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Abrahamic Religions Humanities II Honors Abrahamic Religions Humanities II Honors

Overview p Abrahamic religions n n p What are they? What common bond is Overview p Abrahamic religions n n p What are they? What common bond is the term derived from? The figure of Abraham n p Who was he? His significance in each religion n p p A look at the common stories and figures that evolve from Judaism’s traditions to foundation of Islam The figure that alters tradition of monotheism Spiritual figures & prophets n p One God for each, or One God for all? Regarding Jesus n Foundation & religious texts n The element of monotheism Spiritual beings below deities and the revered humans of religious text Clergy & hierarchical structure n From religious scholars to spiritual guides

The Abrahamic religions p World’s three major monotheistic religions n p Although each are The Abrahamic religions p World’s three major monotheistic religions n p Although each are distinct, a number of parallels exist amongst them n p Judaism, Christianity, and Islam All three were founded in the Middle East, similarities seem to reflect this closeness in proximity Term “Abrahamic” derived from the common patriarchal figure of Abraham

Abrahamic religions today • Purple indicative of areas where Abrahamic religions are most prevalent. Abrahamic religions today • Purple indicative of areas where Abrahamic religions are most prevalent. (Yellow areas adhere predominantly to Eastern religions)

A look at Abraham p p Born between 1900 -1800 BCE (depending on religious A look at Abraham p p Born between 1900 -1800 BCE (depending on religious interpretation) Originally from Sumerian city of Ur (modern Iraq), eventually migrated to Canaan (modern Israel) “Original believer” – identified with early monotheistic struggle in age of polytheism Accounts of Abraham appear in the holy books of all three religions at hand

Abraham (cont. ) p p p In Judaism & Christianity Was known as Abram Abraham (cont. ) p p p In Judaism & Christianity Was known as Abram (“exalted father”) in Hebrew Lineage: Father of Isaac, grandfather of Jacob – leads to the Israelites, and eventual branch-off of Christians Story of Abraham’s nearsacrifice of Isaac appears in the Torah’s book of Genesis (subsequently included in the Old Testament) p p In Islam Known as Ibrahim in Arabic Lineage: Father of Ishmael - ancestor of the Arab people and, more specifically, of the prophet Muhammad Abraham is himself regarded as a prophet in the Qur’an The Al-Baqara chapter of the Qur’an claims that Abraham and Ishmael built the Kaaba in Mecca

Foundation of Judaism p p p Time period: 5 th to 3 nd century Foundation of Judaism p p p Time period: 5 th to 3 nd century BCE Location: Jerusalem, Palestine (modern Israel) Jewish faith asserts that the Israelites received the Torah from God in 1313 BCE After some 800 -900 years, and periods of exile from their homeland, Israelites resettle Jerusalem Recognize the Tanakh as scripture in 450 BCE By 3 rd century BCE, Judaism spreads to Egypt and into larger area of Roman Empire

Foundation of Christianity p p p Time period: 1 st to 2 nd century Foundation of Christianity p p p Time period: 1 st to 2 nd century CE Location: Palestine (modern Israel) Jesus born approx. 4 BCE, in Galilee (northern region of Israel) Expressed alternate views to contemporary rabbis, inspired Apostolic church, texts of New Testament Christianity spread beyond Jewish community to become predominantly Gentile religion

Foundation of Islam p p p Time period: 7 th century CE Location: Mecca, Foundation of Islam p p p Time period: 7 th century CE Location: Mecca, modern Saudi Arabia Muhammad began to preach Islam in Mecca, migrated to Medina in 622 CE There he was able to unify Arabian tribes under Islam, these Muslims overtook Mecca in 630 CE Qu’ran was compiled by Muhammad’s followers after his death in 632 CE

Religious texts (Judaism’s Tanakh) p p Often referred to as the Hebrew Bible Includes Religious texts (Judaism’s Tanakh) p p Often referred to as the Hebrew Bible Includes the texts… n n n p Torah: focuses on law and beginnings of Judaism Nevi’im: largely narratives of prophets following the death of Moses Ketuvim: includes historical acount following the events of other two texts Traditionally claimed that Israelites recognized the Tanakh as scripture in 450 BCE

Religious texts (Christian Bible) p Old Testament: largely composed of the Tanakh n p Religious texts (Christian Bible) p Old Testament: largely composed of the Tanakh n p Shows the influence of Judaism’s concepts in Christianity New Testament: collection of writings spanning period from mid-1 st to mid-2 nd century CE n n Generally includes 27 books - numerous writings attributed to apostles Final book of Revelation introduces the apocalyptic concepts that go on to shape many Christian sects

Religious texts (Islamic Qur’an) p p p Final product of the angel Gabriel’s revelations Religious texts (Islamic Qur’an) p p p Final product of the angel Gabriel’s revelations to Muhammad Compiled shortly after Muhammad’s death in 7 th century CE Includes number of elements from Judaeo. Christian texts n p Jesus, Moses, John the Baptist, etc. regarded as prophets These earlier texts are seen as having merit, but simply being corrupted

The element of monotheism p p p Not only are each of these religions The element of monotheism p p p Not only are each of these religions monotheistic, but figures from each have asserted that they are merely interpretations of one truth (one God, and one shared God) Islam’s founding adhered to clear separation of deity and prophets, as seen earlier in Judaism Christian divinity of Jesus, resulting Holy Trinity diverges from this n Judaist and Islamic principles lead many to be critical of this concept

Regarding Jesus p In Judaism n n p In Christianity n n p Traditionally Regarding Jesus p In Judaism n n p In Christianity n n p Traditionally regarded as false prophet Deny concept of “virgin birth” Acknowledge death by crucifixion Deny concepts of initial resurrection and the second coming Son of god Born of virgin birth Believe he was crucified Was resurrected, and will return in second coming In Islam n n A true prophet whose message was corrupted in earlier religious texts Born of a virgin birth Did not die during crucifixion, but instead ascended to Heaven Thus was not resurrected, but concept of second coming is accepted

Appearance of spiritual figures p p Abrahamic religions all endorse existence of spiritual beings Appearance of spiritual figures p p Abrahamic religions all endorse existence of spiritual beings that are not deities – namely angels and demons Concept of prophets exists in all three as well n n n Prophets of Judaism have text attributed to their stories in the Tanakh Concept less prevalent in Christianity outside of Judaism-inspired writings Notion of prophets is central to Islam – stretch from Adam down to Muhammad

Clergy & hierarchical structure p p p All three religions embrace concept of religious Clergy & hierarchical structure p p p All three religions embrace concept of religious clergy connecting worshippers with God Judaism: rabbis – rooted in scholarly knowledge, answer questions of congregation Christianity: priests, pastors, etc. – in charge of congregation level of churches of Christian sects n p Pontificate of Catholic Church epitomizes the existence of hierarchical order in religious sects Islam: imams – religious leaders that also, perhaps as a result of Islam’s lack of distinction between church and state, have degree of political power n The sense of “communal worship” is perhaps most strong in Islam