Скачать презентацию 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT Islamabad Скачать презентацию 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT Islamabad

5a82517ebcdbef586e91943ea1d681fe.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 62

26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

wireless local loop By Dr. Izhar-ul-Hq ICT, ISLAMABAD 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, wireless local loop By Dr. Izhar-ul-Hq ICT, ISLAMABAD 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

What is WLL stands for Wireless Local Loop and it is basically the use What is WLL stands for Wireless Local Loop and it is basically the use of radio to provide a telephone connection to the home. It is sometimes called radio in the loop (RITL) or fixed-radio access (FRA). When WLL connects subscribers to the public switched telephone network (PSTN), radio signals are used as a substitute for copper for all or part of the connection between the subscriber and the switch. Included in this is: cordless access systems, proprietary fixed radio access, and fixed cellular systems. 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

Basic WLL communication system 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad Basic WLL communication system 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

Copper versus Wireless: The Cost of the Last Mile 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ Copper versus Wireless: The Cost of the Last Mile 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

Overview • Throughout the world of telecommunications professionals there has been a dramatic rise Overview • Throughout the world of telecommunications professionals there has been a dramatic rise in interest in the WLL technology. In the late 20 th century, industry analysts predicted that the global WLL market would reach millions of subscribers by the year 2000. An article in ‘Red Herring’ magazine in 1997 predicted that, “the WLL market is expected to grow from $563 million in 1996 to at least $6. 3 billion in 2002”. Much of this growth is occurring in emerging economies where half the world's population lacks plain old telephone service (POTS). Developing nations like China, India, Brazil, Russia, and Indonesia are looking to WLL technology as an efficient way to deploy POTS for millions of subscribers—without the expense of burying tons of copper wire. Later on in this document the economics of WLL will further be delved into. 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

 • One of the best economic contributions WLL makes in developed economies is • One of the best economic contributions WLL makes in developed economies is that it helps to unlock competition in the local loop, this enables new operators to bypass existing wireline networks to deliver POTS and data access. It will be shown throughout that the question isn't “will the local loop go wireless? ”, but, “when and where? ”. The aim of this Lecture is to discuss the history and basics of WLL, and look at the impact in Pakistan and the world. It will also examine the markets both past and present, and attempt to judge the future for this technology. 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

History of WLL Wireless access first started to become a possibility in the 1950 History of WLL Wireless access first started to become a possibility in the 1950 s and 1960 s as simple radio technology reduced in price. For some remote communities in isolated parts of the country, the most effective manner of providing communication was to provide a radio, kept in a central part of the community. By the end of the 1970 s, communities linked by radio often had dedicated radio links to each house, the links connected into the switch such that they were used in the same manner as normal twisted-pair links. The widespread deployment of the cellular base station into switching sites helped with cost reduction. Similar access using point-to-point microwave links still Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ 26 June 2007 continues to be widely used today. CIIT, Islamabad

 During the reunification of West and East Germany, much funding was put into During the reunification of West and East Germany, much funding was put into increasing the teledensity in East Germany. The installation of twisted-pair access throughout would have been a slow process. In the interim, cellular radio was seen to offer a stop-gap measure to provide rapid telecommunications capability. So in East Germany a number of cellular networks, based upon the analog Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) standard, were deployed in the 800 MHz frequency range. The key difference was that subscribers had fixed unit mounted to the sides of their houses to increase the signal strength and hence allow the networks to be constructed with larger cells for lower costs. Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ Thus, we see the first WLL network was. CIIT, Islamabad born. 26 June 2007

Historical Path Early 1950 s. Single-channel VHF subscriber equipment was purchased from Motorola, but Historical Path Early 1950 s. Single-channel VHF subscriber equipment was purchased from Motorola, but the maintenance costs were too high as a result of the valve technology used and the power consumption too high. The trial was discontinued and the subscribers were connected by wire 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

Mid-1950 s. Raytheon was given seed funds to develop 6 GHz band equipment, which Mid-1950 s. Raytheon was given seed funds to develop 6 GHz band equipment, which would have a better reliability and a lower power consumption. The designers failed to achieve those goals and the system still proved too expensive 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

