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#34 Dwight D. Eisenhower Ike in the Cold War
TWO NATIONS LIVE ON THE EDGE An H-bomb test conducted by America near Bikini Island in Pacific Ocean, 1954 • After World War II, the U. S. and U. S. S. R. competed in developing atomic and hydrogen bombs • The Soviets tested their first atomic bomb in 1949 • The U. S. began work on a bomb 67 times stronger than the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima – the hydrogen bomb
(13) THE WARSAW PACT To counter the U. S. defense alliance (NATO), in 1955 the Soviets formed their own mutual defense alliance known as the Warsaw Pact NATO WARSAW NEUTRAL
Eisenhower’s Foreign Policy a. Made no basic changes in the containment policy b. Republicans pressured him to reduce government spending c. Eisenhower and Secretary of State John Foster Dulles developed a strategy called massive retaliation.
d. Massive Retaliation meant threatening to respond to Soviet aggression anywhere in the world with a nuclear attack. e. Brinkmanship meant willing to “go to the brink” of all-out war to contain communism f. Dulles’ policy was pure bluff – neither Dulles or Eisenhower ever seriously considered dropping a nuclear bomb g. To do so would have been suicidal!
(3)End of the Korean War a. Eisenhower campaigned to end the Korean War b. Eisenhower and Dulles hinted to the Chinese and North Koreans – “peace or else” c. June 1953 – a truce was signed – no final treaty has ever been signed! d. U. S. soldiers remain at the DMZ of the 38 th Parallel
Demilitarized Zone (buffer zone) of the th Parallel 38
Strengthening of Communism a. East Germany (1953) and Hungary (1956) both revolted (civil wars, revolutions) against their communist governments – but Eisenhower did not intervene!
THE HUNGARIAN UPRISING The Soviets responded to the Hungarian revolt with tanks • Dominated by the Soviet Union since the end of WWII, the Hungarian people rose up in revolt in 1956 - they wanted a Democracy • Led by Imre Nagy, the liberal Communist leader of Hungary, the people demanded free elections and the end of Soviet domination The Soviets’ response was swift and brutal – 30, 000 Hungarians were killed (including Nagy) as the Soviets reasserted control
b. France was forced out of Vietnam (Vietnam was a French colony known as French Indochina since the 1860 s) in 1954 by Communist forces led by Ho Chi Minh. (9) The Geneva Accords of 1956 divided Vietnam along the 17 th Parallel – Communist North Vietnam and Democratic South Vietnam.
North Vietnam=Communist South Vietnam = Democratic
(7) Domino Theory • The domino effect is a chain reaction that occurs when a small change causes a similar change nearby, which then will cause another similar change… Why would America care about Vietnam? Way over there… on the other side of the world? If Vietnam falls to communism… so will their neighbor… and …
(5) Army-Mc. Carthy Hearings • Remember… • 1950, Senator Joseph R. Mc. Carthy of Wisconsin charged the state department was riddled with traitors. These accusations created a sense of hysteria across the country
• 1954 – one of Mc. Carthy’s assistants was drafted into the army – Mc. Carthy tried unsuccessfully to get him excused from service • Mc. Carthy announced an investigation of “ subversive (communist spy) activities” in the US Army • Resulted in the televised Army. Mc. Carthy Hearings
Senator Joseph Mc. Carthy • Millions of people watched the empty charges of Mc. Carthy which eventually led to his demise • Mc. Carthy was censured (a slap on the hand) by the Senate – he remained a senator until his death in 1957 • The fear of communist infiltration relaxed in the US
THE COLD WAR SPREADS • With the threat of the powerful communist Soviet Union and the Cold War looming, President Truman soon recognized the need for a centralized intelligence system, even in peacetime. • As the Cold War heated up, the U. S. depended more and more on information compiled by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) • The CIA began attempts to weaken or overthrow foreign governments that "We went all over the were unfriendly to the U. S. (not world and we did what we wanted. God, we had fun. " something the Soviets would exactly approve of. . . ) -- Al Ulmer, chief of the CIA's 1950’s Far East division
COVERT (secret) ACTIONS IN THE MIDDLE EAST • One of the first covert operations occurred in the Middle East The last Shah of Iran Mohammad Reza Pahlavi » » - In Iran the U. S. orchestrated the return of the pro- U. S. Shah of Iran in 1953
Covert Operations in Latin America An approach launched in the 1950's, when confident WWII vets set out to stop Communism with a new kind of warfare that would eventually be called counterinsurgency. It is well known that the CIA engineered a coup in Guatemala in 1954, and that Americans lavished training and equipment on US-friendly Governments. • In 1954, the CIA also took covert actions in Guatemala (a Central America country just south of Mexico) • The U. S. believed Guatemala was on the verge of becoming Communist, so the CIA trained an army which invaded the small country • The actions eventually failed as a military dictator rose to power
LONG after its humiliations in the U-2 and Bay of Pigs fiascos, the C. I. A. continued reaching into its bag of tricks to assure that Guatemala would not become a failure. ''It's one of the saddest chapters of American relations with Latin America, '' said Frederick Hitz, the C. I. A. inspector general from 1990 to 1998. ''The United States felt responsible for what it started by removing their communistfriendly leader, and essentially we were trapped. We started something and didn't know how to get off the train. '' Following an investigation of the matter, in 1995 the Clinton Administration's Intelligence Oversight Board, expressed bewilderment. ''The board asked itself: the cold war's over -- what are we doing down there? ''
A Thaw in the Cold War?
