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A day that will live in Infamy December Th 7 1941 Pearl Harbor, the movie, clip of Peal Harbor attack, 2: 48 https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=bx. Is. VYd. B 0 l. A
World War II 8 -6. 5 Focus Question: What impact did World War II have on the state of South Carolina?
By the late 1930’s, the American economy was improving and the worst of the Great Depression was over. But there was trouble in other parts of the world….
Adolf Hitler, the Nazi dictator of Germany believed that the Germans were the superior race. He set out to conquer Europe and cleanse it. Millions of Jews were sent to concentration camps and more than 6 million were put to death in gas chambers. New arrivals at roll call in Buchenwald
When the war started in Europe in 1939, Americans were determined to stay out of the conflict. President Roosevelt sent ships and supplies to help the Allied Powers- Great Britain, France and Russia. Hitler’s efforts to take over Europe and exterminate the Jewish people drew the world into World War II.
On December 7, 1941, Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. Hundreds of U. S. aircraft, along with several U. S. Navy battleships, cruisers, and destroyers were destroyed or damaged. More than 2400 Americans were killed another 1300 injured.
The next day, the United States declared war on Japan and joined the Allied Powers. FDR’s declaration of war 3 minute video clip: https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=3 Vq. QAf 74 fs. E
No More Mr. Nice Guy Immediately after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, the United States was anxious to retaliate against the Japanese, whose sneak attack had brought the United States out of isolationism and into the war in Europe as well as the Pacific.
The U. S. Government was drafting young men into the armed services and preparing for war. Many South Carolinians served in the armed forces. Many others were not fit for service. One third of young white men and one half of black men were either illiterate or in such poor health that they could not serve. This was a startling indication of the poverty of South Carolina.
A group of bomber pilots under the leadership of James Doolittle trained in Columbia at Fort Jackson to engage in an air attack to be launched from aircraft carriers on Tokyo. The attack helped to lift the morale of Americans. 5 min. video clip https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=KQ 6 dv. G 8 a. BT 0 1: 36 video clip https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Vn. NEu. YIl. Eas
Military bases throughout South Carolina employed thousands of civilians. Military camps that had been established during World War I in South Carolina reopened to serve as training bases for the thousands of young men drafted into the armed services Camp Jackson in Columbia became Fort Jackson.
The Charleston Navy yards increased production of destroyers. It produced more than 300 medium and small-sized vessels. At least 70, 000 South Carolinians found employment in factories producing war materials.
The economy of South Carolina and the United States began to climb out of the Great Depression as the result of government spending on war preparations.
Segregation and economic oppression were daily realities for black people in South Carolina. President Roosevelt would sign an order to ban discrimination in factories producing war goods.
Roles for women were changing at this time. Demand for workers in South Carolina was so great that factories began to employ women to perform jobs once held by men alone. A woman’s place was no longer to be just in the home.
African American pilots were trained at the air base at the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama. Commanded by white officers, the Tuskegee Airmen supported the allied invasion of Italy. Then they were assigned to escort heavy bombers on raids against strategic enemy targets. This air campaign was directed at weakening Germany prior to the D-Day invasion. Red tails clip 3 min. Tuskegee Airmen https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=ph-Sl 4 j. X 124
Several of the Tuskegee airmen earned the Distinguished Flying Cross and the airmen proved that African American pilots could shoot down enemy aircraft as well as or better than white air crews. African American soldiers served in segregated units commanded by white officers in the fight for freedom. When they returned to the states many were determined to fight to end segregation.
Just as people did throughout the United States, South Carolinians collected scrap metal and rubber for the war effort. They used ration books to get their share of the short supply of food and fuel and they bought war bonds to fund the war effort. There are two numbers on the shelves. One is the cost. The other is the number of ration stamps needed to buy it.
At the home front, life was characterized by war bonds, collections for relief agencies, rationing and numerous recycling drives. Items important to the war effort, such as, gasoline, lard, tires, as well as food items like coffee, tea, and sugar were rationed.
When the war was over they had savings to use to buy the automobiles and goods that were not available during the war. When V-E Day and V-J Day finally arrived, South Carolina and the United States were poised to enter a period of prosperity.
The war finally ended in 1945. Historians estimate that between 30 million and 60 million people were killed during World War II.
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