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480 BC Exam question: In 480 BC, the Greeks fought a major battle with the Persians. We consider this date to be the beginning of the _____ era. a. Hellenistic b. Archaic c. Good Times d. Classical e. Imperial (don’t bother to copy down wrong answers!)
SUMMARY Roman art was about POWER, PLEASURE & PRACTICALITY ARCHitecture ART: media: mosaic, fresco SCULPTURE: Realism MUSIC: not much to say
ANCIENT ROME The Spirit of Empire
map better map p. 72
Romulus & Remus
Etruscan Apollo from Veii 500 b. c Life size Baked clay (terracotta) Archaic Greek influence (smile, stance) p. 71
3 Roman Periods • Roman Republic 509 - 27 BC • Early empire 27 BC - 180 AD PAX ROMANA ends with the reign of Marcus Aurelius • Late empire 180 - 395 AD about 900 years
But first some connections and comparisons. . . Ancient Greek Hellenistic Age ends in 145 BC – why? ROMAN CONQUEST
Other cultures Ancient Egypt 3150 – 702 BC about 2500 years China ROME – 900 years Shang Dynasty starts 1523 BC; more-or-less continuous Chinese culture since then, about 3500 years Qin Dynasty consolidates China, 221 -206 BC, about 16 years Han Dynasty 206 BC – 220 CE classical phase of Chinese civilization, about 400 years
3 timelines Roman Republic Classical Greek Early & Late Imperial Rome Hellenistic Archaic Greek HAN DYNASTY - CHINA Zhou Qin Chin 3 Kingdoms 0
Classical – some definitions 1. [culturally inclusive] Definitive (defining) and enduring 2. [narrow sense] art & architecture of Greek & Roman antiquity 3. [another general sense] ‘art which aspires to emotional and physical equilibrium, rationally rather than intuitively constructed’
Roman contributions • Literature • Continuation of Greek models in art & philosophy • Architecture
Post & Lintel construction LINTEL P P O O S S T T GREEK PARTHENON
Post & Lintel drawbacks LINTEL P P O O S S T T thick narrow thick
Something new under the sun. . .
Arches – strength through compression
Pont du Gard (in France) Inventions reached their limit a long time ago, and I see no hope for further development. Julius Frontius, 1 st century AD
Archways for Aquaducts
Pantheon p. 82 -83
Interior views Engineering marvel Concrete!
Interior more spectacular than exterior
Pantheon later used as church Tuscan order of columns (with Corinthian capitals) Missing pedimental sculpture comments have been (would like Parthenon)
Coliseum • Brings together the violence and the achievements of Roman society • Home of gladiatorial contests…man vs. man, man vs. animal, animal vs. animal • Seating designed for comfort with an expandable covering over the top • Plumbing which could wash away the blood or create an ‘inland sea’ on which to have mock sea battles POWER (POLITICS) & PLEASURE
Art as propaganda Hail, Caesar Augustus! a. k. a. Octavian Ruled 27 BC – 14 AD PAX ROMANA MEMORIZE DATE: 0 Hailing Caesar p. 74 Taxi !
Ara Pacis Augustae p. 75 Altar of Augustan Peace
2: 1 length: height
p. 76 A family affair
Column of Trajan
SCALE! p. 77
art as propaganda
Portrait Sculpture Roman Realism Life as it is – fidelity to nature
Livia Augustus’ Wife Livia
Young Flavian woman Middle Aged Flavian woman
Statue of an old market woman, 1 st century A. D. ; Roman On the way to a rite of Dionysus? Probably intentionally damaged by Early Christians
Philippus the Arab, ruled 244 -249
2 -D work • Mosaics • Wall painting - fresco MEDIA
Mosaics • • • From Greek Hellenistic period Tessare - colored glass Ceramic pieces Narrow color range Technology and artistry improves to create what look like paintings
Unswept Floor Roman copy of Hellenistic original. p. 86 Trompe l’oiel “fool the eye”
Roman Painting • Fresco (buon affresco, true frecso, compared to fresco secco, dry fresco) • Pigment mixed with limewater and added to wet plaster • Wax added to surface after paint had dried to give a sheen to surface.
Villa of the Mysteries at Pompeii 65 -50 b. c. p. 87
Pompeii Buried by volcanic eruption of Vesuvius 79 AD Prosperous community of 25, 000
depicts initiation Rites of the Cult of Bacchus p. 87 from the Villa of Mysteries Pompeii
NOT actually religious—just decorative Summer house of wine merchant, richest in town Content not currently fully explained Characteristic p. 87 red background
From Pompeii, c. 62 - 79 CE. Sacral-idyllic (sacred and ideal) landscapes depict allegorical scenes in Nature.
"Gardenscape" Villa of Livia, Primaporta (Rome), c. 30 - 20 B. C. E.
Still Life from Herculaneum 50 a. d. small town near Pompeii Still life – a genre of painting featuring inanimate objects (usually (? ) associated with material wellbeing)
SUMMARY Roman art was about POWER, PLEASURE & PRACTICALITY ARCHitecture ART (2 -D) – media: mosaic, fresco SCULPTURE: Realism MUSIC: not much to say
KEY IMAGE WHAT: PANTHEON WHERE: ROME IDEA: INNOVATIONS -ARCH, concrete
KEY IMAGE WHAT (SUBJECT): CAESAR AUGUSTUS CULTURE: ROMAN IDEA: ART AS PROPAGANDA WHEN: around 0 p. 74 Taxi !
KEY IMAGE CULTURE: HELLENISTIC/ROMAN IDEA: REALISM, PLEASURE MEDIUM: MOSAIC TECHNIQUE: TROMPE L’OIEL p. 86
KEY IMAGE WHERE: from Pompeii CULTURE: ROMAN IDEA: PLEASURE MEDIUM: p. 87 FRESCO
Up to Dates? 480 BCE BEGINNING OF GREEK CLASSICAL ERA/GOLDEN AGE 0 - CAESAR AUGUSTUS IN POWER – END OF REPUBLIC, START OF EMPIRE – PAX ROMANA
UP NEXT ROME FALLS 410 CONSTANTINE AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY Chapter 5 http: //www. mapsofwar. com/images/EMPIRE 17. swf
Earlier Periods • Pre-Etruscan 1000 -700 BC • Ertruscan 700 -509 BC - strong enough to resist Greeks And then came the LATINS
Domestic Architecture • • • Domus = house Atrium = entrance to house Outside plain, inside elaborate. Homes were considered sanctuaries Atrium would often have sculptures of family members
House of Vettii Garden
Large scale rural architecture Hadrian’s Villa (2 nd c. ) • 1/2 square mile in size (c. 250 acres) • 30 buildings (now in ruins) • hundreds of statues (over 500) • mosaic floors • “Antiquarian Spirit” – Greek, Egyptian revival