(4) Stalin died in 1953 – Nikita Khrushchev became the Soviet Premier b. Many thought there might be a “thaw in the cold war” due to a new Soviet leader.
Did Stalin die of natural causes or was Stalin killed • Official Cause of Death…. Brain Hemorrhage or Stroke • The story- Stalin went to bed one night after drinking and was later (20 hours later- they were afraid to go in and check on him) found by his advisors/guards laying in a urine soaked bed unable to speak. Their fear of the leader was the reasoning behind their inaction towards Stalin's state.
• Conspiracy? ? Stalin was injected with poison by the guard Khrustalev, under the orders of his master, KGB chief Lavrenty Beria, because he was about to plunge the Soviet Union into a war its people were in no position to fight… What do you believe?
Now- with a new Soviet Leader… In July 1955 –(4)The Geneva Summit Meeting of world leaders met to discuss a possible end to the Cold War. E I S E N H O W E R K H R U S H C H E V
(15) Suez Canal Crisis a. Egypt (backed by USSR) invaded Israel in 1956 and seized control of the Suez Canal b. Israel fought back – joined by Great Britain and France – both wanted to reopen the canal.
c. Eisenhower was in a dilemma – the U. S. backed Israel and were allies with Great Britain and France. d. Eisenhower rejected using force to regain the canal – he demanded the 3 nations withdraw from Egypt.
e. Soviets demanded the same, and Egypt kept control of the Suez Canal (not much of a thaw…. ) f. USSR will enjoy a much closer relationship with the Arab nations after this We countered this with (18) the Eisenhower Doctrine (1957), which pledged military aid to any Middle Eastern country fighting communism.
(19) Sputnik and the Cold War Space Race a. October 4, 1957 – the Soviets launched the first satellite into space- they “intellectually” beat the US (1 point for the soviets) b. Sputnik (Russian word for “traveling companion”) c. Sputnik traveled around earth at 18, 000 miles an hour, circling the globe every 96 minutes d. November, the Russians launched Sputnik II – dog onboard!
Sputnik 1 and Sputnik 2 Russian Satellites
(25) National Aerospace and Aeronautics (NASA) was created in 1958 to promote space research and show that Americans were intellectually capable. d. The U. S. had MANY embarrassing feats – but finally launched a small satellite in February 1958.
(8) Congress passed the National Defense Education Act because Americans were determined to catch up to the Soviets –to ensure American students were studying math and science. g. NDEA: $887 million in loans to needy college students for the improvement of teaching the sciences and languages.
U-2 PLANES SPY ON SOVIETS • In the late 1950 s, the CIA began secret high-altitude spy missions over Soviet territory • The U-2’s infra-red cameras took detailed pictures of Soviet troop movements & missile sites
(28)U-2 Affair a. 1960 – the Soviets shot down an American U-2 spy plane. b. Eisenhower denied that we had a plane on a spying mission. c. Khrushchev revealed that the pilot had survived – and they knew EXACTLY what he’d been doing!
d. GREAT embarrassment to the Eisenhower administration. e. Powers had parachuted into Soviet territory, was captured and sentenced to 10 -years in prison d. Powers was released in 1962 in exchange for convicted Soviet spy Rudolph Abel
d. Ike promised flights would stop but would not apologize. There was no more thawing of the Cold War between Ike and Khrushchev after this! e. To the rest of the world…this made America look like the aggressor nation f. Because of this incident, the 1960 s opened with tension between the two superpowers as great as ever
(26) Communism in Cuba? • On January 8, 1959, Fidel Castro's Communist Friendly army rolled victoriously into Havana, Cuba only 90 miles from the US. As news of the fall of Batista's government spread through Havana, The New York Times described the scene as one of jubilant crowds pouring into the streets and automobile horns honking.
(27) Alaska • The 49 th State in added in 1959. Purchased from USSR in 1867 for its strategic location and vast natural resources
(27) Hawaii • 50 th State, also added in 1959 • Location!!!