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A New GG oo vv ee rr nn mm ee nn tt !! !!
But First……… • The Articles of the Confederation – Last 8 yrs – Gave more power to states then central gov’t
Troubles • Debt ~ gov’t couldn’t collect taxes ~ no way to get $ ~ couldn’t pay back $ lent for the Amer Rev ~ Owed $ to: other countries/private citizens • Trade ~no wanted to trade with the US b/c Amer didn’t have power to enforce any laws • Territorial Issues — no 1 would give Amer a break over land — other nations gave amer nonsense over land issues — states were fighting each other over boundaries & $
ACCOMPLISHMENTS • kept nation together • negotiated the Treaty of Paris 1783 – ended the Amer Rev • Created 2 laws: 1 -Ordinance of 1785: sale of public land 2 -Northwest Ordinance: made a plan of how to govern new territories
Tell me…. wait don’t; nah go ahead! • ppl liked not being told what to do, but wanted someone to help run things • wanted a stronger gov’t • farmers couldn’t make payments on land; were losing farms to the bank
Take off his head!!! (not really) Shay’s Rebellion • Daniel Shay (former militia leader) lead a group of angry farmers who lost their farms in Mass in 1786. • It was easily ended, but opened the doors for the discussion of a need for stronger central gov’t.
Constitutional Convention • Meant to REVISE the Articles • Independence Hall in Philly, 1787 • 12 of 13: sent delegates (RI did not ) – 55 ppl (aka: founding fathers) – 1/2 lawyers/1/2 famers-merchants • George Washington president of the convention • James Madison: Secretary • no women, Native Americans, or African-Americans
My way! No, MY way! Hey let’s COMPROMISE!!! =) =) • New Jersey Plan: – all states have equal rep in gov’t • Virginia Plan: – rep based on population • Great Compromise : : • divide gov’t into 2 houses – 1: upper house: senate ~ 2 reps per state – 2: lower house: house of representatives ~ based on population • these make up congress
Slaves…. what to do, what to do? • South wanted slaves to count • North did not – Would mean south had more people in their the House • Three-Fifths Compromise!!!! – 3 of every 5 slaves count as a person for representation and tax purposes Everyone some what happy…see what happens when you work together!
Issues with Trade…. • Ppl in the North wanted congress to regulate trade • Farmers in the South did not – feared losing money/slaves – no regulations until 1808 • Congress decided to tax imports – regulate interstate and foreign trade
LETS START OVER!!!! • Seperation of Powers – Executive : President ~ enforce laws (helped by VP & assistants) 15 executive depts. — leaders make up cabinet – Legislative : Congress ~ make laws, 2 houses • Senate 100 members • Ho. R 435 members (present day #) – Judicial : All courts ~ interpret the laws; Supreme Court (9 justices), 12 appeal courts/94 • districts/ few “special courts”
Checks & Balances • Legislative: – check Pres by not giving $ – block new/get rid of agencies – Senate reject treaties (need 2/3 vote to pass) – reject presidential appointments – Ho. R impeach pres, then Senate does – Check Judicial by creating/abolishing lower courts – impeach federal judges
Checks & Balances • Executive: – Judicial: pardon convicts/appoint judges – Legislative: veto (not sign) a bill • veto can be overridden by 2/3 vote in both houses • Judicial: – declare laws unconstitutional, then void them – Judicial Review declare laws/practices unconst.
Checks & Balances • Checks on the ppl: – Electoral college (elects pres) – Judges appointed/senators (used to be appointed) – Ho. R: 2 yr – Senate: 6 yr – Pres: 4 yr (2 terms in a lifetime) – Supreme Court: life or impeachment
We want it…No, we don’t…. Lets talk! • Federalist: – supported new const – reg trade/strong gov’t/help nations $ prob • Anti-Federalists: – anti new const – felt it didn’t protect fundamental rights
Ratifying the Constitution • 9 of 13 states needed to approve for the new gov’t to take place
Lets be Flexible!!! • Articles were to rigid, no way to change with the times – NEW ONE NEEDED TO BE FLEXIBLE! • Constitution can be changed (amended) in 4 ways: 1 — Proposal by congress (2/3 vote both houses) ~ratified/accepted by ¾ vote of state legislature 2 — 2/3 vote both houses ~ratification ¾ Const Convention in ¾ States 3 & 4 never used.
Amending the Constitution
Anti-Feds wanted more rights for the people protected sooooo…… • Bill of Rights: (1 st 10 amendments) – created to get anti-federalist to approve the new Const. – restricts const, and grants individual rights
The Bill of Rights 1: freedom of religion, press, & speech 2: right to bare arms 3: no housing soldiers 4: no illegal search and seizure 5: right not to incriminate one self/ no double jeopardy 6: Right to a speedy & fair trial 7: Trial by a jury of your peers 8: No Cruel or unusual punishment 9: Just b/c its not stated doesn’t mean it doesn’t exist! 10: Everything in the Constitution is up to the states to interpret
THE END!!!!!!!!! Now get ready to do a cheat sheet and have test =) =)