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Описание презентации A Brief History Of Medicine Part 1 Ancient по слайдам
A Brief History Of Medicine Part 1 Ancient Times
People have had illness. People have tried to explain the cause of disease. Humans have sought cures for sicknesses. Throughout History
Sickness vs. Injury Humans have long understood the difference between sickness and injury.
Time Period 3000 BC to 20, 000 BC Includes many Stone Age cultures Bronze Age Iron Age Life span usually 25 to 40 years Very little evidence available Archaeological evidence No written records
Common Diseases Arthritis Infections after injury Gum disease Infected teeth (abscess)
Causes of Disease Supernatural Causes: Evil spirits Angry ancestors Actual Causes: Less varied diets Malnutrition Cleanliness Issues
Cures & Medicine Herbs were commonly used Uses discovered by trial & error http: //www. abpischools. org. uk/res/co. Resource. Import/resources 04/history/index-2. cfm
Items Used Natural oils Used snakeroot to calm patients. Used foxglove to stimulate the heart. Used fungus to stop bleeding
Cures & Medicine Man or Shaman Religious ceremonies to counter evil spirits Used charms, spells, and amulets
Major Accomplishments Use of clay to set broken bones
Major Accomplishments Trepanning – primitive brain surgery Goal = release evil spirits
Time Period 3000 BC to 300 AD Nile River Valley
Common Diseases Records show knowledge of many different sicknesses Common cold Stomach ailments Cataracts and eye diseases Malaria, plague, perhaps smallpox Parasitic diseases ( Schistosomiasis) Leprosy, polio, tuberculosis
Causes of Disease Evil gods and demons were responsible for disease People wore amulets to ward off evil
Mummification Knew location of major organs in the body Understood function of some organs
Cures & Medicine Doctors/Priests specialized in medicine Earliest recorded doctor was Hesy-Ra from 27 th dynasty BC Had physicians (first culture to have doctors) http: //www. abpischools. org. uk/res/co. Resource. Import/resources 04/history/index-2. cfm
Herbs were used Pharmacists were skilled at preparing herbs Garlic & onion Cumin & coriander Over 700 “medicines” on record
Some Herbal Remedies Honey and milk were used for the respiratory system as well as throat irritation. Honey was wisely used to disinfect wounds. Aloe Vera was used to treat worms, relieve headaches, and soothe burns. Frankincense was used to treat throat and larynx infections. Dill was used to reduce flatulence and as a laxative Caraway was used to treat flatulence and as a breath freshener Balsam Apple or Apple of Jerusalem was used as a laxative Thyme was used as a pain reliever Poppy seeds were used to relieve insomnia, head aches, and as an anesthetic
Cures & Medicine Simple surgery Even amputations Setting broken bones Carving shows medical instruments Used ointments as anesthesia in surgery
A Few Cures Cure for Indigestion Crush a hog’s tooth and put it inside of four sugar cakes, and eat for four days. Cure for Lesions of the Skin After the scab has fallen off, mix it with fresh milk and apply it as a poultice to the wound For baldness: fat of lion, fat of hippo, fat of cat, fat of crocodile, fat of ibex, and fat of serpent, are mixed together and applied to the head.
Spiritual “Cures” The Egyptians sometimes used spells to cure illnesses. These would be said over a sick person: “O Spirit, male of female, who lurks hidden in my flesh and in my limbs, get out of my flesh. Get out of my limbs!» Remedy for a mother and child: “Come! You who drives out evil things from my stomach and my limbs. He who drinks this shall be cured just as the gods above were cured. «
Belief in Good Health Habits Bathing Shaving Special diets to purify the body Don’t eat raw fish or unclean animals
Who Were Imhotep, Hesy Re, and Peshet? Imhotep was the founder of Egyptian medicine. We do not know if he was the first physician, but he was definitely a candidate for it. Imhotep was born in 2560 B. C. in Memphis. Imhotep was best known for his engineering and architecture, not as a doctor. Hesy Re is another candidate for the first physician. He lived in Egypt around 2600 B. C. He was also one of the first people to perform oral surgery. Peshet was the first female physician. She lived in Egypt around 2500 B. C.
Major Accomplishments Written records of diseases & treatments Made connection between pulse & the heart Used compression to stop bleeding
Ancient Middle East
Time Period Ancient Babylon (modern-day Iraq) 3000 BC to
Causes of Disease Often blamed on spirits, ghosts, etc. Each spirit was responsible for a specific body part
Major Accomplishments Babylonians introduced the concepts of diagnosis, prognosis, physical examination, and medical prescriptions
Medical Men called “Ashipu” Means «sorcerer. » Most important task was to diagnose the ailment Determined which god or demon was causing the illness. Attempted to determine if the disease was the result of some error or sin on the part of the patient The phrase, «the Hand of. . . » was used to indicate the god or spirit responsible for the sickness Charms and spells were used to entice away or drive out the spirit causing the disease
Next, the Asu Specialist in herbal remedies Called «physician» because he dealt in what were often classifiable as empirical applications of medication. For example, when treating wounds the asu generally relied on three fundamental techniques: washing, bandaging, and making plasters. All three of these techniques of the asu appear in the world’s oldest known medical document (c. 2100 BCE).
Time Period Around 800 BC, first book on medicine and surgery was complied in ancient India
Causes of Disease Ayurveda was a science of medicine begun in about 1000 BC 1 st scientific study of medicine Uses medicinal herbs No beliefs in supernatural causes
Major Accomplishments Shushruta- Samhita is the oldest treatise dealing with surgery. The main medical practitioners were Atraya, Charaka and Shusruta. Shushruta studied human anatomy with an aid of a dead body. He had described in great detail 8 branches of surgery
Major Accomplishments Plastic surgery and ophthalmology (removing cataracts) The restoration of mutilated nose or rhinoplasty was one of the greatest contributions of Shushruta. The success rate was very high attracting people from all the country and outside. He meticulously carried out the operation almost similar to the steps followed by modern day plastic surgeons.
What people knew People knew flies could cause illnesses like stomach ache and diarrhea. They knew that other raw food could also cause diseases. During smallpox outbreaks doctors told people to stay inside or away from somebody who had it.