Скачать презентацию Aboriginal Perceptions Facilitated by Candy J Palmater LLB Скачать презентацию Aboriginal Perceptions Facilitated by Candy J Palmater LLB

975086a579f01bc12c961a0076e16c81.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 58

Aboriginal Perceptions Facilitated by: Candy J. Palmater, LLB Aboriginal Perceptions Facilitated by: Candy J. Palmater, LLB

Agenda • • • Introduction Historical/Cultural Context Contemporary Mi’kmaq Perceptual Screens Child Rearing Languages Agenda • • • Introduction Historical/Cultural Context Contemporary Mi’kmaq Perceptual Screens Child Rearing Languages & Meaning 2

Historical / Cultural Context • The Seven Traditional Districts of Mi’kmakik (See Handout) 3 Historical / Cultural Context • The Seven Traditional Districts of Mi’kmakik (See Handout) 3

Early Lifestyle • • • No concept of land ownership Traditional hunting/fishing territories No Early Lifestyle • • • No concept of land ownership Traditional hunting/fishing territories No formal system of band membership Small camps: 1 or 2 families – Nomadic Law of Nature 4

5 5

Early Lifestyle (con’t) Gender Based Roles Men • • • Hunt Fish Made bows, Early Lifestyle (con’t) Gender Based Roles Men • • • Hunt Fish Made bows, arrows Made cradle boards Tobacco pipes Knew how to prepare food, clothing and shelter Women • • • Carried game back to camp Transported camp equipment Moved and set up wigwams Prepared and preserved the food Made birch bark dishes Wove mats from rushes Made clothing Corded snowshoes Fetched water Took care of children 6

7 7

Early Lifestyle (con’t) Medicine • Entirely plant and animal based • Sweat lodge • Early Lifestyle (con’t) Medicine • Entirely plant and animal based • Sweat lodge • Body massage 8

Early Lifestyle (con’t) Grand Council • Three levels of leadership – Local chief – Early Lifestyle (con’t) Grand Council • Three levels of leadership – Local chief – District chief – Grand chief 9

Early Lifestyle (con’t) • • Local Chief Council of Elders Village affairs Supplies (dogs, Early Lifestyle (con’t) • • Local Chief Council of Elders Village affairs Supplies (dogs, canoes, etc. ) Hunting skills • • • District Chief Each of seven districts Eldest male Council of local chiefs Conflict resolution Consensus • • Grand Chief Grand Council Hereditary Hunting/fishing Treaty decisions 10

Early Lifestyle (con’t) Traditional Line of Inheritance • Eldest son in family • Last Early Lifestyle (con’t) Traditional Line of Inheritance • Eldest son in family • Last hereditary chief, Grand Chief Denny Jr. (Died April 12, 1918) • Gabriel Sylliboy, First elected Grand Chief 11

Early Lifestyle (con’t) Qualities of an Effective Chief • • Inspire confidence Generous Humble Early Lifestyle (con’t) Qualities of an Effective Chief • • Inspire confidence Generous Humble Keeper of the young men 12

Early Lifestyle (con’t) Role of the Grand Council • Ruling body traditionally • Consensus Early Lifestyle (con’t) Role of the Grand Council • Ruling body traditionally • Consensus – strong tradition • Contemporary Grand Council focused on spiritual needs 13

Mi’kmaq Spiritual Beliefs • • Traditional Beliefs All life is created by one being Mi’kmaq Spiritual Beliefs • • Traditional Beliefs All life is created by one being Oral tradition All living things have souls Equality of all life Impact of Roman Catholicism • Today over 85% of Mi’kmaq are Roman Catholic 14

History 101 • Pre European Contact – 11, 000 years of occupation – Travel History 101 • Pre European Contact – 11, 000 years of occupation – Travel and Trade run North - South – Oral Tradition 15

History 101 • 16 th Century – Meeting early 16 th century – Population History 101 • 16 th Century – Meeting early 16 th century – Population of the Mi’kmaq 60, 000 to 70, 000 – Major population decline – Trade and fishing basis of Aboriginal/European relationship 16

History 101 • 17 th Century – Fur trade escalates – Trade moves East History 101 • 17 th Century – Fur trade escalates – Trade moves East - West 17

History 101 • 18 th Century – Still nation to nation relationship – Treaties History 101 • 18 th Century – Still nation to nation relationship – Treaties signed between Mi’kmaq and British – peace and friendship – Establishment of the Truckhouse System – Growing British interest in land – Royal Proclamation of 1763 – Beginning of the Reserve System 18

History 101 • 19 th Century – “Indian Problem” begins – Assimilation – Christianization History 101 • 19 th Century – “Indian Problem” begins – Assimilation – Christianization – Isolation – Continued decline in population – Loss of land mass 19

History 101 1857 – Civilization Act (Enfranchisement) • • • Over 21 Literate in History 101 1857 – Civilization Act (Enfranchisement) • • • Over 21 Literate in French or English Some level of education Good character No debt Three year probation 20

