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A Systems Approach to Energy 2009 EGSA Fall Technical& Marketing Conference Ron Sega Woodward A Systems Approach to Energy 2009 EGSA Fall Technical& Marketing Conference Ron Sega Woodward Professor of Systems Engineering Colorado State University (CSU) Vice President for Energy, Environment and Applied Research Colorado State Research Foundation (CSURF)

Government Background n Director of Defense Research and Engineering (DDR&E) - Investments in Energy Government Background n Director of Defense Research and Engineering (DDR&E) - Investments in Energy and Power Technologies n Under Secretary of the Air Force - Energy Strategy and Implementation (Supply, Demand, Culture) 7

Director of Defense Research and Engineering, Department of Defense n Three areas of Increased Director of Defense Research and Engineering, Department of Defense n Three areas of Increased Emphasis National Aerospace Initiative n Surveillance and Knowledge Systems n Energy and Power Technologies n n Technical Systems Reviews Technology Readiness Assessments n Task Force support to Systems Development n n Workforce Initiative DUSD (Laboratories and Basic Sciences) n National Defense Education Program (NDEP) n 8

Energy & Power Technologies… - Enabling a More Electric Force POWER GENERATION • Fuel Energy & Power Technologies… - Enabling a More Electric Force POWER GENERATION • Fuel Cells & Fuel Reforming • Novel Power FUEL CELL More Electric Aircraft Electric Warship s d ee ENERGY STORAGE • Batteries • Capacitors e ow P High Power Microwave POWER CONTROL AND DISTRIBUTION • Switching & Conditioning • Power Transmission & Distribution • Thermal Management Space Based Radar r. N FY 02 FY 12 New Operational Capabilities Electric/Hybrid Weapons Warrior Hybrid/Electric Combat Vehicle 9

Under Secretary of the Air Force n Space Department of Defense Executive Agent for Under Secretary of the Air Force n Space Department of Defense Executive Agent for Space n Back to Basics in Acquisition and the Block Approach n Systems Engineering n Workforce n n Research and Development Alignment with Needs and Redistribution of Risk n Stability in Basic Research n n Energy “Make Energy a Consideration in All We Do” n Energy Strategy (Supply and Demand – with Metrics) n 10

AF Energy Strategy - Addressing Supply & Demand “Make Energy a Consideration in All AF Energy Strategy - Addressing Supply & Demand “Make Energy a Consideration in All We Do” n Accelerate development and use of “Alternative” sources n n Synthetic Fuel for Aviation Renewable Energy for Installations Enhance energy efficiency -- aviation and infrastructure Promote a culture where Airmen conserve energy 11

Examples of Air Force Energy Initiatives in the United States Demonstrate H 2 Production Examples of Air Force Energy Initiatives in the United States Demonstrate H 2 Production & Military Fuel Cell Vehicle Grand Forks AFB, ND Synthetic Fuels Research, Air Force Research Lab, WPAFB, OH Fuel Cell/Electric Warehouse Tractor Selfridge ANGB, MI 14 MW Photovoltaic generation, Nellis AFB, NV B-52 Syn. Fuel Flight Demo, Edwards AFB, CA Wind generation farm, FE Warren AFB, WY Low Speed Vehicles Shaw AFB, SC 122 KW Photovoltaic project, Luke AFB, AZ Waste energy and ice plant, Dyess AFB, TX Demonstration Sites Advanced Power Technology Office, Robins AFB, GA Air Force Energy Office, Tyndall AFB, FL Center of Excellence 12

B-52 Initial Flight Test of Synthetic Fuel/JP-8 Blend - Flight Crew (September 19, 2006) B-52 Initial Flight Test of Synthetic Fuel/JP-8 Blend - Flight Crew (September 19, 2006) 13

AF Energy Strategy - Senior Focus Group n n Coordinated and developed various programs AF Energy Strategy - Senior Focus Group n n Coordinated and developed various programs to improve supply and demand aspects of energy -- Established goals and metrics to manage progress. Improved efficiency in aviation and infrastructure operations and invested in more energy efficient future systems. n n n Infrastructure: Energy Savings / Cost Avoidance – 100, 000 homes Aviation: 9% reduction in flying hours, 7% reduction in jet fuel used Encouraged use of alternative sources of energy for infrastructure and aviation applications(AF uses approx. 2. 5 billion gallons of fuel annually) n n Infrastructure: Was the nation’s largest single purchaser of renewable energy in FY 05 (approx. one million megawatt-hours in FY 05 and FY 06) Aviation: Supported synthetic fuel activities (currently exploring biofuel) --First B-52 test fight of a 50/50 blend of synthetic fuel and JP-8 in September 2006 – certified in August 2007 14