Late 1950 s. Some equipment capable of providing mobile service to rural communities was Late 1950 s. Some equipment capable of providing mobile service to rural communities was put on trial. Users were prepared to pay a premium for mobile use, but the system still proved to be too expensive in a fixed application for which users were not prepared to pay a premium. 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

Early 1960 s Systems able to operate on a number of radio channels were Early 1960 s Systems able to operate on a number of radio channels were developed, eliminating the need for each user to share a specific channel and thus increase capacity. The general lack of channels and high cost, however, made these systems unattractive. 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

Early 1970 s. A Canadian manufacturer developed equipment operating at 150 MHz that proved Early 1970 s. A Canadian manufacturer developed equipment operating at 150 MHz that proved successful in serving fixed subscribers on the Island of Lake Superior. The lack of frequencies in the band, however, precluded its widespread use. 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

1970 s Late. The radio equipment from several US manufacturers was linked to provide 1970 s Late. The radio equipment from several US manufacturers was linked to provide service to isolated Puerto Rican villages. The service was possible only because the geographical location allowed the use of additional channels, providing greater capacity than would have been possible elsewhere. 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

Early 1980 s. • Communication satellites were examined for rural applications but were rejected Early 1980 s. • Communication satellites were examined for rural applications but were rejected as being too expensive. • 1985. Trials of a point-to-multipoint radio system using digital modulation promised sufficient capacity and reliability to make WLL look promising. 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

Four different flavours of WLL systems Cellular-based systems consisting of a network of base Four different flavours of WLL systems Cellular-based systems consisting of a network of base stations. The older systems are usually based on analogue technology, which is well proven and low-cost, but provides reduced speech quality, limited data capacity and low security. Examples include NMT 450/900, AMPS, TACS, N-AMPS. The newer digital systems offer better spectrum usage and are costeffective for voice but are less standardised and still provide only limited fax/data throughput. Examples include GSM, DCS 1800/PCS 1900, IS-136/D-AMPS, IS-95 800/1900. 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

 Cordless-based systems. These provide efficient spectrum usage in high densities but with limited Cordless-based systems. These provide efficient spectrum usage in high densities but with limited range, making high infrastructure costs for smaller cell sizes. Examples include DECT, CT-2, PHS. 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

 Proprietary systems. These are usually custom-designed for the application and provide high quality Proprietary systems. These are usually custom-designed for the application and provide high quality voice and data services, and other enhanced services. While many of these systems provide superior service to the cordless and digital cellular standards, they must overcome the inertia created by the high installed base of the older technologies. These include FDMA, TDMA, CDMA systems, such as the products made by Qualcomm and Granger. 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

 Satellite-based systems, as described above, are also proprietary and are mainly focussed on Satellite-based systems, as described above, are also proprietary and are mainly focussed on the mobile market, but fixed line access is also envisaged in a few years. These provide global coverage in virtually all environments, but currently have very high usage costs and there are still unresolved domestic control issues. Examples include Iridium and Globalstar. 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

WLL encoding • • Safety Security Minimum of errors Most efficient data transfer 26 WLL encoding • • Safety Security Minimum of errors Most efficient data transfer 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

Speech encoding In digital radio systems it is necessary to turn voice signals, which Speech encoding In digital radio systems it is necessary to turn voice signals, which analog into a digital data stream. Speech encoding is a highly complex topic and a full treatment is well beyond the bounds of this talk. The simplest speech encoders are essentially analog-to-digital converters. The analog speech waveform is sampled periodically, and the instantaneous voltage level associated with the speech is converted into a digital level. The two main parameters are: how frequently the speech is sampled "sample rate" and how many different bits are used to describe the voltage level. 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

Error-correction coding and interleaving Information transmitted via a radio channel is liable to be Error-correction coding and interleaving Information transmitted via a radio channel is liable to be corrupted. Interference, fading and random noise cause errors to be received, the level of which depends on the severity of the interference. Error correction is widely deployed in mobile radio, where fast fading is almost universally present. It is less critical in WLL, where the LOS path results in less severe problems. Nevertheless it is still necessary, especially for computer data transfer. Error-correction systems work by adding redundancy to the transmitted signal. The receiver checks that the redundant data is as expected; if it is not, the receiver can make error correction decisions. Error-correction methodologies fall into two categories, block coding or convolutional coding. Both are highly involved and mathematical and are beyond the scope of this talk. 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

