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35– 1 Human Body Systems Slide 1 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 35– 1 Human Body Systems Slide 1 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

35– 1 Human Body Systems Organization of the Body How is the human body 35– 1 Human Body Systems Organization of the Body How is the human body organized? The levels of organization in a multicellular organism include: • cells • tissues • organ systems Slide 2 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

35– 1 Human Body Systems Organization of the Body Every cell in the human 35– 1 Human Body Systems Organization of the Body Every cell in the human body is both an independent unit and an interdependent part of a larger community—the entire organism. Slide 3 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

35– 1 Human Body Systems Organization of the Body Cells A cell is the 35– 1 Human Body Systems Organization of the Body Cells A cell is the basic unit of structure and function in living things. Individual cells in multicellular organisms are specialized. Specialized cells are suited to perform a particular function. Slide 4 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

35– 1 Human Body Systems Organization of the Body Tissues A group of cells 35– 1 Human Body Systems Organization of the Body Tissues A group of cells that perform a single function is called a tissue. There are four basic types of tissue in the human body: epithelial, connective, nervous, and muscle. Slide 5 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

35– 1 Human Body Systems Organization of the Body Epithelial tissue includes glands and 35– 1 Human Body Systems Organization of the Body Epithelial tissue includes glands and tissues that cover interior and exterior body surfaces. Connective tissue supports the body and connects its parts. Nervous tissue transmits nerve impulses through the body. Muscle tissue, along with bones, enables the body to move. Slide 6 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

35– 1 Human Body Systems Organization of the Body Organs and Organ Systems A 35– 1 Human Body Systems Organization of the Body Organs and Organ Systems A group of different types of tissues that work together to perform a single function is called an organ. A group of organs that perform closely related functions is an organ system. There are eleven organ systems in the body. Slide 7 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

35– 1 Human Body Systems Organization of the Body Nervous System Structures: Brain, spinal 35– 1 Human Body Systems Organization of the Body Nervous System Structures: Brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves Function: Recognizes and coordinates the body’s response to changes in its internal and external environments Slide 8 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

35– 1 Human Body Systems Organization of the Body Integumentary System Structures: Skin, hair, 35– 1 Human Body Systems Organization of the Body Integumentary System Structures: Skin, hair, nails, sweat and oil glands Function: Serves as a barrier against infection and injury; helps to regulate body temperature; provides protection against ultraviolet radiation from the sun Slide 9 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

35– 1 Human Body Systems Organization of the Body Skeletal System Structures: Bones, cartilage, 35– 1 Human Body Systems Organization of the Body Skeletal System Structures: Bones, cartilage, ligaments, tendons Function: Supports the body; protects internal organs; allows movement; stores mineral reserves; provides a site for blood cell formation Slide 10 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

35– 1 Human Body Systems Organization of the Body Muscular System Structures: Skeletal muscle, 35– 1 Human Body Systems Organization of the Body Muscular System Structures: Skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, cardiac muscle Function: Works with skeletal system to produce voluntary movement; helps to circulate blood and move food through the digestive system Slide 11 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

35– 1 Human Body Systems Organization of the Body Circulatory System Structures: Heart, blood 35– 1 Human Body Systems Organization of the Body Circulatory System Structures: Heart, blood vessels, blood Function: Brings oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to cells; fights infection; removes cell wastes; helps to regulate body temperature Slide 12 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

35– 1 Human Body Systems Organization of the Body Respiratory System Structures: Nose, pharynx, 35– 1 Human Body Systems Organization of the Body Respiratory System Structures: Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchioles, lungs Function: Provides oxygen needed for cellular respiration and removes excess carbon dioxide from the body Slide 13 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

35– 1 Human Body Systems Organization of the Body Digestive System Structures: Mouth, pharynx, 35– 1 Human Body Systems Organization of the Body Digestive System Structures: Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, rectum Function: Converts food into simpler molecules that can be used by the cells of the body; absorbs food; eliminates wastes Slide 14 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

35– 1 Human Body Systems Organization of the Body Excretory System Structures: Skin, lungs, 35– 1 Human Body Systems Organization of the Body Excretory System Structures: Skin, lungs, kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra Function: Eliminates waste products from the body in ways that maintain homeostasis Slide 15 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

