Nurmuradova About plants.pptx
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ABOUT PLANTS. CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS.
CONTENTS: Ø Ø Ø BIOLOGY OF PLANTS Plants are… Definition Current definitions of Plantae Starting to Grow Parts of plant Roots Stems Leaves, Flowers, Fruits, Seeds Classification of Plants Example of Classification
BIOLOGY OF PLANTS Plants are alive, just like people and animals. How do we know this? Living things all do certain things: Ø They grow and die. Ø They need energy, nutrients, air, and water. Ø They produce young. Ø They are made up of cells. Ø They react to what's around them.
PLANTS ARE… PLANTS ARE LIVING ORGANISMS BELONGING TO THE KINGDOM PLANTAE. PRECISE DEFINITIONS OF THE KINGDOM VARY, BUT AS THE TERM IS USED HERE, PLANTS INCLUDE FAMILIAR ORGANISMS SUCH AS FLOWERING PLANTS, CONIFERS, FERNS, MOSSES, AND GREEN ALGAE, BUT DO NOT INCLUDE SEAWEEDS LIKE KELP, NOR FUNGI AND BACTERIA. THE GROUP IS ALSO CALLED GREEN PLANTS OR VIRIDIPLANTAE IN LATIN. THEY OBTAIN MOST OF THEIR ENERGY FROM SUNLIGHT VIA PHOTOSYNTHESIS USING CHL OROPHYLLCONTAINED IN CHLOROPLASTS, WHICH GIVES THEM THEIR GREEN COLOR. SOME PLANTS ARE PARASITIC AND MAY NOT PRODUCE NORMAL AMOUNTS OF CHLOROPHYLL OR PHOTOSYNTHESIZE.
DEFINITION PLANTS ARE ONE OF THE TWO GROUPS INTO WHICH ALL LIVING THINGS HAVE BEEN TRADITIONALLY DIVIDED; THE OTHER IS ANIMALS. THE DIVISION GOES BACK AT LEAST AS FAR AS ARISTOTLE (384 – 322 BC) WHO BC DISTINGUISHED BETWEEN PLANTS WHICH GENERALLY DO NOT MOVE, AND ANIMALS WHICH OFTEN ARE MOBILE TO CATCH THEIR FOOD. UCH M LATER, WHEN LINNAEUS (1707– 1778) CREATED THE BASIS OF THE MODERN SYSTEM OF SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION, THESE TWO GROUPS BECAME THE KINGDOMS VEGETABILIA (LATER METAPHYTA OR PLANTAE) AND ANIMALIA (ALSO CALLED METAZOA). SINCE THEN, IT HAS BECOME CLEAR THAT THE PLANT KINGDOM AS ORIGINALLY DEFINED INCLUDED SEVERAL UNRELATED GROUPS, AND THE FUNGI AND SEVERAL GROUPS OF ALGAE WERE REMOVED TO NEW KINGDOMS.
CURRENT DEFINITIONS OF PLANTAE Name(s) Scope Land plants, also known as Embryophyta or Metaphyta. Plantae sensu strictiss imo Description This group includes the liverworts, hornworts, mosses, and vascular plants, as well as fossil plants similar to these surviving groups. Green plants Plantae - also known sensu as. Viridiplant stricto ae, Viridiphyt a or. Chlorobio nta This group includes the land plants plus various groups of green algae, including stoneworts. The names given to these groups vary considerably as of July 2011. Viridiplantae encompass a group of organisms that possesschlorophyll a and b, have plastids that are bound by only two membranes, are capable of storing starch, and havecellulose in their cell walls. It is this clade which is mainly the subject of this article. Archaeplastid a, Plastida or Primoplantae This group comprises the green plants above plus Rhodophyta (red algae) and Glaucophyta (glaucophyte algae). This clade includes the organisms that eons ago acquired their chloroplasts directly by engulfing cyanobacteria. Plantae sensu lato
STARTING TO GROW 1. Plants come from seeds. Each seed contains a tiny plant waiting for the right conditions to germinate, or start to grow. 2. Seeds wait to germinate until three needs are met: water, correct temperature (warmth), and a good location (such as in soil). During its early stages of growth, the seedling relies upon the food supplies stored with it in the seed until it is large enough for its own leaves to begin making food through photosynthesis. The seedling's roots push down into the soil to anchor the new plant and to absorb water and minerals from the soil. And its stem with new leaves pushes up toward the light: 3. The germination stage ends when a shoot emerges from the soil. But the plant is not done growing. It's just started. Plants need water, warmth, nutrients from the soil, and light to continue to grow.
HOW PLANTS GROW
PARTS OF PLANT Plant parts do different things for the plant.
ROOTS Roots act like straws absorbing water and minerals from the soil. Tiny root hairs stick out of the root, helping in the absorption. Roots help to anchor the plant in the soil so it does not fall over. Roots also store extra food for future use.
STEMS Stems do many things. They support the plant. They act like the plant's plumbing system, conducting water and nutrients from the roots and food in the form of glucose from the leaves to other plant parts. Stems can be herbaceous like the bendable stem of a daisy or woody like the trunk of an oak tree.