Ciphering Almost all modern radio systems rely on some form of ciphering to provide Ciphering Almost all modern radio systems rely on some form of ciphering to provide secure transmission. The use of such security techniques both reassures the user that the conversation cannot be overheard and allows the operator to authenticate the user. Most ciphering schemes are relatively straightforward. The base station and the subscriber unit agree on a "mask" on a call-by-call basis. To the covert listener, who does not know the mask, the data is incomprehensible. 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

Multiple access WLL technologies have differed over the years in the multiple access technologies Multiple access WLL technologies have differed over the years in the multiple access technologies that they use. A decision about which technology to adopt will depend upon the application. Each operator has a given amount of radio spectrum to divide among its users. There are broadly three main ways to do this 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

 • Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), in which the frequency is divided into • Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), in which the frequency is divided into a number of slots and each user access a particular slot for a length of a call • Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), in which each user access all the frequency but for only a short period of time • Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), in which each user access all the frequency for all the time but distinguishes the transmission through the use of a particular code 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

CDMA: One of Multi-Access Technology CDMA Time Code User 3 User 2 User 1 CDMA: One of Multi-Access Technology CDMA Time Code User 3 User 2 User 1 All users TDMA obtain service Time channel at the Frequency same time User 3 and within the same User 2 frequency FDMA Service channels are User 1 Time band allocated to different Frequency users at different times, for example: User 1 User 2 User 3 Service Channels GSM are allocated to different users at different bands, for Frequency example: TACS Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ 26 June 2007 CIIT, Islamabad system

Overview: What is CDMA? Ø CDMA stands for Overview: What is CDMA? Ø CDMA stands for "Code Division Multiple Access “ Ø CDMA is a 3 G-based technologies and can works in multi frequency band(450 MHz, 800 MHz, 1900 MHz, 2. 1 G). CDMA includes a family of standards developed by 3 GPP 2: CDMA 2000 1 X, CDMA 2000 1 x. EV-DO and CDMA 2000 1 x. EV-DV. Ø It is a popular technology and growing rapidly in both mobile and WLL environment Currently, Over 212 Millions subscribers adopt CDMA technologies. 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

What is CDMA 450? -----Multiple Working Frequency Band Ø CDMA 450 is a CDMA What is CDMA 450? -----Multiple Working Frequency Band Ø CDMA 450 is a CDMA 2000 system deployed in 450 MHz Ø CDMA 450 is the best choice for WLL with best coverage performance Ø Massive CDMA 450 Successful cases both in developing and developed country F-Band Up link Down link 1 450 MHz 450 ~ 457. 5 460 ~ 467. 5 2 800 MHz 824 ~ 849 869 ~ 894 3 1900 MHz 1850 ~ 1910 1930 ~ 1990 4 2100 MHz 1920 ~ 1980 2110 ~ 2170 450 MHz 26 June 2007 800 MHz 2. 1 GHz 1900 MHz 2100 MHz Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

CDMA System architecture introduce Mobile IN SMSC/MMSC Data Service Platform OMC Internet HA HLR CDMA System architecture introduce Mobile IN SMSC/MMSC Data Service Platform OMC Internet HA HLR GMSC MSC/VLR PDSN/FA AAA/AN-AAA PSTN Circuit domain Architecture Packet domain Architecture BSC/PCF/IWF Outdoor Macro BTS Indoor Macro BTS Soft. Site i. Site/Soft. Site Fixed Terminal 26 June 2007 Handset Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

WLL: Wireless Local Loop Ø Wireless is now accepted as an alternative local loop WLL: Wireless Local Loop Ø Wireless is now accepted as an alternative local loop technology and its use has increased dramatically by incumbents and new entrants throughout the world. Ø WLL involves the final connection between the existing telecom infrastructure and a subscriber's home by wireless technologies rather than cable Ø CDMA WLL technology, which is wireless based, is ideally suited for urban regions of Pakistan as well as congested rural areas where it is extremely difficult to lay the cables Ø CDMA WLL: an affordable alternative for wire line voice and internet access services 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

