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A Theoretical Approach for Biometrics Authentication of e-Exams By: Yair Levy Nova Southeastern University A Theoretical Approach for Biometrics Authentication of e-Exams By: Yair Levy Nova Southeastern University and Michelle M. Ramim Nova Southeastern University 2007 - Dr. Yair Levy & Michelle Ramim – Chais 2007, Israel – February 20, 2007. 1

Maya: Dad, when you were young, did you use a password to login to Maya: Dad, when you were young, did you use a password to login to password your computer? Dad: Yes, I can remember those days… מאיה: כשהיתה צעיר הישתמשתה בסיסמה ? להכנס למחשב שלך . . . אבא: כן, אני זוכר את הזמנים ההם 2007 - Dr. Yair Levy & Michelle Ramim – Chais 2007, Israel – February 20, 2007. 2

Statement of the problem • • E-learning has become a powerful medium for academic Statement of the problem • • E-learning has become a powerful medium for academic institutions Major growth in e-learning in the past decade – 56% of all US colleges offered e-learning courses in 2000– 2001 academic year*. – Over three million students enrolled in elearning courses in the US in 2000 -1*. • Opponents of e-learning argue that the inability to authenticate e-exam takers is one of the major challenges of e-learning * Source: United States Department of Education, National Center of Educational Statistics (NCES) (2005) 2007 - Dr. Yair Levy & Michelle Ramim – Chais 2007, Israel – February 20, 2007. 3

Theoretical Background • • • Unethical conduct in e-learning Unethical conduct during exams Security Theoretical Background • • • Unethical conduct in e-learning Unethical conduct during exams Security in e-Learning Biometric Solutions Fingerprint Biometric Solutions 2007 - Dr. Yair Levy & Michelle Ramim – Chais 2007, Israel – February 20, 2007. 4

Unethical Conduct in E-earning • • Unethical conduct - “a major concern” (Kennedy et Unethical Conduct in E-earning • • Unethical conduct - “a major concern” (Kennedy et al. , 2000) Additional mechanisms are necessary to authenticate users’ access in various elearning course activities not just in the initial login (Newton, 2003) Students’ unethical conduct has intensified as a result of the use of technology and the Internet (Pillsbury, 2004) Need to focus not only on plagiarism (Naude & Hörne, 2006) 2007 - Dr. Yair Levy & Michelle Ramim – Chais 2007, Israel – February 20, 2007. 5

Unethical Conduct During Exams • Cheating on exams has been reported at an alarming Unethical Conduct During Exams • Cheating on exams has been reported at an alarming range of 74% (Center for Academic Integrity, 2005) • Students’ unethical conduct related to exam taking perceived by faculty to be one of the most serious unethical behaviors (Pincus & Schmelkin, 2003) 2007 - Dr. Yair Levy & Michelle Ramim – Chais 2007, Israel – February 20, 2007. 6

Security in E-Learning • • • Yu and Tsao (2003) discussed security challenges of Security in E-Learning • • • Yu and Tsao (2003) discussed security challenges of e-learning environments Huang et al. (2004) discussed aspects of security in e-learning systems and suggested ways to secure e-learning systems. Ramim and Levy (2006) – a case study (JCIT) of a small academic institution faced a cyber attach to their e-learning environment by an insider intruder. 2007 - Dr. Yair Levy & Michelle Ramim – Chais 2007, Israel – February 20, 2007. 7

Biometric Solutions • Biometric is defined as “the application of computational methods to biological Biometric Solutions • Biometric is defined as “the application of computational methods to biological features, especially with regard to the study of unique biological characteristics of humans” (Tabitha, et al. , 2006, p. 3) • Unique characteristics: – – • Physiological biometric: retinal and iris, fingerprints, facial images, hand prints, DNA, etc. Behavioral biometric: voice, key board typing, attitude Major popularity growth of biometric solutions, especially after 9/11 2007 - Dr. Yair Levy & Michelle Ramim – Chais 2007, Israel – February 20, 2007. 8

Biometric Solutions (Cont. ) • • • Usability aspect of biometrics authentication systems is Biometric Solutions (Cont. ) • • • Usability aspect of biometrics authentication systems is “a tradeoff between usability, memorability and security” (Coventry et al. , 2003, p. 153). Traditional password & PINs authentication methods are regularly increasing their length – difficult to remember! Fingerprints systems are currently used in the Disney® parks, financial industry, U. S. immigration services, etc. 2007 - Dr. Yair Levy & Michelle Ramim – Chais 2007, Israel – February 20, 2007. 9