Organizational Awards Received by the Air Force (2005 -2007) n Green Power Partner of Organizational Awards Received by the Air Force (2005 -2007) n Green Power Partner of the Year Award -- Department of Energy (DOE) / Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) n n Climate Protection Award -- Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Stratospheric Ozone Protection Award -- United Nations Environmental Programme and U. S. Environmental Protection Agency n Presidential Award for Leadership in Federal Energy Management -- To U. S. Air Force Energy Strategy Senior Focus Group 15

CSU Emphasis in Energy and the Environment § Consistent with CSU’s Mission as a CSU Emphasis in Energy and the Environment § Consistent with CSU’s Mission as a Land Grant Institution § Applications to our Community, Region, and Nation § Areas of Energy and Environmental Focus: - Education - Innovation - Supply - Demand - Management Always Consider Energy, Environment and the Community 16

CSU Extension Districts 17 CSU Extension Districts 17

Systems Engineering n Trend toward increasing complexity of systems n n Needs of industry Systems Engineering n Trend toward increasing complexity of systems n n Needs of industry and government n n n Aerospace, Energy, Environment, Health Care, etc. National Surveys Recent Colorado Industry and Government Survey Systems engineering education at CSU n n n Undergraduate emphasis on systems approach Master of Engineering in Systems Engineering began Fall 2008 Future graduate degrees to emphasize energy systems 18

M. S. and Ph. D. in Systems Engineering - Energy Systems Emphasis n n M. S. and Ph. D. in Systems Engineering - Energy Systems Emphasis n n n In the approval process Complimentary to the new School of Global Environmental Sustainability Optimizing alignment with: n n n Faculty interests Global trends/needs Clean Energy Supercluster strengths in “Energy Systems” Collaboratory “Energy Systems” strengths Government Interests Industry partner interests 19

Clean Energy Supercluster >100 Faculty members from all 8 Colleges at CSU 20 Clean Energy Supercluster >100 Faculty members from all 8 Colleges at CSU 20

Engines and Energy Conversion Lab - Algae-Derived Transportation Fuels 21 Engines and Energy Conversion Lab - Algae-Derived Transportation Fuels 21

Strategic Innovation - Algae to Biofuels Example § Based on 20 -year history of Strategic Innovation - Algae to Biofuels Example § Based on 20 -year history of algae research at NREL’s Aquatic Species Program § High production rates + carbon “sequestration” (offsets) potentials § Highly multi-disciplinary team: § § Engineering Natural Sciences Business Agricultural Sciences § Solix Biofuels – CSU Spin-off Company

Developing High Yield Energy Crops § Improved and adapted biomass and bioenergy plants – Developing High Yield Energy Crops § Improved and adapted biomass and bioenergy plants – Oil seeds – Soy Beans, Sunflower, Brown Mustard, Canola, and Camelina – Cellulosic sources – Switchgrass, Miscanthus, Wheat straw, and Corn stalks. – Semi-arid systems § Acceptable to growers and industry § Sustainable production system – Minimal Water and Energy Inputs – Minimize Impact on Food and Fiber Costs – Economic Viability – Environmentally Sound

Engines and Energy Conversion Lab § Distribution / Controls Technologies 24 Engines and Energy Conversion Lab § Distribution / Controls Technologies 24

Grid Simulation Laboratory - Integrid • World’s only megawatt-scale physical grid simulation capability. • Grid Simulation Laboratory - Integrid • World’s only megawatt-scale physical grid simulation capability. • Tests and validates computer simulations with actual physical system dynamics when renewable generation sources (e. g. , wind and solar) and other forms of distributed generation and loads are integrated into the electric power grid. • Will reduce the US electric grid’s vulnerability to blackouts and potential attacks. • Partnership with Spirae - a Colorado business, CSU’s Engines & Energy Conversion Laboratory, and the Northern Colorado Clean Energy Cluster. East Coast blackout, 2003

“Fort. ZED” – Zero Energy District § “Research, Development and Demonstration of a Coordinated “Fort. ZED” – Zero Energy District § “Research, Development and Demonstration of a Coordinated and Integrated System of 3. 5 MW of Mixed Distributed Resources in Fort Collins, Colorado, to Achieve a 20 -30% Peak Load Reduction of Multiple Distribution Feeders” – Do. E funded proposal ($6. 5 M + $5 M) § Modernize and transform the electrical distribution system § Improved efficiency and reliability § Demonstration includes aggregation of distributed energy resources (DER) from approximately 5 participant locations § Duration: May 2008 – April 2010 26

