleaner Production studies were conducted in the industry. The CP Team was formed and the boiler house was taken as focus area. ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 7 / 36

CP & UNFCCC Case #2 - Textile CAUSE ANALYSIS OF THE WASTE STREAM Operation CP & UNFCCC Case #2 - Textile CAUSE ANALYSIS OF THE WASTE STREAM Operation Steam generation Sources of waste Boiler Nature of waste Flue Gases (1) Probable Causes of waste generated - Air-fuel ratio is not maintained - No monitoring of relevant parameters (O 2 or CO 2) - No device/method for heat recovery - Air ingress through various portion - Air quantity and pressure is not sufficient - Distribution of primary air through grate Un-burnts in Ash - Sizing of coal not proper - Design of grate not appropriate - Firing rate is not uniform - Manual ash removal - Poor fuel quality and combustion is not proper ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 8 / 36

CP & UNFCCC Case #2 - Textile CAUSE ANALYSIS OF THE WASTE STREAM Operation CP & UNFCCC Case #2 - Textile CAUSE ANALYSIS OF THE WASTE STREAM Operation Steam generation Sources of waste Boiler Nature of waste (2) Probable Causes of waste generated Blow-down - Bad Boiler feed water quality - Condensate is not recovered - Boiler drum TDS is not maintained as required Radiation Loss - Un-insulated portions of boiler - Openings ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 9 / 36

CP & UNFCCC Case #2 - Textile CLEANER PRODUCTION OPTIONS IDENTIFIED CP technique used CP & UNFCCC Case #2 - Textile CLEANER PRODUCTION OPTIONS IDENTIFIED CP technique used : > Good House Keeping > Operational Practices > Process Optimization > Raw Material Substitution > New Technology > New Product Design > Onsite Recycle & Reuse > Equipment Modification ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 10 / 36 (1)

CP & UNFCCC Case #2 - Textile Waste Stream Heat Loss due to Flue CP & UNFCCC Case #2 - Textile Waste Stream Heat Loss due to Flue gas Unburnt in Ash Blow down loss Radiation Loss CP Options - Install air heater for recovery of waste heat - Plug all the air leakages into boiler furnace - Conversion of existing boiler to the FBC boiler - Replacing existing boiler to FBC Boiler - Optimize the coal sizing by proper crushing & sieving - Modify the existing grate by reducing the gaps between the rods - Optimize the firing rate by use of stoker firing - Install water treatment system (RO) plant - Change the water used in the boiler from tanker water to Municipal Supply Water - Install conductivity meter to check boiler drum water quality and therefore optimize the blow down rate - Recover flash steam from boiler blow down - Re-circulate condensate from steam separator and wherever possible - Insulate all the bare and damaged portions - Insulate the flanges (125 Flanges) - Installation of Steam Traps ( Thermo Dynamic Traps) ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 11 / 36

CP & UNFCCC Case #2 - Textile RESULTS OF THE CP OPTION IMPLEMENTATION Investment CP & UNFCCC Case #2 - Textile RESULTS OF THE CP OPTION IMPLEMENTATION Investment 204. 000 US$ Net annual savings 196. 300 US$ Payback period 11 months Reduction in GHG emissions 1300 Tons per year ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 12 / 36

CP & UNFCCC Other examples - A ILUKA MINING AND MINERAL PROCESSING Focus area CP & UNFCCC Other examples - A ILUKA MINING AND MINERAL PROCESSING Focus area Air emissions and heat from kiln CP Option Waste heat recovery, initially thinking of installing high-cost wet scrubber technology. Results Large investment (but feasible) especially when compared to traditional end-of-pipe treatment system. Reduction in GHG emissions by 52. 000 Tons/year ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 13 / 36

CP & UNFCCC Other examples - B BUTTERCUP BAKERIES AUSTRALIA Focus area Baking oven CP & UNFCCC Other examples - B BUTTERCUP BAKERIES AUSTRALIA Focus area Baking oven CP Option Installation of heat exchanger for a waste heat recovery system. Results Investment Annual savings Reduction in GHG 10, 000 US$ 20 % ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 14 / 36

CP & UNFCCC Other examples - C G STEEL PUBLIC COMPANY LIMITED THAILAND Focus CP & UNFCCC Other examples - C G STEEL PUBLIC COMPANY LIMITED THAILAND Focus area Electric Arc Furnaces (EAF) CP Option Repositioning of EAF burner to increase consistency of injection and consumption of oxygen via oxygen lance. Results Investment Annual savings Reduction in GHG ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 15 / 36 10, 000 US$ 3. 839. 168 US$ 42. 943 Tons/year

CP & UNFCCC Other examples - D ASSOCIATED MOTORWAYS LIMITED SRI LANKA Focus area CP & UNFCCC Other examples - D ASSOCIATED MOTORWAYS LIMITED SRI LANKA Focus area Compressors and Compressed Air System CP Option Replacement of old inefficient compressor with screw compressors. Results Investment Annual savings Reduction in GHG 29, 500 US$ 43, 137 US$ 102 Tons/year ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 16 / 36