Fingerprint Biometric Solutions • Price of biometric devices is falling in the past decade Fingerprint Biometric Solutions • Price of biometric devices is falling in the past decade (Pons, 2006) • Increase reliability – false rejection rate that is only 0. 01%, or 1 out of 100, 000 cases Jay. Peetek Inc. ’s Scan. U. Match. TM Digital. Persona 2007 - Dr. Yair Levy & Michelle Ramim – Chais 2007, Israel – February 20, 2007. 10

Fingerprint Biometric Solutions (Cont. ) 2007 - Dr. Yair Levy & Michelle Ramim – Fingerprint Biometric Solutions (Cont. ) 2007 - Dr. Yair Levy & Michelle Ramim – Chais 2007, Israel – February 20, 2007. 11

Biometric Solutions – Servers Jay. Peetek Inc. ’s Authenteon. TM Server 2007 - Dr. Biometric Solutions – Servers Jay. Peetek Inc. ’s Authenteon. TM Server 2007 - Dr. Yair Levy & Michelle Ramim – Chais 2007, Israel – February 20, 2007. 12

The Proposed Theoretical Framework 2007 - Dr. Yair Levy & Michelle Ramim – Chais The Proposed Theoretical Framework 2007 - Dr. Yair Levy & Michelle Ramim – Chais 2007, Israel – February 20, 2007. 13

Propositions Proposition 1: Students taking e-exams using the fingerprints biometric solution will have lower Propositions Proposition 1: Students taking e-exams using the fingerprints biometric solution will have lower grades on the e-exam than their counterparts. Proposition 2: Students taking e-exams using the fingerprints biometric solution will take longer time to complete their e-exam than their counterparts. 2007 - Dr. Yair Levy & Michelle Ramim – Chais 2007, Israel – February 20, 2007. 14

Some Observed Limitations • • • In a remote setting, students may ask to Some Observed Limitations • • • In a remote setting, students may ask to have a subject matter expert seat next to them while they take the exam The costs associated with implementing such study in an experimental basis, let alone in a large scale e-learning program Individual perceptions on the use of biometric systems may prevent consent to take part of the study, hence, limit data collection 2007 - Dr. Yair Levy & Michelle Ramim – Chais 2007, Israel – February 20, 2007. 15

Thank you! • Questions? 2007 - Dr. Yair Levy & Michelle Ramim – Chais Thank you! • Questions? 2007 - Dr. Yair Levy & Michelle Ramim – Chais 2007, Israel – February 20, 2007. 16

Contact Information - Levy Yair Levy, Ph. D. Assistant Professor Nova Southeastern University Graduate Contact Information - Levy Yair Levy, Ph. D. Assistant Professor Nova Southeastern University Graduate School of Computer and Information Sciences The De. Santis Building - Room 4058 3301 College Avenue Fort Lauderdale, FL 33314 Tel. : 954 -262 -2006 Fax: 954 -262 -3915 E-mail: [email protected] edu Site: http: //scis. nova. edu/~levyy/ 2007 - Dr. Yair Levy & Michelle Ramim – Chais 2007, Israel – February 20, 2007. 17

Contact Information - Ramim Michelle M. Ramim, Ph. D. (ABD) Adjunct Professor Nova Southeastern Contact Information - Ramim Michelle M. Ramim, Ph. D. (ABD) Adjunct Professor Nova Southeastern University H. Wayne Huizenga School of Business and Entrepreneurship The De. Santis Building 3301 College Avenue Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33314 E-mail: [email protected] edu Site: http: //www. nova. edu/~ramim/ 2007 - Dr. Yair Levy & Michelle Ramim – Chais 2007, Israel – February 20, 2007. 18

International Journal of Doctoral Studies (IJDS) http: //www. ijds. org/ Mission: The mission of International Journal of Doctoral Studies (IJDS) http: //www. ijds. org/ Mission: The mission of the International Journal of Doctoral Studies (IJDS) is to provide readers worldwide with high quality peer -reviewed scholarly articles on a wide variety of issues in doctoral studies using the Informing Science (IS) framework. The editorial objective of IJDS is the facilitation of knowledge enhancement related to doctoral studies in areas such as (but not limited to): informing science, information systems, information technology, information science, information security, and IT education. Yair Levy, Editor-in-Chief ([email protected] org) 2007 - Dr. Yair Levy & Michelle Ramim – Chais 2007, Israel – February 20, 2007. 19