Wireless Local Loop is booming In low telecom penetration countries, there is tremendous demand Wireless Local Loop is booming In low telecom penetration countries, there is tremendous demand for new business and residential telephone service. More and more operators are looking to wireless technologies to rapidly provide thousands of new subscribers with high-quality telephone service at a reasonable price. üExisting landline operators can extend their network with WLL üCellular operators can capitalize on their current network to deliver residential service with WLL üNew service providers can quickly deploy non-traditional WLL solutions to rapidly meet a community's telephony needs The unique features and benefits of CDMA make it an excellent technology choice for fixed wireless telephone systems. 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

What Problems PTCL Meet for Seamless Coverage Last mile access - Trouble in fixed What Problems PTCL Meet for Seamless Coverage Last mile access - Trouble in fixed network C. O q. High investment • Transmit cable expense • Land rent C. O q. Long deployment delays C. O • Can’t meet increasing market q. No mobility 26 June 2007 C. O Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

Service provision Difficulty in rural areas Convenient Telecom will stimulate Economy Fact: Low telecom Service provision Difficulty in rural areas Convenient Telecom will stimulate Economy Fact: Low telecom penetration in Rural Area! • Fixed Line: • High investment, Hard for maintenance • Higher Density area is far away from C. O. or ONU • Tough terrain: Mountains, Rivers, Lakes, Deserts, Gobi and Grassland, etc. • Lack of infrastructure: transmission. . . • Low productiveness • Low population density with broad area • Less traffic per user • Maintenance cost might be higher than revenue • Satellite Transmission: Subscribers Penetration Fixed line 234, 000 9. 24% Rural 13, 000 0. 5% Mobile 279, 000 10. 54% Internet 33, 000 1. 3% (example: Tibet rural service situation) • High cost, unbearable for public 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

 WLL is The Best Solution q. Low investment • Transmission in the air, WLL is The Best Solution q. Low investment • Transmission in the air, no cable cost • few infrastructure expense q. Quick deployment • attract more sub. , especially high-end sub. • Flexible network, easy adjustment • Meet the need of increasing market BTS 1 q. Wide coverage, attract new sub. • Remote area BTS 2 q. Provide limited mobility 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

CDMA 450 WLL, an Excellent but Affordable Offering q 450 MHz has the best CDMA 450 WLL, an Excellent but Affordable Offering q 450 MHz has the best radio propagation for broader coverage; Lower frequencies are the key to reducing cost ØEspecially suitable for broad, low-density coverage, due to long-range propagation ( up to 30 km ) ØExcellent ability to provide urban coverage due to good “line of sight” propagation characteristics q. CDMA 450 system is a cost-effective 3 G solution ØCDMA 2000 1 X, up to 153. 6 kbps data rate ( in average of 80 Kbps ), ØCDMA 2000 1 x. EV-DO, up to 2. 4 Mbps data rate ( in average of 800 Kbps ) ØLower infrastructure cost results from broad coverage ØLow initial investment, then scale capital investment with the subscriber growth q. The 450 MHz range has multiple bands available in many countries 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

 CDMA 450: Better choice for Broadband Access Ø It is particularly significant in CDMA 450: Better choice for Broadband Access Ø It is particularly significant in rural areas where currently Internet access is slow dial-up; Ø Remote education, telemedicine, agricultural and industrial support and government services are always accompanied by high data speed internet access requirements; Ø CDMA 450 is prettily suitable for broad coverage with lower cost vs. other expensive data access solutions; Ø Enjoy roaming and “always on” service; Ø Excellent feature of urban better coverage, results from the better radio propagation; Ø Today 153 Kbps peak value of high-speed data service available, in average of around 70 Kbps, and late in EV-DO, provide 2. 4 Mbps peak data rates service, in average of 800 Kbps; 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

Summary of CDMA WLL Feature q. Frequency qmultiple choice: 450 M, 800 M and Summary of CDMA WLL Feature q. Frequency qmultiple choice: 450 M, 800 M and 1900 M q. Maturity qwidely application, more than 250 M subs over the world q. Cost q. The lowest cost per sub qbroad coverage(30 km for 450 Mhz) qhigh integration qhigh spectral efficiency q. Capacity q 1 CDMA frequency bandwidth = 4 time GSM /4 time Analog /20 time DECT / 30 time PHS q. Service: qmax. Data rate 153. 6 kbps, q. Voice service, circuit data service, packet service q. Evolution q Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ 26 June 2007 evolve to 1 x. EV- DO or 1 x. EV-DV smoothly CIIT, Islamabad