LEAVES, FLOWERS, FRUITS, SEEDS 1. 2. 3. 4. Most plants' food is made in their leaves. Leaves are designed to capture sunlight which the plant uses to make food through a process called photosynthesis. Flowers are the reproductive part of most plants. Flowers contain pollen and tiny eggs called ovules. After pollination of the flower and fertilization of the ovule, the ovule develops into a fruit. Fruit provides a covering for seeds. Fruit can be fleshy like an apple or hard like a nut. Seeds contain new plants. Seeds form in fruit.
Leaves Fruits Flowers Seeds
CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS Plants are classified in several different ways, and the further away from the garden we get, the more the name indicates a plant's relationship to other plants, and tells us about its place in the plant world rather than in the garden. Usually, only the Family, Genus and species are of concern to the gardener, but we sometimes include subspecies, variety or cultivar to identify a particular plant. Starting from the top, the highest category, plants have traditionally been classified as follows. Each group has the characteristics of the level above it, but has some distinguishing features. The further down the scale you go, the more minor the differences become, until you end up with a classification which applies to only one plant.
CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS CLASS Angiospermae (Angiosperms) Plants which produce flowers Gymnospermae (Gymnosperms) SUBCLASS Plants which don't produce flowers Dicotyledonae (Dicotyledons, Dicots) Plants with two seed leaves Monocotyledonae (Monocotyledons, Monocots) Plants with one seed leaf
SUPERORD A group of related Plant Families, classified in the order in ER which they are thought to have developed their differences from a common ancestor. There are six Superorders in the Dicotyledonae (Magnoliidae, Hamamelidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae), and four Superorders in the Monocotyledonae (Alismatidae, Commelinidae, Arecidae, Liliidae) The names of the Superorders end in -idae ORDER Each Superorder is further divided into several Orders. The names of the Orders end in -ales
FAMILY Each Order is divided into Families. These are plants with many botanical features in common, and is the highest classification normally used. At this level, the similarity between plants is often easily recognisable by the layman. Modern botanical classification assigns a type plant to each Family, which has the particular characteristics which separate this group of plants from others, and names the Family after this plant. The number of Plant Families varies according to the botanist whose classification you follow. Some botanists recognise only 150 or so families, preferring to classify other similar plants as sub-families, while others recognise nearly 500 plant families. A widely-accepted system is that devised by Cronquist in 1968, which is only slightly revised today. Links to the various methods of classification are on this website. The names of the Families end in -aceae SUBFAMILY The Family may be further divided into a number of subfamilies, which group together plants within the Family that have some significant botanical differences. The names of the Subfamilies end in -oideae
TRIBE A further division of plants within a Family, based on smaller botanical differences, but still usually comprising many different plants. The names of the Tribes end in -eae SUBTRIBE A further division, based on even smaller botanical differences, often only recognisable to botanists. The names of the Subtribes end in -inae GENUS This is the part of the plant name that is most familiar, the normal name that you give a plant - Papaver (Poppy), Aquilegia (Columbine), and so on. The plants in a Genus are often easily recognisable as belonging to the same group. The name of the Genus should be written with a capital letter. SPECIES This is the level that defines an individual plant. Often, the name will describe some aspect of the plant - the colour of the flowers, size or shape of the leaves, or it may be named after the place where it was found. Together, the Genus and species name refer to only one plant, and they are used to identify that particular plant. Sometimes, the species is further divided into sub-species that contain plants not quite so distinct that they are classified as Varieties. The name of the species should be written after the Genus name, in small letters, with no capital letter.
VARIETY A Variety is a plant that is only slightly different from the species plant, but the differences are not so insignificant as the differences in a form. The Latin is varietas, which is usually abbreviated to var. The name follows the Genus and species name, with var. before the individual variety name. FORM A form is a plant within a species that has minor botanical differences, such as the colour of flower or shape of the leaves. The name follows the Genus and species name, with form (or f. ) before the individual variety name. CULTIVAR A Cultivar is a cultivated variety, a particular plant that has arisen either naturally or through deliberate hybridization, and can be reproduced (vegetatively or by seed) to produce more of the same plant. The name follows the Genus and species name. It is written in the language of the person who described it, and should not be translated. It is either written in single quotation marks or has cv. written in front of the name.
EXAMPLE OF CLASSIFICATION THE FULL BOTANICAL CLASSIFICATION OF A PARTICULARLESSER SPEARWORT WITH NARROW LEAVES IS Category Scientific Name Common Name CLASS Angiospermae Angiosperms SUBCLASS Dicotyledonae Dicotyledons SUPERORDER Magnoliidae Magnolia Superorder ORDER Ranunculares Buttercup Order FAMILY Ranunculaceae Buttercup Family SUBFAMILY Ranunculoideae Buttercup Subfamily TRIBE Ranunculeae Buttercup Tribe GENUS Ranunculus Buttercup SPECIES (Ranunculus) flammula Lesser Spearwort SUBSPECIES (Ranunculus flammula) subsp. flammula Lesser Spearwort VARIETY (Ranunculus flammula subsp. flammula) var. tenuifolius Narrow-leaved Lesser Spearwort
Bi. Bliograph. Y: 1. http: //www. google. ru/ 2. http: //www. wikipedia. org/