History 101 • 19 th Century – Confederation and BNA of 1867 – Indians History 101 • 19 th Century – Confederation and BNA of 1867 – Indians become responsibility of federal government – Fishing regulations begin to appear – Land claims deemed illegal 21

History 101 1876 – Indian Act • Centralization Policy (implemented in Nova Scotia in History 101 1876 – Indian Act • Centralization Policy (implemented in Nova Scotia in 1942) • Indian Agents • Lands held in trust 1899 – Revision to the Indian Act • Promoted assimilation – – Minister Teacher Doctor Lawyer 22

History 101 1917 Amendment to Indian Act 1951 Major Revisions to Indian Act • History 101 1917 Amendment to Indian Act 1951 Major Revisions to Indian Act • Enfranchisement for • Removed 1884 ban against potlatches off-reserve and ceremonial • 3 years later: dances compulsory • Removed bar ban enfranchisement • Women able to vote in band elections 1960 Indians granted the vote in federal elections 23

History 101 • 20 th Century – The reserve system brings sedentary lifestyle – History 101 • 20 th Century – The reserve system brings sedentary lifestyle – 1920 growing population due to improved medical services – Majority of Mi’kmaq men fought in WWI and WWII – Introduction of frame housing – Increase in provincial school attendance 24

 • Indian residential schools were a reflection of the federal governments policy of • Indian residential schools were a reflection of the federal governments policy of “civilizing” and “assimilating” Indian children. • The federal government adopted a policy of assimilation – a policy designed to move communities, and eventually all Aboriginal people form their helpless “savage” state to one of self reliant civilization. • “Civilizing” and stern assimilative strategy was implemented through education. 25

26 26

 • In 1908, the Minister of Indian Affairs, Frank Oliver wrote “We must • In 1908, the Minister of Indian Affairs, Frank Oliver wrote “We must elevate the Indian from his condition of savagery and make him a self supporting member of the state and eventually a citizen in good standing. ” • 1929 – Indian Residential School at Shubenacadie, NS opens its doors. 27

28 28

 • The Davin Report “Industrial Schools for Indians and Half Breeds”, March 18 • The Davin Report “Industrial Schools for Indians and Half Breeds”, March 18 th, 1879 called for the application of the principal of industrial boarding schools – off reserve schools in civilizing Indian children. Children were moved from their homes and communities as the “influence of the Wigwam is stronger than that of the day school. ” * The Davin Report received the unqualified support of the Churches, the government and civil servants as well as that of priests and parsons. 29

30 30

 • These strangers, teachers and staff were to employ “every effort against anything • These strangers, teachers and staff were to employ “every effort against anything calculated to keep fresh in the memories of the children's habits and associations which it is one of the main objectives of industrial education to obliterate. ” Reed Report, Indian Affairs, 1889 31

32 32

History 101 1969 – White Paper • Attempted to repeal the Indian Act • History 101 1969 – White Paper • Attempted to repeal the Indian Act • White Paper repealed in 1971 1985 – Bill C-31 • Repealed discriminatory clause based on gender 33

History 101 • Modern History – Oka Crisis – Landmark court decisions: Delgamuukw, Marshall, History 101 • Modern History – Oka Crisis – Landmark court decisions: Delgamuukw, Marshall, Corbiere 34

Contemporary Mi’kmaq in Nova Scotia Contemporary Mi’kmaq in Nova Scotia

36 36

Organizations Ø Ø Confederacy of Mainland Mi’kmaq Donald Julien, Executive Director 902 -895 -6385 Organizations Ø Ø Confederacy of Mainland Mi’kmaq Donald Julien, Executive Director 902 -895 -6385 Union of Nova Scotia Indians Joe B. Marshall, Executive Director 902 -564 -4313 Native Council of Nova Scotia Grace Conrad, A/Chief & President (Core Administration) Cell: (902)899 -1141 Native Women’s Association Clara Gloade, President 902 -897 -9288 37

Contemporary Success Stories ü Membertou Corporate Office ü Millbrook Power Centre 38 Contemporary Success Stories ü Membertou Corporate Office ü Millbrook Power Centre 38

Perceptual Screens: An Introduction Perceptual Screens: An Introduction

Perceptual Screens • Perceptual screens are lenses with which we view reality and judge Perceptual Screens • Perceptual screens are lenses with which we view reality and judge what is desirable. • Perceptual screens consist of an interwoven complexity of factors: – Position – Biological factors – Cultural factors • Culture is the body of customary beliefs, social norms, material traits and achievements of a particular racial, religious, or social group. • Qualities of culture are: – – Cumulative Normative Value laden Out of our own awareness 40

Biological Factors GENDER TIME AND PLACE OF BIRTH GENE POOL INTELLIGENCE TALENTS AND ABILITIES Biological Factors GENDER TIME AND PLACE OF BIRTH GENE POOL INTELLIGENCE TALENTS AND ABILITIES DISPOSITION SEXUALITY 41

Cultural Factors We are born into an already social world. We are born into Cultural Factors We are born into an already social world. We are born into a world of persons and discover ourselves as persons among persons. We build our biography, our consciousness, under the influence of the culture which nurtures us. 42

