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A web-based system for administration, verification and correction of meteorological and biological data in A web-based system for administration, verification and correction of meteorological and biological data in a perspective of actor network theory Tor Håkon Sivertsen Bioforsk Plant Health and Plant Protection, Hogskoleveien 7, N-1432 Aas (Norway); e-mail: Tor. [email protected] no Janis Gailis Agder University College, Service Box 422, N-4604 Kristiansand (Norway); e-mail: Janis. [email protected] no 1

Agenda History Vocabulary Design of the system (formal / informal specifications) Challenges of «web-based» Agenda History Vocabulary Design of the system (formal / informal specifications) Challenges of «web-based» development Interests of different “stakeholders“ Holistic view: actor-network approach Perspective: Ubiquity and actor-network breakdowns 2

History 1996: NORPRE project (customization of an existing system for collection of meteorological data History 1996: NORPRE project (customization of an existing system for collection of meteorological data from weather stations in Norway) 1996 – 2000: development of the system for administration, validation and distribution of meteorological data (traditional object-oriented systems development methodology with an involvment of different stakeholders at the requirements phase) 2000 – in use at Bioforsk (with modifications) 3

Vocabulary () Web-based: a system with human-computer interaction (HCI) implemented by the use of Vocabulary () Web-based: a system with human-computer interaction (HCI) implemented by the use of technology of world wide web (Tim Berners-Lee, 1990) Administration: operations performed by an actor on model instances (in this case instances of meteorological and biological data, and other model elements) 4

Vocabulary Verification: evaluation (automatic or manual) of model instances according to a set of Vocabulary Verification: evaluation (automatic or manual) of model instances according to a set of pre-defined (administrated) rules (facts, predicates, assertions etc. ) Correction: operation (automatic or manual) performed on a specific instance of the model usually based on extrapolation or functional dependecies on other instances in the model 5

Vocabulary Meteorological data: • based on a classification system (model? ) of meteorological phenomena Vocabulary Meteorological data: • based on a classification system (model? ) of meteorological phenomena (air, wind, storm, rain etc. ) • attachment of measurable values to phenomena • metadata (NDFD XML, GIS, Weather. ML, Sensor. ML) 6

Vocabulary Biological data: • also based on a model / theory and describes some Vocabulary Biological data: • also based on a model / theory and describes some biological phenomena (measured or modelled) • metadata 7

Vocabulary Actor-network theory: Early 1980's: Centre de Sociologie de L'Innovation (CSI) École nationale supérieure Vocabulary Actor-network theory: Early 1980's: Centre de Sociologie de L'Innovation (CSI) École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris Michel Callon, Bruno Latour, John Law Called also STS (Science and Technology Studies) scholars, concerned with qualitative studies of large technical systems; reflects many of the preoccupations of French Poststructuralism but also English-language academic traditions 'Material-semiotic' method. All the elements in a network, human and non-human, can and should be described in the same terms (generalized symmetry). 2006: popular: used to analyze heterogenous relations 8

Vocabulary Actor-network theory: Society consists of networks of heterogeneous actors, both human and non-human. Vocabulary Actor-network theory: Society consists of networks of heterogeneous actors, both human and non-human. “Actor-Network Theory is useful in the exploration of why technologies, scientific theories, and/or social endeavors succeed or fail as the direct result of changes in their network integrity. In such an analysis, the technology or theory is positioned as the token. “ /wikipedia. org/ 9

Vocabulary Actor-network theory: “Agents, texts, devices, architectures are all generated in, form part of, Vocabulary Actor-network theory: “Agents, texts, devices, architectures are all generated in, form part of, and are essential to, the networks of the social. ” (Law, 1992) Sensors (devices), models (architectures), meteorologists and biologists (agents), documentation of the system (texts) are all generated in, form part of, . . . 10

Vocabulary Systems development – investigation of the noosphere: Statement: systems development is a socio-techological Vocabulary Systems development – investigation of the noosphere: Statement: systems development is a socio-techological process often based on an «ill-defined» problem. 11

Vocabulary Actor-network theory: punctualization «Workshop on environmental fluid mechanics as elements in agro meteorological Vocabulary Actor-network theory: punctualization «Workshop on environmental fluid mechanics as elements in agro meteorological modelling» Punctualization is always precarious, it faces resistance, and may degenerate into a failing network. On the other hand, punctualized resources offer a way of drawing quickly on the networks of the social without having to deal with endless complexity. / John Law (1992) / ? 12

Vocabulary Actor-network theory: Community of Meteorologists Bioforsk Community of Fluid Mechanics researchers Model for Vocabulary Actor-network theory: Community of Meteorologists Bioforsk Community of Fluid Mechanics researchers Model for microclima Weather station (sensors) 13

Vocabulary Actor-network theory: Core of the actor-network approach: a concern with how actors and Vocabulary Actor-network theory: Core of the actor-network approach: a concern with how actors and organizations mobilize, juxtapose and hold together the bits and pieces out of which they are composed 14

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Design of the system Requirements • use of data from various sources in different Design of the system Requirements • use of data from various sources in different models • effective retrievement and utilization of data by different actors • flexible and extendable administration system 16