System Feature: Larger Coverage, Lower Cost 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 CDMA System Feature: Larger Coverage, Lower Cost 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 CDMA 450 conventional coverage CDMA 450 extended coverage GSM with high efficiency technology WCDMA 2100 Voice Capacity in 5 MHz k subs GSM conventional coverage 1 km GSM extended coverage 10 km Coverage 30 km Frequency(MHz) Cell radius (km) Cell area (km 2) 450 850 950 48. 9 7521 1 29. 4 2712 2. 8 26. 9 2269 3. 3 1800 1900 2100 14. 0 618 12. 2 13. 3 553 13. 6 12. 0 449 16. 2 Relative Cell Count 450 MHz has the best radio propagation 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

System feature: Multiple Transmission Modes &E 1/T 1 &Optical fiber &HDSL &Microwave &Satellite BSC/PCF System feature: Multiple Transmission Modes &E 1/T 1 &Optical fiber &HDSL &Microwave &Satellite BSC/PCF E 1/T 1 i. Site. C SDH 622/ SDH 2. 5 G HDSL Softsite 26 June 2007 Optical fiber Microwave Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

26 June 2007 Projected WLL Subscribers by Region Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad 26 June 2007 Projected WLL Subscribers by Region Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

CDMA: popular technologies in world CDMA surpasses 212 Million global subscribers SOURCE: WWW. CDG. CDMA: popular technologies in world CDMA surpasses 212 Million global subscribers SOURCE: WWW. CDG. ORG 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

subscribers in Asia Pacific and North America Asia Pacific CDMA Subscriber Growth History: December subscribers in Asia Pacific and North America Asia Pacific CDMA Subscriber Growth History: December 1997 through June 2004 Percent of total: 41. 8% Percent growth: 41% by year SOURCE: WWW. CDG. ORG 26 June 2007 North America CDMA Subscriber Growth History: December 1997 through June 2004 Percent of total: 40. 3% Percent growth: 18% by year Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

CDMA Worldwide Subscriber Growth Analysis: SOURCE: WWW. CDG. ORG One Year Period June 2003 CDMA Worldwide Subscriber Growth Analysis: SOURCE: WWW. CDG. ORG One Year Period June 2003 through June 2004 and Second Quarter 2004: April, May, June Worldwide Growth One Year 2 nd Quarter 2004 Jun-04 Subscribers Jun 03 - Jun 04 Asia Pacific 88, 800, 000 25, 710, 000 41% 4, 400, 000 5% North America 85, 600, 000 16, 725, 000 24% 4, 200, 000 5% Caribbean & Latin America 34, 800, 000 5, 250, 000 18% 1, 800, 000 5% 3, 320, 000 740, 000 29% 70, 000 2% 212, 520, 000 48, 425, 000 30% Region Europe, Middle East & Africa 26 June Total 2007 Percent Growth Mar 04 - Jun 04 Percent Growth Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ 10, 470, 000 5% CIIT, Islamabad

CDMA 450 worldwide deployment 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad CDMA 450 worldwide deployment 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

EVOLUTION OF CDMA 2000 • IT EMERGED FROM EIA/TIA IS-95 STANDARD • IMPROVED UPON EVOLUTION OF CDMA 2000 • IT EMERGED FROM EIA/TIA IS-95 STANDARD • IMPROVED UPON REVERSE LINK • INTRODUCED ADVANCED VOCODING SERVICES • IMPROVED POWER CONTROL FUNCTIONS 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

TECHNICAL SUPERIORITY OF CDMA • LINE OF SIGHT IS NOT REQUIRED AS IN HIGHER TECHNICAL SUPERIORITY OF CDMA • LINE OF SIGHT IS NOT REQUIRED AS IN HIGHER FREQUENCY SYSTEMS • RANGE OF TRANSMISSION IS HIGHER THAN DECT/PHS SYSTEMS • BETTER COVERAGE, CAPACITY AND HIGHER DATA RATE AVAILABLE COMPARED TO AMPS, GSM ETC • LOWER PRICE COMPARED TO PROPERIETSRY SYSTEMS 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