CP & UNFCCC Other examples - E HANOI CERAMIC TILES VIETNAM Focus area Vertical CP & UNFCCC Other examples - E HANOI CERAMIC TILES VIETNAM Focus area Vertical dryer CP Option Use of waste hot air from rapid and final cooling in the vertical dryer. Results Investment Annual savings Reduction in GHG ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 17 / 36 21, 500 US$ 36, 720 US$ 328 Tons/year

CP & BASEL CONVENTION Case #1 - Tannery Name of the Company: Mohd. Usman CP & BASEL CONVENTION Case #1 - Tannery Name of the Company: Mohd. Usman Tanneries, INDIA Production: Leather from sheep and goat skins (from raw hides to finished stage). Context: Cleaner Production studies were conducted in the industry. The CP Team was formed and the tanning section was taken as focus area. ACME - Session 12 – Cases studies and success stories - 18 / 36

CP & BASEL CONVENTION Case #1 - Tannery CAUSE ANALYSIS OF THE WASTE STREAM CP & BASEL CONVENTION Case #1 - Tannery CAUSE ANALYSIS OF THE WASTE STREAM Operation Chrome tanning Sources of waste Nature of waste Spent Wastewater tanning bath, wash streams Probable Causes of waste generated - Improper water measurement - Chemicals weighing - Spillages of the chemicals from the drum feeding hole - No recovery of spent chrome ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 19 / 36

CP & BASEL CONVENTION Case #1 - Tannery CLEANER PRODUCTION OPTIONS IDENTIFIED CP technique CP & BASEL CONVENTION Case #1 - Tannery CLEANER PRODUCTION OPTIONS IDENTIFIED CP technique used: > Recovery, recycle and reuse. CP options identified: > Recover the chrome by addition of magnesium oxide. ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 20 / 36

CP & BASEL CONVENTION Case #1 - Tannery RESULTS OF THE CP OPTION IMPLEMENTATION CP & BASEL CONVENTION Case #1 - Tannery RESULTS OF THE CP OPTION IMPLEMENTATION Investment 7. 500 US$ Operational cost 2 000 US$/year Net annual savings 6. 500 US$ Payback period 14 months Reduction in toxicity and ~ 15 Tons per year due to volume of hazardous waste negligible amount of chrome in generation waste water. ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 21 / 36

CP & BASEL CONVENTION Case #2 - Electroplating Name of the Company: Atlas cycles, CP & BASEL CONVENTION Case #2 - Electroplating Name of the Company: Atlas cycles, Sonepat, INDIA Production: Bicycles. Context: Cleaner Production studies were conducted in the industry. The CP Team was formed and following focus areas identified: 1. Hazardous waste generation from electroplating section. 2. Cyanide bearing waste from case hardening section. ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 22 / 36

CP & BASEL CONVENTION Case #2 - Electroplating CAUSE ANALYSIS OF THE WASTE STREAM CP & BASEL CONVENTION Case #2 - Electroplating CAUSE ANALYSIS OF THE WASTE STREAM Operation Sources of waste Nature of waste Probable Causes of waste generated Chrome Plating Spent plating bath and wash streams Wastewater with Hexa valent Chrome - High quantity of water used - Hexavalent chrome used - Conversion of hexavalent chrome to trivalent chrome by ferrous sulphate Cyanide Plating for Case hardening Spent plating bath and wash streams Waste water with cyanide - Chlorine for cyanide removal - Large amount of lime used - Presence of ferrocyanide compounds making the sludge hazardous ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 23 / 36

CP & BASEL CONVENTION Case #2 - Electroplating CLEANER PRODUCTION OPTIONS IDENTIFIED CP technique CP & BASEL CONVENTION Case #2 - Electroplating CLEANER PRODUCTION OPTIONS IDENTIFIED CP technique used: > Process optimization > Input material change > Technology change CP options identified: 1. Replacing use of ferrous sulphate by sodium met-bi-sulphite for reduction of hexavalent chrome to trivalent chrome. 2. Adoption of new technology to replace case hardening by cyanide plating to gas carburizing. ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 24 / 36

CP & BASEL CONVENTION Case #2 - Electroplating RESULTS OF THE CP OPTION IMPLEMENTATION CP & BASEL CONVENTION Case #2 - Electroplating RESULTS OF THE CP OPTION IMPLEMENTATION CP OPTION INVESTMENT SAVINGS/ BENEFITS PAY BACK 1 NIL No monetary savings in process but hazardous sludge reduced by 30% (15 Tons/year). IMMEDIATE 2 US $ 10, 000 No direct monetary savings but hazardous waste sludge reduced by 74% (50 Tons/year). IMMEDIATE ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 25 / 36

