23 26 Organisational Culture SLP E Course International Section

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23+26. Organisational Culture SLP(E) Course International Section | Centre for Defenceof Management and Technology 23+26. Organisational Culture SLP(E) Course International Section | Centre for Defenceof Management and Technology College Leadership & Management | College

ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE International Section | Centre for Defenceof Management and Technology College Leadership & ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE International Section | Centre for Defenceof Management and Technology College Leadership & Management | College

WHY STUDY CULTURE? International Section | Centre for Defenceof Management and Technology College Leadership WHY STUDY CULTURE? International Section | Centre for Defenceof Management and Technology College Leadership & Management | College

THAT’S WHY International Section | Centre for Defenceof Management and Technology College Leadership & THAT’S WHY International Section | Centre for Defenceof Management and Technology College Leadership & Management | College

“The Effective Contemporary (DEOMI) Leader” Bright enough! EQ Emotionally aware IQ CQ Culturally attuned “The Effective Contemporary (DEOMI) Leader” Bright enough! EQ Emotionally aware IQ CQ Culturally attuned International Section | Centre for Defenceof Management and Technology College Leadership & Management | College

A Cultural Web for the Individual Functional/ Divisional Professional Institutional Organisational The Individual Domestic/ A Cultural Web for the Individual Functional/ Divisional Professional Institutional Organisational The Individual Domestic/ family Service/ Arm of Service Individual’s Frame of Reference International Section | Centre for Defenceof Management and Technology College Leadership & Management | College

Flower Model: An individual’s frame of reference Nationality Profession INDIVIDUAL Domestic Organisation Religion International Flower Model: An individual’s frame of reference Nationality Profession INDIVIDUAL Domestic Organisation Religion International Section | Centre for Defenceof Management and Technology College Leadership & Management | College

Culture will eat your strategy for breakfast As seen on the wall of the Culture will eat your strategy for breakfast As seen on the wall of the Ford HQ Boardroom College of Management and Technology

What do we mean by Organisational Culture? • The way we do things. • What do we mean by Organisational Culture? • The way we do things. • Unwritten rules & norms. • Assumptions about behaviour, purpose, collective identity. College of Management and Technology

Schein’s Model ARTEFACTS VALUES ASSUMPTIONS ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE College of Management and Technology Schein’s Model ARTEFACTS VALUES ASSUMPTIONS ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE College of Management and Technology

Culture/Mental Programming ARTEFACTS Visible Water-level VALUES Invisible Iceburg ASSUMPTIONS College of Management and Technology Culture/Mental Programming ARTEFACTS Visible Water-level VALUES Invisible Iceburg ASSUMPTIONS College of Management and Technology

Culture/Mental Programming Music Art Food Greeting Response to: Visible Invisible Iceburg Environment Time Action Culture/Mental Programming Music Art Food Greeting Response to: Visible Invisible Iceburg Environment Time Action Communication Space Power Individualism Competitiveness College of Management and Technology Artefacts Water-level Values & Assumptions

Schein’s Model ARTEFACTS VALUES ASSUMPTIONS College of Management and Technology Schein’s Model ARTEFACTS VALUES ASSUMPTIONS College of Management and Technology

College of Management and Technology College of Management and Technology

College of Management and Technology College of Management and Technology

Artefacts • Any tangible or verbally identifiable elements in an organization. • Buildings, furniture, Artefacts • Any tangible or verbally identifiable elements in an organization. • Buildings, furniture, dress code & history are all typical organizational artifacts. College of Management and Technology

Schein’s Model ARTEFACTS VALUES ASSUMPTIONS College of Management and Technology Schein’s Model ARTEFACTS VALUES ASSUMPTIONS College of Management and Technology

Values • The organization's stated or desired cultural elements. • Often a written or Values • The organization's stated or desired cultural elements. • Often a written or stated tone that the Senior Leader hopes to exude throughout the organisation. College of Management and Technology

Schein’s Model ARTEFACTS VALUES ASSUMPTIONS College of Management and Technology Schein’s Model ARTEFACTS VALUES ASSUMPTIONS College of Management and Technology

Assumptions • Shared basic assumptions: – Often these ‘unspoken’ rules exist without the conscious Assumptions • Shared basic assumptions: – Often these ‘unspoken’ rules exist without the conscious knowledge of the membership. • Typically so well integrated that they are hard to recognize from within. – Underlying & driving element often missed. College of Management and Technology

College of Management and Technology College of Management and Technology

College of Management and Technology College of Management and Technology

College of Management and Technology College of Management and Technology

College of Management and Technology College of Management and Technology

Cultural Dissonance - Flags: Artefacts or Assumptions? College of Management and Technology Cultural Dissonance - Flags: Artefacts or Assumptions? College of Management and Technology