Rocky Mountain Secure Smart Grid Initiative (RMSSGI)- Multi-Utility, Multi-Objective FE Warren AFB Ft. Collins Rocky Mountain Secure Smart Grid Initiative (RMSSGI)- Multi-Utility, Multi-Objective FE Warren AFB Ft. Collins / FCU Windsor / PV REA Boulder / Xcel Aurora / Xcel Buckley AFB US AF Academy CO Springs / CSU Peterson AFB Fort Carson 27

Rocky Mountain Secure Smart Grid Initiative (RMSSGI) – Trans. Grid Concept Transmission Pacificorp Xcel Rocky Mountain Secure Smart Grid Initiative (RMSSGI) – Trans. Grid Concept Transmission Pacificorp Xcel PRPA Tri. State Xcel CS Utilities Black Hills Inter-Utility Smart Grid Communication Network Cheyenne Distribution Projects Transportation Xcel FC Utilities CS Utilities L&P 1 Smart Grid PVREA F. E. Warrren AFB 2 3 Fort. ZED 5 Smart. Grid. City 4 Air Force Academy Trans. Grid 28

Concept for an Integrated National Secure Smart Grid Test Center Rocky Mountain Secure Smart Concept for an Integrated National Secure Smart Grid Test Center Rocky Mountain Secure Smart Grid “Test Bed” National Model • • Best Practices • Security Models • Business Models • Benefits • Scaling Strategies • Policy/Regulatory Requirements • NREL DER Lab Standards R&D Opportunities Inte. Grid Lab Own-Operate Host Partners Universities and National Labs Design-Build Smart Grid Analytics and Training Center Tech Partners 29

Engines and Energy Conversion Lab § Two-Cycle Engine and Cookstoves 30 Engines and Energy Conversion Lab § Two-Cycle Engine and Cookstoves 30

Commercializing “Clean” Technology - Enviro. Fit Example § EECL developed a retrofit technology to Commercializing “Clean” Technology - Enviro. Fit Example § EECL developed a retrofit technology to reduce emissions from 2 -stroke engines by 90% § Created Envirofit International, a 501(c)(3) to disseminate in Asia § Award Winning - Named by Stanford Review of Innovation (Summer ‘ 06) as “one of 10 companies most likely to create significant global social change” § Other international projects in Europe, Asia, Africa, Latin America

Developing & Improving Wind Energy - Maxwell Ranch § The university, already a worldwide Developing & Improving Wind Energy - Maxwell Ranch § The university, already a worldwide leader in developing and disseminating clean and renewable energy solutions, has committed to developing the CSU Green Power Project, a wind farm in northern Colorado that will generate more power than the university consumes. The project - to be completed within eight years – will serve as a unique outdoor laboratory for researchers across campus in areas ranging from clean energy technology development to a variety of related environmental impact studies.

The Institute for 21 st Century Energy - An Open Letter to the 44 The Institute for 21 st Century Energy - An Open Letter to the 44 th President of the United States and the 111 th U. S. Congress 33

Institute for 21 st Century Energy - Blueprint Roll-Out Event September 2008 Institute for 21 st Century Energy - Blueprint Roll-Out Event September 2008

U. S. Chamber's Energy Institute Releases Blueprint for Securing America's Energy Future* FORT COLLINS, U. S. Chamber's Energy Institute Releases Blueprint for Securing America's Energy Future* FORT COLLINS, CO - General James L. Jones, USMC (Ret. ), president and CEO of the U. S. Chamber of Commerce's Institute for 21 st Century Energy, today unveiled a comprehensive blueprint for securing America's energy future at Colorado State University (CSU). With more than 75 policy recommendations, the blueprint is a thorough and compelling framework for the next president and Congress to adopt as a balanced and comprehensive energy strategy. Following a tour of CSU's Engines and Energy Conversion Laboratory, General Jones joined U. S. Senator Wayne Allard and CSU Vice President of Energy, the Environment, and Applied Research Ron Sega to deliver remarks to students, faculty, and regional business leaders. "With a challenge this great and urgent, we must encourage new partnerships, like those taking place in Colorado, that bring together the best of government, industry, and academia to create cutting-edge technology solutions to our long-term challenges, " Gen. Jones said. "The blueprint's 75 policy recommendations for America's forthcoming political leadership aim to transform energy challenges into energy opportunities; unleash the power of America's vast resources and innovation, and generate new supplies, new technologies, and new American jobs. " *http: //www. energyxxi. org/xxi/newsroom/pr_080930. htm 35