CP & BASEL CONVENTION Other examples - A DUTCH IRON FOUNDRIES Focus area Sand CP & BASEL CONVENTION Other examples - A DUTCH IRON FOUNDRIES Focus area Sand reclamation CP Option Optimisation of the sand dosing system. Results Investment: 0 US$ Annual savings: 40. 000 US$ Reduction in hazardous wastes: - 560 Tons/year Reduction of raw material used: - 7, 5% ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 26 / 36

CP & BASEL CONVENTION Other examples - B DINTEX DYECHEM LTD. Vinyl Sulphone Intermediate CP & BASEL CONVENTION Other examples - B DINTEX DYECHEM LTD. Vinyl Sulphone Intermediate Manufacturer. INDIA Focus area Unit processes : Sulfonation, Condensation CP Option Acid recovery system and spray drier. Results Investment Annual savings Reduction in hardous wastes ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 27 / 36 355. 260 US$ 415. 790 US$ - 6. 100 Tons/year

CP & BASEL CONVENTION Other examples - C Manufacture of Chemicals and Chemical Products CP & BASEL CONVENTION Other examples - C Manufacture of Chemicals and Chemical Products UNITED STATES Focus area Reactor wash solution with alcohol, phenols formaldehyde resins and water. CP Option On site recycling and recovery by distilling and reusing the alcohol. Results Investment Annual savings Reduction in hardous wastes ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 28 / 36 Not reported 15. 000 US$ - 67%

CP & BASEL CONVENTION Other examples - D Manufacture of Lead Acid Battery Plates CP & BASEL CONVENTION Other examples - D Manufacture of Lead Acid Battery Plates FRANCE Focus area Battery Plate Manufacturing line. CP Option Process optimization of the manufacturing line by changing to automatic plant. Results Investment Annual savings Reduction in hardous wastes ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 29 / 36 214. 000 US$ Not reported - 85%

CP & BASEL CONVENTION Other examples - E Manufacture of Fabricated Metal Products (Solar CP & BASEL CONVENTION Other examples - E Manufacture of Fabricated Metal Products (Solar Cell Wafers, Submarine silencer, satellite dish components) UNITED STATES Focus area Chemical Etching on stainless steel and Nickle. CP Option Baking soda/water developer has been substituted for a combination of methylene chloride, 1, 1, 1 trichloroethane and perchlorethylene solvent ; Alkaline cleaners have been substituted for methanol ; sulfuric acid-hydrogen peroxide mix has replaced a chrome-based brightener Process optimization of the manufacturing line by changing to automatic plant. Results Investment Annual savings Reduction in hardous wastes ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 30 / 36 Not reported - 20% (135 Tons)

CP & STOCKHOLM CONV. Case #1 - Pulp and Paper Name of the Company: CP & STOCKHOLM CONV. Case #1 - Pulp and Paper Name of the Company: ITC, Bhadrachalam Papers Ltd. Bhadrachalam, INDIA. Production: Paper. Context: Cleaner Production studies were conducted in the industry. The CP Team was formed and the paper bleaching section was taken as focus area. ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 31 / 36

CP & STOCKHOLM CONV. Case #1 - Pulp and Paper CAUSE ANALYSIS OF THE CP & STOCKHOLM CONV. Case #1 - Pulp and Paper CAUSE ANALYSIS OF THE WASTE STREAM Operation Bleaching Sources of waste Bleaching process Nature of waste - Hazardous Air Emissions - Water Pollution Load - Energy Loss Probable Causes of waste generated - Use of elemental chlorine in form of bleaching powder/ Na. OCl - Old Technology ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 32 / 36

CP & STOCKHOLM CONV. Case #1 - Pulp and Paper CLEANER PRODUCTION OPTIONS IDENTIFIED CP & STOCKHOLM CONV. Case #1 - Pulp and Paper CLEANER PRODUCTION OPTIONS IDENTIFIED CP technique used: > Input material change > Technology change CP options identified: 1. Installation of a new R 8 process chlorine dioxide generation plant of 7 tons per day capacity. 2. Modify the bleaching sequence to “chlorine dioxide / ozone / chlorine dioxide”. ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 33 / 36

CP & STOCKHOLM CONV. Case #1 - Pulp and Paper RESULTS OF THE CP CP & STOCKHOLM CONV. Case #1 - Pulp and Paper RESULTS OF THE CP OPTION IMPLEMENTATION Investment 10, 32 million US$ Net annual savings 4 million US$ Payback period 2, 15 years Results - Reduction in AOX emissions. - Improved brightness quality ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 34 / 36

CP & STOCKHOLM CONV. Other example Polyerethane manufacturing GERMANY Focus area Adsorption of CCl CP & STOCKHOLM CONV. Other example Polyerethane manufacturing GERMANY Focus area Adsorption of CCl 3 F. CP Option Use of charcoal bed for adsorption of CCl 3 F. Results Investment 350000 US $ Elimination of CCl 3 F from the environment ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 35 / 36

CONCLUSION End of session 10 Thank you for your attention… Any questions? ACME - CONCLUSION End of session 10 Thank you for your attention… Any questions? ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 36 / 36