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6. Destination Positioning, Branding and Image Management World Tourism Organization Manila, 20 – 22 6. Destination Positioning, Branding and Image Management World Tourism Organization Manila, 20 – 22 March 2006 R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius

DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT SESSION COVERAGE • Destination positioning & branding: what DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT SESSION COVERAGE • Destination positioning & branding: what are they & why are they important to destination strategy? • Destination brand development & architecture • Destination image – determinants & influences • Strategic image management tools & techniques • Role & importance of the media • Dealing with crises • Evaluating marketing effectiveness R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius

DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT DESTINATION POSITIONING • Unique position in relation to DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT DESTINATION POSITIONING • Unique position in relation to competitors, based on • Differentiation of offering • Cost of offering • Specialized focus of offering • Positioning should • Be consistent with market requirements • Cost and value for money (high cost-low volume, low cost-high volume) • Market trends and preferences (exploration, experiential, romanticism, relaxation) • Convenience of purchase (ease of access, packaging, time limits, etc. ) • Demographic trends (family/individual, age groups, etc. ) • Be consistent with resources • Features and Resources • Capability to deliver requirements R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius

DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT GENERIC POSITIONING STRATEGIES Generic strategy Key strategy elements DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT GENERIC POSITIONING STRATEGIES Generic strategy Key strategy elements Resource and organizational requirements Cost leadership Investment in scale-efficient plant; design of products for ease of operation; control of overheads; R&D; avoidance of marginal customer accounts. Access to capital; process engineering skills; frequent reports; tight cost control; structured organization and responsibilities; incentives relating to quantitative targets. Differentiation Emphasis on branding and brand advertising, design, service and quality. Marketing abilities; product engineering skills; creativity; capability in basic research; subjective rather than quantitative measurement and incentives; strong interfunctional co-ordination. R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius

DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT DIFFERENTIATING THE DESTINATION Assess current position Select desired DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT DIFFERENTIATING THE DESTINATION Assess current position Select desired position Strategy to achieve desired position Implement strategy • Using Unique Selling Proposition(s) (USP) • Unique/exceptional when compared to competitors • Unique/exceptional appeal in relation to market needs • Could be a single factor or a combination of factors, e. g. broad based (time, cost and general experiences) • Core, broad based proposition across market segments + focused propositions for particular market segments • Signaling the destination position through destination branding R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius

DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT THE BRAND: PERSONIFYING THE DESTINATION • Unique combination DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT THE BRAND: PERSONIFYING THE DESTINATION • Unique combination of product characteristics and added values, both tangible and non-tangible, which have taken on a relevant meaning that is inextricably linked to the destination, awareness of which may be conscious or intuitive • Not only a trademark (logo or icon), but an experience and image that signals a value system – e. g. airline from advertising to flying • Destination branding challenges • Budget limitation – Sony ($300 m p. a. ) vs global destination advertising ($350 m p. a. ) – outsmart rather than outspend • Political interference, dynamics and changes • External environment • Product challenges – delivering the brand • Differentiation challenges – sustainable, believable and relevant • Major potential value – Vodacom $700 m; Malibu rum GBP 540 m; Coca Cola $69 billion; David Beckham at Man United $100 000/week • Strong movement towards emotional , less tangible benefits – the hearts and minds R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius

DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT THE BENEFITS OF EFFECTIVE DESTINATION BRANDING • • DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT THE BENEFITS OF EFFECTIVE DESTINATION BRANDING • • Customer loyalty Commercial value Serves as base to co-ordinate private sector efforts Sound base for establishing “seamlessness” between communication tools • Serves as base for promotion of other products (Film brands, agricultural product brands, etc. ) • Irishness and Scottishness R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius

DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT High BRAND WINNERS: RICH IN EMOTIONAL APPREAL, GREAT DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT High BRAND WINNERS: RICH IN EMOTIONAL APPREAL, GREAT CONVERSATION VALUE AND HIGH ANTICIPATION Problem Places Low Celebrities Losers Emotional pull Potential Stars Low R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius Celebrity Value High

DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT BUILDING THE BRAND • 5 Key Phases • DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT BUILDING THE BRAND • 5 Key Phases • Market Investigation, analysis and strategic recommendations • Brand identity development • Brand launch and introduction – communicating the vision • Brand implementation • Monitoring, evaluation and review • Requirements of a successful brand • Credible • Deliverable • Differentiating • Conveying powerful ideas • Enthusing for trade partners • Resonating with the consumer R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius

DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT BRAND BUILDING ELEMENTS AND BENFITS 6. What is DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT BRAND BUILDING ELEMENTS AND BENFITS 6. What is the essential nature and character of the destination Brand Essence 5. What does the value mean for the typical repeat visitor Brand Values 4. What key traits and characteristic s of the destination are communicated by the brand – both head and heart? 3. What psychological rewards or emotional benefits do tourists receive by visiting this destination? How does the tourist feel? 2. What benefits to the tourist results from this destination’s feature? 1. What are the tangible, verifiable, objective, measurable characteristics of this destination? R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius Brand Personality Emotional Benefits Rational/physical benefits Primary Attributes

DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT BRAND ARCHITECTURE • Blueprint to guide brand building, DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT BRAND ARCHITECTURE • Blueprint to guide brand building, development and marketing • Should reflect positioning, rational (head) and emotional (heart) benefits and personality • Take cognizance of destination composition (national, regional, city and town) and facilitate synergy • Identify suprabrands and sub-brand, based on geographical and product differentiations (e. g. Cape: South Africa, Cape Garden Route, Cape Wine, etc. ) • Brand architecture reflected in destination trademarks (logos, insignia), marketing collateral, advertising concepts, etc. R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius

DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT Least Degree of Separation Most Branded House Master DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT Least Degree of Separation Most Branded House Master Brand Sub brands Endorsed Brands House of Brands BMW Mercedes VW: Jetta, Golf, etc. Strong or token Endorsements SAB, Unilever, etc. R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius

DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT BRAND AUSTRALIA (ATC, 1997): Logo yellow kangaroo against DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT BRAND AUSTRALIA (ATC, 1997): Logo yellow kangaroo against red sun over background of green and blue sea Brand Values Brand Personality Youthful, energetic, optimistic, stylish, unpretentious, genuine, open, fund Youthful Stylish Vibrant Diverse Adventurous Colours: • Red: Earth, desert, centre, outback • Blue: Sky, sea, cool, endless • Green: Bush, rainforest, environment, clean • Yellow: Warm, nights, life, energy, sun youth, friendly R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius

DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT EVOLVING BRAND AUSTRALIA POST-OLYMPICS: “AUSTRALIA: IN A DIFFERENT DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT EVOLVING BRAND AUSTRALIA POST-OLYMPICS: “AUSTRALIA: IN A DIFFERENT LIGHT” • Rejuvenating the brand to fit with futuristic image • Olympics etc. put Australia on map as youthful, energetic, “can do” • To remain fresh and vibrant and relevant : future focus on light, colours • Re-enforce energy, but more mature and futuristic • See brand clips R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius

DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT BRAND ARCHITECTURE: BRITAIN (BTA, 1997) Area Positioning Rational DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT BRAND ARCHITECTURE: BRITAIN (BTA, 1997) Area Positioning Rational Benefit Emotional benefits Personality Britain Traditional heritage and the unconventional Heritage, landscape, arts and culture, people I feel stimulated by the enriching, often paradoxical experience of Britain. At ease among the open friendly culture Great/solid yet accessible. Cold in appearance yet friendly. Traditional yet innovative London Pageantry and pop Diverse culture, arts, glamour pageantry, nightlife, music, cosmopolitan, fashion I feel liberated by the vibrancy of London. Stimulated by the wealth of heritage and culture Open-minded. Casual, Unorthodox. Vibrant. Creative Scotland Fire and Stone Rugged, unspoilt, wilderness, dramatic scenery, romantic history, heritage/folklore, warm & feisty people I feel in awe of the elements in Scotland. Embraced and rejuvenated by the warmth of the people Independent. Warm. Mysterious. Rugged. Feisty Whales Nature and legend Natural, dramatic beauty, poetry and song, legend and mystery I feel inspired by the lyrical beauty of Whales. Uplifted by the spirituality of the environment Honest. Welcoming. Romantic. Down to Earth. Passion England Lush, green discovery Afternoon teas, quaint pubs, cathedrals, rivers, canals, lakes I feel fulfilled by experiencing the quaint culture. Relaxed by the harmonious countryside. Soothed by the outdoors Conservative. Pleasant. Refined. Hearty. Humorous. Approachable R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius

DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT INTERNALIZING THE BRAND • For the brand to DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT INTERNALIZING THE BRAND • For the brand to be authentic and deliver on its promise the local community and stakeholders should believe in it and live it • Best brand champions are our citizens – could also be worst enemies if they don’t subscribe to brand essence • Strategy required to communicate and advocate the brand internally • Practical ways of instilling the brand values within the community • Capacitate and enable leadership figures to live the brand infuse the population • See “Alive with Possibilities” video clip R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius

DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT UNDERSTANDING TOURISM DESTINATIONS • What is a tourist DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT UNDERSTANDING TOURISM DESTINATIONS • What is a tourist destination? * one product – but also many * many stakeholders with different goals * both physical & socio-cultural aspects * mental concept for potential visitors * subject to a wide range of influences * subject to historical, real & fictitious events * evaluated subjectively for value-for-money * no two destinations the same!! R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius

DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT INFLUENCES ON DESTINATION’S IMAGE • Education • Personal DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT INFLUENCES ON DESTINATION’S IMAGE • Education • Personal contacts • Media • Advertising • Brochures & website • Own experience R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius

DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIC IMAGE MANAGEMENT Ongoing process of: * researching DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIC IMAGE MANAGEMENT Ongoing process of: * researching a place’s image * segmenting & targeting its image & audiences * positioning the place’s benefits to support existing or changed image * communicating those benefits to the target audiences (Kotler, Haider & Rein, 1993) R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius

DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIC IMAGE MANAGEMENT Ongoing process because images change DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIC IMAGE MANAGEMENT Ongoing process because images change over time and in response to events, media coverage etc Consider: Iraq: good to bad South Africa: bad to good R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius

DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT ASSESSING PLACE IMAGE Two-part process: * select target DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT ASSESSING PLACE IMAGE Two-part process: * select target segments * measure the image held by those segments Three approaches to measuring image: * familiarity-favourability scales * semantic differential * evaluative maps R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius

DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT FAMILIARITY-FAVOURABILITY SCALES Familiarity – awareness Scale of responses: DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT FAMILIARITY-FAVOURABILITY SCALES Familiarity – awareness Scale of responses: Never heard of it > Heard of it > Know a little about it > Know a fair amount about it > Know it very well R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius

DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT FAMILIARITY-FAVOURABILITY SCALES Favourability – positive/negative perception Scale of DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT FAMILIARITY-FAVOURABILITY SCALES Favourability – positive/negative perception Scale of responses: Very unfavourable > Somewhat unfavourable > Indifferent > Somewhat favourable > Very favourable Helps define what image issues a destination needs to address and to which target segments R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius

DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL Tests respondents’ perceptions on a set DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL Tests respondents’ perceptions on a set of relevant dimensions for a particular theme eg factors in choosing a holiday destination * weather * cost * natural features * cultural interest * shopping * friendliness of host people Each factor measured on a five-point bipolar scale from positive to negative extremes i. e. very poor to very good R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius

DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT EVALUATIVE MAPS Inventory of target segments’ visual impressions DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT EVALUATIVE MAPS Inventory of target segments’ visual impressions of a place Words that represent opposites placed at either end of the scale Respondents asked to indicate where between the two extremes the place fits Cold>>>>>>>>>>>>>>Friendly Natural>>>>>>>>>>>>>Artificial Simple>>>>>>>>>>>>>Sophisticated R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius

DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNING PLACE IMAGE To be effective, DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNING PLACE IMAGE To be effective, an image must be: * valid * believable * simple & used consistently * appealing * distinctive R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius

DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT TOOLS TO COMMUNICATE AN IMAGE Slogans, themes, positions DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT TOOLS TO COMMUNICATE AN IMAGE Slogans, themes, positions Visual symbols: diverse, humorous, denying, consistent Events & deeds R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius

DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT IMAGE SITUATIONS Positive – focus on amplifying & DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT IMAGE SITUATIONS Positive – focus on amplifying & delivering image to target groups Weak – places that are small, lack attractions or do not promote Negative – requiring fundamental change prior to image redevelopment R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius

DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT IMAGE SITUATIONS Mixed – strategy to emphasise selected DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT IMAGE SITUATIONS Mixed – strategy to emphasise selected aspects & rectify others Contradictory – different groups with opposing images, stress positive points to groups with negative perceptions Overly attractive – withdraw publicity, planning restrictions R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius

DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT PREVAILING DESTINATION IMAGE THEMES Warm welcome – smiling, DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT PREVAILING DESTINATION IMAGE THEMES Warm welcome – smiling, positive body poses Diversity – beach +, different segments Amazing Thailand, Incredible India R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius

DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT PREVAILING DESTINATION IMAGE THEMES Unspoilt– pristine natural and/or DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT PREVAILING DESTINATION IMAGE THEMES Unspoilt– pristine natural and/or sociocultural aspects eg 100% Pure New Zealand R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius

DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT PREVAILING DESTINATION IMAGE THEMES ESCAPE, SIMPLICITY – often DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT PREVAILING DESTINATION IMAGE THEMES ESCAPE, SIMPLICITY – often combined eg Ireland – “live a different life”; or focused on self-pampering – “happiness” eg Dubai R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius

DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT PREVAILING DESTINATION IMAGE THEMES Old & New, Traditional DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT PREVAILING DESTINATION IMAGE THEMES Old & New, Traditional & Modern – variety Culture – Malaysia: R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius Truly Asia

DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT PREVAILING DESTINATION IMAGE THEMES Safety post 9/11 – DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT PREVAILING DESTINATION IMAGE THEMES Safety post 9/11 – “new”, “international”, “safe”, “welcome” R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius

DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT ROLE OF FOREIGN MEDIA Consumer is exposed to: DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT ROLE OF FOREIGN MEDIA Consumer is exposed to: * Newspaper travel supplements * Magazines dedicated to one aspect or another of travel & tourism * Television travel programmes * Guide books * Independent websites R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius

DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT ROLE OF FOREIGN MEDIA * Consumer is exposed DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT ROLE OF FOREIGN MEDIA * Consumer is exposed to: * Newspaper travel supplements * Magazines dedicated to one aspect or another of travel & tourism * Television travel programmes * Guide books * Independent websites POTENTIAL FRIENDS FOR DESTINATION BUT MANY HAVE MINIMAL COMMITMENT THEIR PRIMARY MOTIVE BEING TO GENERATE SUBSCRIPTION OR ADVERTISING REVENUE R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius

DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT CRISIS MANAGEMENT 1. Never underestimate the possible harm DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT CRISIS MANAGEMENT 1. Never underestimate the possible harm a crisis can do 2. Never discount the scale & influence of the media 3. Be prepared – have a crisis plan, and update it regularly 4. Set up a Communications Centre as the source of information during the crisis 5. Act fast, then issue regular updates R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius

DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT CRISIS MANAGEMENT 6. Do NOT impose a news DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT CRISIS MANAGEMENT 6. Do NOT impose a news blackout 7. Train your spokespeople 8. Put the crisis in context 9. Ensure follow-up coverage is positive 10. Do not lie! Trust is the key component of destination: foreign media relationship R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius

DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT EVALUATING MARKETING EFFECTIVENESS Big challenge for tourism marketers DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT EVALUATING MARKETING EFFECTIVENESS Big challenge for tourism marketers seeking to justify budgets Difficulty of separating out impacts of paid advertising etc from other influences Tools: * coupon response rates * website hit rates * tracking surveys R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius

DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT EVALUATING MARKETING EFFECTIVENESS Australian State of Victoria uses: DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT EVALUATING MARKETING EFFECTIVENESS Australian State of Victoria uses: * Pre-testing through focus groups * visitor surveys * omnibus surveys weighted to whole population * tourist accommodation surveys * research among regional, national & international markets R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius

DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT KEEP UP-TO-DATE Tourism market place constantly changing in DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT KEEP UP-TO-DATE Tourism market place constantly changing in response to the many influences & determinants of tourism Vital for tourism marketer to keep abreast of all relevant developments and to understand implications for the tourism product/service Trade magazines, regional organisations, tourism news websites, etc. R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius

THE COMPETITIVE CONTEXT Thank you! R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius THE COMPETITIVE CONTEXT Thank you! R. Cleverdon and M Fabricius