35– 1 Human Body Systems Organization of the Body Endocrine System Structures: Hypothalamus, pituitary, 35– 1 Human Body Systems Organization of the Body Endocrine System Structures: Hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenals, pancreas, ovaries (in females), testes (in males) Function: Controls growth, development and metabolism; maintains homeostasis Slide 16 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

35– 1 Human Body Systems Organization of the Body Reproductive System Structures: Testes, epididymis, 35– 1 Human Body Systems Organization of the Body Reproductive System Structures: Testes, epididymis, vas deferens, urethra, and penis (in males), ovaries, Fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina (in females) Function: Produces reproductive cells; in females, nurtures and protects developing embryo Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 17 of 33

35– 1 Human Body Systems Organization of the Body Lymphatic/Immune Systems Structures: White blood 35– 1 Human Body Systems Organization of the Body Lymphatic/Immune Systems Structures: White blood cells, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, lymph vessels Function: Helps protect the body from disease; collects fluid lost from blood vessels and returns the fluid to the circulatory system Slide 18 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

35– 1 Human Body Systems Maintaining Homeostasis What is homeostasis? Homeostasis is the process 35– 1 Human Body Systems Maintaining Homeostasis What is homeostasis? Homeostasis is the process by which organisms keep internal conditions relatively constant despite changes in external environments. Homeostasis in the body is maintained by feedback inhibition. Slide 19 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

35– 1 Human Body Systems Maintaining Homeostasis Feedback inhibition, or negative feedback, is the 35– 1 Human Body Systems Maintaining Homeostasis Feedback inhibition, or negative feedback, is the process in which a stimulus produces a response that opposes the original stimulus. Systems controlled by feedback inhibition are fully automated and very stable. Slide 20 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

35– 1 Human Body Systems Maintaining Homeostasis An Example of Feedback Inhibition Thermostat senses 35– 1 Human Body Systems Maintaining Homeostasis An Example of Feedback Inhibition Thermostat senses temperature change and switches off heating system Room temperature increases Room temperature decreases Thermostat senses temperature change and switches on heating system Slide 21 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

35– 1 Human Body Systems Maintaining Homeostasis In the Body Maintenance of homeostasis requires 35– 1 Human Body Systems Maintaining Homeostasis In the Body Maintenance of homeostasis requires the integration of all organ systems at all times. One example is the maintenance of a stable body temperature. Slide 22 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

35– 1 Human Body Systems Maintaining Homeostasis The hypothalamus monitors the temperature of the 35– 1 Human Body Systems Maintaining Homeostasis The hypothalamus monitors the temperature of the skin and the temperature of organs. If core body temperature drops, the hypothalamus: • causes blood vessels in the skin to constrict reducing heat loss from skin. • causes the skeletal muscles to contract involuntarily—to “shiver. ” This causes the body temperature to increase. Slide 23 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

35– 1 Human Body Systems Maintaining Homeostasis If the core body temperature increases, the 35– 1 Human Body Systems Maintaining Homeostasis If the core body temperature increases, the hypothalamus: • causes blood vessels in the skin to dilate so heat can escape from the skin. • the body produces sweat, which cools the body by evaporation. This causes the body temperature to decrease. Slide 24 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

35– 1 Click to Launch: Continue to: - or - Slide 25 of 33 35– 1 Click to Launch: Continue to: - or - Slide 25 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

35– 1 Which of the following organ systems transports oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to 35– 1 Which of the following organ systems transports oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to cells? a. circulatory system b. muscular system c. excretory system d. nervous system Slide 26 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

35– 1 The type of tissue that holds organs in place and binds different 35– 1 The type of tissue that holds organs in place and binds different parts of the body together is called a. muscle tissue. b. epithelial tissue. c. connective tissue. d. skeletal tissue. Slide 27 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

35– 1 One major function of the integumentary system is to a. help regulate 35– 1 One major function of the integumentary system is to a. help regulate body temperature. b. cause the body to move. c. provide a surface for gas exchange. d. control growth, development, and metabolism. Slide 28 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

35– 1 Which of the following is NOT an example of feedback inhibition? a. 35– 1 Which of the following is NOT an example of feedback inhibition? a. shivering to warm the body b. sweating to cool the body c. nervous tissue receiving messages d. turning on the heating system of a house Slide 29 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

35– 1 The process by which an organism keeps internal conditions relatively constant is 35– 1 The process by which an organism keeps internal conditions relatively constant is called a. a feedback loop. b. negative feedback. c. homeostasis. d. normal temperature. Slide 30 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

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