Western Social Structure • • Complex and specialist Multi-ethnic urban Highly structured Formal institutions Western Social Structure • • Complex and specialist Multi-ethnic urban Highly structured Formal institutions Hierarchical authority Codified laws Specialized agencies for control 43

Traditional Social Structure • By choice or circumstances bonded to a historical way of Traditional Social Structure • By choice or circumstances bonded to a historical way of life • Horizontal organizational form • Subsistence oriented reality • Informal institutions • Rules and obligations are in evidence but not written • System of control stemming from primary relationships • Intervention aimed at restoration of peace rather than justice • Mediation not confrontation • Flexibility in reaction to conflict • Lack of forensic institutions 44

Language and Meaning Structure and complexity of language Size of vocabulary Complexity of sentence Language and Meaning Structure and complexity of language Size of vocabulary Complexity of sentence structure Accommodation / flexibility Acquaintance with other language systems (Mathematics, music, art, etc. ) 45

Educational Degree of Education Type of Education The Rational Mind The Humanistic Mind Total Educational Degree of Education Type of Education The Rational Mind The Humanistic Mind Total Development Inductive or deductive reasoning 46

Psychological Temporary Moods Motivation and Drive Ingrained Moods Conditioning Desensitization Frustration Instability Stress 47 Psychological Temporary Moods Motivation and Drive Ingrained Moods Conditioning Desensitization Frustration Instability Stress 47

Child Rearing Practices Child Rearing Practices

Euro – Canadian: • • Verbal Stimuli Mom’s talk to babies in full sentences Euro – Canadian: • • Verbal Stimuli Mom’s talk to babies in full sentences Child Learns to respond to verbal stimuli Exposure to verbal stimuli continues through childhood & early education 49

Aboriginal: • • Visual Stimuli Mom’s talk less and more softly Very frequent eye Aboriginal: • • Visual Stimuli Mom’s talk less and more softly Very frequent eye contact Eyes and facial expression 50

Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. How do you learn best? By Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. How do you learn best? By reading, by listening, by seeing and participating in an activity How do you express love and tenderness to your children? How did your father express his love for you? Do you expect your small children to learn by listening? Obeying your “rules”? When you take your children fishing (or for that matter on any other activity), do you let them first fish? Or do you explain “how and what to do” first? Are you more likely to say “don’t do that”, or instruct “this is how you should do it”? Is your child allowed to learn by experience? Or is most learning by being informed orally? 51

Questions Continued 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. How do you feel about Questions Continued 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. How do you feel about forcing a child to eat at predetermined times? How do you teach your child to control her/his emotions? What is the subject of the more serious disagreements you have had with your parents? Do you treat your female children differently? Why? Do you enjoy directing (manipulating) children? What factors (practices) in your childhood have influenced you most (positively or negatively)? What do you regard as a desirable personality? 52

Language and Meaning Language carries a message but various cultures interpret the meaning of Language and Meaning Language carries a message but various cultures interpret the meaning of words and the way they are delivered differently 53

Low Context Cultures English • German • Swiss • Scandinavian Verbal Communication: • Words Low Context Cultures English • German • Swiss • Scandinavian Verbal Communication: • Words send most of the message • The words are extremely important • Specifics, details, facts • Explicit meanings • Structured and direct • Less emotion • Who, what, where, when, how, and why • Linear thinking that is structured – logical Values: • Family structure predominantly nuclear • Respect for independence • Importance of rugged individualism • Self-reliance • Personal accomplishment • Competition • Reverence for constitutional rights, laws, responsibilities • Time is critical • The schedule is as important as the completion of the task 54

Higher Context Cultures Aboriginal • African • Verbal Communications: • • • Words send Higher Context Cultures Aboriginal • African • Verbal Communications: • • • Words send only part of the message Words are less important The process of communication is just as important as the words used Emotion, posturing and gesturing may be part of the communication process Less direct or deferred eye contact More verbal, less direct Interactive rather than linear Spiral The message that is spoken is very contextualized Mediterranean Values: • • • Family structure predominately extended Family unit more important than the individual Collectivism is important Group reliance and group accomplishment Family rules and honor are extremely important Saving face and dignity are important Respect Family and community rules may be more determinate of values, ethics, and laws than centralized government Time flows and is not specific Task is more important than completing the task on schedule 55

Associations: • Relationships depend on trust, build up slowly and are stable • Distinguish Associations: • Relationships depend on trust, build up slowly and are stable • Distinguish between inner and outer circle • How things get done depends on relationships with people and attention to group process. • One’s identity is rooted in groups, family, culture • Social structure is centralized Interaction and Communication: • • • High use of non-verbal elements Verbal message is implicit, context is more important than words Verbal message is indirect, one talks around the point Communication is seen as an art form, a way to engage someone Disagreement is personalized Communication patterns are often criticized by Westerners as repetitious 56

Question Period Question Period

Certificate Presentation Thank-you for your participation. Certificate Presentation Thank-you for your participation.