The Institute’s Blueprint Rollout Event - September 30, 2008 in Fort Collins, Colorado § The Institute’s Blueprint Rollout Event - September 30, 2008 in Fort Collins, Colorado § General James L. Jones, USMC (Ret. ), President and CEO, Institute for 21 st Century Energy, U. S. Chamber of Commerce § Wayne Allard, U. S. Senator (R-CO) § Renny Fagan, State Director, Office of U. S. Senator Ken Salazar (D-CO) § Robert Mc. Grath, Deputy Laboratory Director for Science and Technology, National Renewable Energy Laboratory § Thomas Gendron, Chairman, CEO and President, Woodward § Ron Bills, CEO and Chairman, Envirofit International § Doug Henston, CEO, Solix Biofuels, Inc. § Ron Sega, Woodward Professor of Systems Engineering (CSU), and Vice President of Energy, Environment and Applied Research (CSURF) Above: Gen. James Jones and Dr. Ron Sega 36

Concluding Thoughts “We owe our current prosperity, security, and good health to the investments Concluding Thoughts “We owe our current prosperity, security, and good health to the investments of past generations, and we are obliged to renew those commitments in education, research, and innovation policies to ensure that the American people continue to benefit from the remarkable opportunities provided by the rapid development of the global economy and it’s not inconsiderable underpinning in science and technology. ” Reference: Rising Above The Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future, National Academy of Sciences, 2005 37

Backup 38 Backup 38

Strategic Partnerships § CSU is a leader in developing clean energy technologies and global Strategic Partnerships § CSU is a leader in developing clean energy technologies and global solutions. § CSU is working to get these new energy technologies into production by partnering with government, not-for-profit entities, and corporate and philanthropic partners locally, regionally, nationally, and across the world. § Because of its unique research and technology transfer and commercialization capabilities, CSU will be a strong Colorado Renewable Energy Collaboratory partner. § Colorado is positioned to be the leader in the new energy economy. § The potential global benefits are huge.

Colorado Renewable Energy Collaboratory A research collaboration of: § National Renewable Energy Laboratory § Colorado Renewable Energy Collaboratory A research collaboration of: § National Renewable Energy Laboratory § Colorado School of Mines § Colorado State University § University of Colorado at Boulder The Collaboratory works with public and private partners to: § Create and commercialize renewable energy technologies § Build a clean, sustainable renewable energy economy for Colorado, the region, the nation and the world § Educate future scientists and engineers and train the renewable energy workforce. 40

Center of Excellence - Energy Efficiency and Management Community Workforce NREL Collaboratory: Efficiency 1. Center of Excellence - Energy Efficiency and Management Community Workforce NREL Collaboratory: Efficiency 1. Education 2. Storage Batteries Fly wheels Pumped Hydro 3. Transmission & Distribution Smart Grid Fort. ZED Boulder Smart Grid City 4. Efficiency Building Materials & Systems Solar Decathlon Engines CU CSM Private Sector 5. Security Robust and Reliable 41

Education § Increasing the students’ Awareness of Energy and the Environment § Extending “CSU Education § Increasing the students’ Awareness of Energy and the Environment § Extending “CSU Extension Service” to Include Energy and the Environment § Increasing Workforce Development Efforts § New School of Global Environmental Sustainability § New Degree Programs (e. g. Master of Engineering in Systems Engineering) § Student Involvement in Research (e. g. Engines and Energy Conversion Lab) 42

Master of Engineering in Systems Engineering n Customer-driven program n n ENGR 501: Foundations Master of Engineering in Systems Engineering n Customer-driven program n n ENGR 501: Foundations of Systems Engineering n n Great survey response Working professional focus Began Fall 2008 Flexible delivery modes (in-class, out-of-class, synchronous and/or asynchronous) National experts present case studies 43

New School of Global Environmental Sustainability § Mission: § Seek solutions to pressing environmental New School of Global Environmental Sustainability § Mission: § Seek solutions to pressing environmental challenges that are regionally relevant and globally significant § Catalyze through a cross-college infrastructure, the University’s strength in environmental research and education § Sustainable Development and Strategic Networks: § Partnerships and Linkages Nationally and Globally § Partnerships with Business and Research § Coordination of Student Environmental Networks § Incorporating Industry Demands into Curriculum Development 44