Design of the system Parameter 17 Design of the system Parameter 17

Design of the system Parameter 18 Design of the system Parameter 18

Design of the system Parameter QUALITY? 19 Design of the system Parameter QUALITY? 19

Design of the system Parameters (quality of data) (a) connection of the data to Design of the system Parameters (quality of data) (a) connection of the data to objects of nature ( «real world» problems? punctualization problems? modelling and scientific method problems? ) (b) properties, conditions and quantitative values of the data, including completeness and representativeness (context dependence ? actornetwork dependence? ) 20

Design of the system Parameters (quality of data, cont. ) (c) identity of the Design of the system Parameters (quality of data, cont. ) (c) identity of the data that is linked to the social system producing the data (authority, actornetwork characteristics) (d) availability of data (openness? political problems? punctualization problems? ) (e) presentation and use of the data (interpretation) including the context of the presentation (degree of de-punct. ? ) 21

Design of the system Parameters (quality of data, cont. ) (f) numerical approximations in Design of the system Parameters (quality of data, cont. ) (f) numerical approximations in digital representation of data (algorithms; hardware; depunctualization? openness? ) 22

Design of the system Instruments & Sensors 23 Design of the system Instruments & Sensors 23

Design of the system Instruments & Sensors Examples of sensor type (naming convention, typical Design of the system Instruments & Sensors Examples of sensor type (naming convention, typical actor-network breakdown for an actor; de -punctualization): CP (sensor measuring electric capacity of air) MP-100, Rotronic AG, Germany CPaa 2 (sensor measuring electric capacity of air, second type) HMP 45 A, Vaisala Oy, Finland 24

Design of the system Instruments & Sensors Examples of sensor group type: ALBSN (measuring Design of the system Instruments & Sensors Examples of sensor group type: ALBSN (measuring 'albedo') and consists of the sensor types TCUPaa 4 and TCDO GRPHDD (measuring 'global radiation') and consists of the sensor type PHDD 25

Design of the system Instruments & Sensors Examples of sensor group: GRTCUPUDN is the Design of the system Instruments & Sensors Examples of sensor group: GRTCUPUDN is the Sensor. Group measuring global radiation on an instance of a logger (storage) placed at Udnes (could be described as geographical coordinates) JT 10 TTHERMUDN is the Sensor. Group belonging to the Sensor. Group. Type TTHERM measuring soil temperature in 10 cm depth on an instance of a logger (storage) placed and Udnes (UDN) 26

Design of the system Coupling instruments and parameters Example of reification (instruments are «things» Design of the system Coupling instruments and parameters Example of reification (instruments are «things» , parameters are abstractions) 27

Design of the system Control and correction model R-test: range test of parameter values Design of the system Control and correction model R-test: range test of parameter values that is often connected to the climate at the different sites (existing models) J-test: jump test (a temporal test comparing values of a parameter at one recorded measurement and the previous recorded measurement; usually depends on existing models) 28

Design of the system Control and correction model L-test: consistency test connected to the Design of the system Control and correction model L-test: consistency test connected to the parameters of one single Sensor. Group LT-test: same as over, but connected to the parameters of two different Sensor. Groups CI-correction and CTI-correction are rule-based tests which make up predicates and can be used to make correction of the parameter values provided for the use in the system (more on this at the end of this presentation) 29

Design of the system Formal language for the validation and correction (to avoid hardcoding) Design of the system Formal language for the validation and correction (to avoid hardcoding) Lexical issues (permitted characters, reserved words etc. ) Namespaces (models, parameters, sensors, predicates) Grammar (symbols for objects and relations: model : : = header import* element*) Precedence and Associativity Semantics (instances, meaning and relational logic) Types, errors and overloading 30

“Web-based” challenges • usability (the system should be a part of a [daily] practice “Web-based” challenges • usability (the system should be a part of a [daily] practice of the human agents) • variety of human agents with different needs in different contexts (heterogenous community) • accessibility (criteria of openness) • distributed development (no exact knowledge about hardware; unknown infrastructure) 31

Interests of 'stakeholders' • diverging business interests • power (authority) relations in hierarchic organizational Interests of 'stakeholders' • diverging business interests • power (authority) relations in hierarchic organizational structures • group psychology • communication competence 32

Actor-networks approach • 'stakeholders' want to keep the network punctualized • de-punctualization results in Actor-networks approach • 'stakeholders' want to keep the network punctualized • de-punctualization results in conflicts • reification causes ambiguity • PROCESS: problematization, interessement, enrolment, mobilisation of allies (a generalized version of soft systems development methodologies) • successful interactions of actor-networks as quasi -objects or tokens 33

Perspective: ubiquity. . . • more agents in the system as requirements for ubiquity Perspective: ubiquity. . . • more agents in the system as requirements for ubiquity will dominate more and more • omnipresence of a sensor network characterizing both local and global environments will become a critical factor for distributed systems (GRID) • integration of actor-networks will be crucial for social relations in the future • contradiction: depunctualization needed for successful implementation of qualitative systems, but punctualization needed to keep simplicity. . . 34

THANK YOU! 35 THANK YOU! 35