COMPETETIVE ADVANTAGE • GREATER SPECTRAL EFFICIENCY-MORE THAN 35 USERS PER SECTOR PER 1. 25 COMPETETIVE ADVANTAGE • GREATER SPECTRAL EFFICIENCY-MORE THAN 35 USERS PER SECTOR PER 1. 25 MHz • SUPERIOR VOICE QUALITY-13 Kbps QCELP, 8 Kbps QCELP, EVRC, SMV • FEWER DROPPED CALLS-SOFT AND SOFTER HAND-OFF, CELL BREATHING • LOWER TRANSMISSION POWER-LONGER BATTERY LIFE-TIME • HIGHER DATA THROUGHPUT RATES-153 Kbps with release 0, 307. 2 Kbps with Release A • ENHANCED GLOBAL ROAMING CAPABILITY-MULTIBAND, MULTI-MODE HANDSETS AVAILABLE • INHERRENT VOICE SECURITY-2^41 LENGTH PN SEQUENCE • DATA INTEGRITY-ADVANCED ENCRYPTION TECHNIQUES 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

COVERAGE ADVANTAGE • 450 AND 800 MHz SYSTEMS OFFER MORE COVERAGE • IN TRADITIONAL COVERAGE ADVANTAGE • 450 AND 800 MHz SYSTEMS OFFER MORE COVERAGE • IN TRADITIONAL TDMA SYSTEMS SYNCHRONIZATION BETWEEN BTS AND SUBSCRIBER TERMINAL ARRISE BUT IN CDMA SYSTEMS……. . 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

VOICE CAPACITY ADVANTAGES • MORE THAN 45 ERLANGS OF VOICE CAPACITY PER SECTOR PER VOICE CAPACITY ADVANTAGES • MORE THAN 45 ERLANGS OF VOICE CAPACITY PER SECTOR PER 1. 25 MHz CARRIER • 3 -5 TIMES MORE CAPACITY THAN THAT OFFERED BY GSM • DOUBLE THAT OF IS-95 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

VOICE CAPACITY ADVANTAGES 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad VOICE CAPACITY ADVANTAGES 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

DATA CAPACITY ADVANTAGES • SYSTEMS WITH FREQUENCIES HIGHER THAN 2. 4 GHz REQUIRE MORE DATA CAPACITY ADVANTAGES • SYSTEMS WITH FREQUENCIES HIGHER THAN 2. 4 GHz REQUIRE MORE COSTLY INFRASTRUCTURE AND CUSTOMER PREMISES EQUIPMENT • DECT AND PHS HAVE TO SACRIFY VOICE FOR 64 -128 Kbps DATA RATES 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

DATA CAPACITY ADVANTAGES 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad DATA CAPACITY ADVANTAGES 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

DATA CAPACITY ADVANTAGES 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad DATA CAPACITY ADVANTAGES 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

3 -G SERVICES • COLOURED LCD PHONE AND FIXED WIRELESS DEVICES AVAILABLE – – 3 -G SERVICES • COLOURED LCD PHONE AND FIXED WIRELESS DEVICES AVAILABLE – – – • • • CAMERA PHONES CAMCORDER PHONES Vo. D PHONES GPS PHONES PUSH TO TALK PHONES MULTIMESDIA DEVICES FOR FULL TO LIMITED MOBILITY SYNTHESIZED SOUNDS MP 3 USB CONNECTIVITY SMS, EMS AND MMS INTERNET BROWSING 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

HANDSET/FWT AVAILABILITY • FWTs MADE BY AUDIOVOX, AXESSTEL, HUAWEI, HYUNDAI-KURITEL, MOTOROLLA, LG etc………………. 26 HANDSET/FWT AVAILABILITY • FWTs MADE BY AUDIOVOX, AXESSTEL, HUAWEI, HYUNDAI-KURITEL, MOTOROLLA, LG etc………………. 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

Handset – Model similar to mobile phones viz. Huawei ETS 388 26 June 2007 Handset – Model similar to mobile phones viz. Huawei ETS 388 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

FWT –Model similar to regular phone Huawei ETS 2000 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ FWT –Model similar to regular phone Huawei ETS 2000 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad

WLL Technologies by Market Segment 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad WLL Technologies by Market Segment 26 June 2007 Dr IZHAR-UL-HAQ CIIT, Islamabad