College of Management and Technology College of Management and Technology

22 -23. Organisational Culture SLP(E) Course International Section | Centre for Defenceof Management and 22 -23. Organisational Culture SLP(E) Course International Section | Centre for Defenceof Management and Technology College Leadership & Management | College

He’s the new guy – he went to a seminar on ‘Admit your Mistakes He’s the new guy – he went to a seminar on ‘Admit your Mistakes and Earn Respect’. He admitted one so they sacked him! International Section | Centre for Defenceof Management and Technology College Leadership & Management | College

Double S Cube Model Types of organisational culture Sociability High Low NETWORKED COMMUNAL FRAGMENTED Double S Cube Model Types of organisational culture Sociability High Low NETWORKED COMMUNAL FRAGMENTED MERCENARY Solidarity High College of Management and Technology

Networked High • Positively networked: – – – Culture of friendship & kindness. Relaxed Networked High • Positively networked: – – – Culture of friendship & kindness. Relaxed informal & helpful. Sense of loyalty & belonging. Flexible & sharing. Relations with supplier network COMMUNAL Sociability NETWORKED FRAGMENTED MERCENARY Low Solidarity • Negatively networked: – Tolerance for poor performance. – Overly concerned with means rather than ends College of Management and Technology High

Communal High • Most attractive? • Positively communal: – – COMMUNAL Sociability NETWORKED Play Communal High • Most attractive? • Positively communal: – – COMMUNAL Sociability NETWORKED Play hard, work hard. Low The organisation is forever with you. Loyalty. Widely espoused values. • Negatively communal: – Fixate on an opponent. – Surrender to leader. – Neglects the wider competition. College of Management and Technology FRAGMENTED MERCENARY Solidarity High

Fragmented High • Positively fragmented: – – Scope for individual freedom. Liberating. Flexibility. Cost Fragmented High • Positively fragmented: – – Scope for individual freedom. Liberating. Flexibility. Cost effective. COMMUNAL Sociability NETWORKED FRAGMENTED MERCENARY Low • Negatively fragmented: – Going through major change. – Multiple business sectors - cohesion? – Blame culture. • Hinders organisational learning. College of Management and Technology Solidarity High

Mercenary High • Restless & ruthless. • Positively mercenary: COMMUNAL Sociability NETWORKED – Dispenses Mercenary High • Restless & ruthless. • Positively mercenary: COMMUNAL Sociability NETWORKED – Dispenses with debate Low and gets on with it. – Focus on the opposition. Clear vision. – The goal: to win. • Negatively mercenary: – Selfless, reckless bast****s. – Enemy inside & outside. – Tunnel vision. College of Management and Technology FRAGMENTED MERCENARY Solidarity High

What’s my culture? • Four tests to find out: – – Physical space. Communication. What’s my culture? • Four tests to find out: – – Physical space. Communication. Time. Identity. • Communication example: – – Networked: a lot of talk & both formal/informal info exchange. Mercenary: swift, direct & work focused. Fragmented: few meetings, brief discussions in corridors. Communal: Frequent talk & much non-verbal communication, i. e. dress, colour & symbolism. College of Management and Technology

Military Culture Networked? Communal? Fragmented? Mercenary? College of Management and Technology Military Culture Networked? Communal? Fragmented? Mercenary? College of Management and Technology

College of Management and Technology College of Management and Technology

Organisational Culture Exercise 5 SLP(E) Course College of Management and Technology Organisational Culture Exercise 5 SLP(E) Course College of Management and Technology

Organisational Culture • Understanding the culture of your organization is important if you are Organisational Culture • Understanding the culture of your organization is important if you are to manage successful change programmes. • In syndicates spend 45 mins considering: – The nature of the culture in your organization by applying Schien’s model (artefacts | values | assumptions). – How this culture may impede change. • Nominate (a) speaker(s) to give a short (5 min) presentation to the whole course. College of Management and Technology

Schein’s Model ARTEFACTS VALUES ASSUMPTIONS College of Management and Technology Schein’s Model ARTEFACTS VALUES ASSUMPTIONS College of Management and Technology

College of Management and Technology College of Management and Technology

Challenge of changing the Culture International Section | Centre for Defenceof Management and Technology Challenge of changing the Culture International Section | Centre for Defenceof Management and Technology College Leadership & Management | College

Why Change Culture? - the most frequent question! • Fundamental requirement is to provide Why Change Culture? - the most frequent question! • Fundamental requirement is to provide a credible (in receiver’s mind) reason why pain & grief is necessary. • If not credible then nobody will embrace change with enthusiasm & the change programme will die. • Humans are not necessarily rational beings: • Good ideas rejected. • Because failure to explain in relevant terms. College of Management and Technology

International Section | Centre for Defenceof Management and Technology College Leadership & Management | International Section | Centre for Defenceof Management and Technology College Leadership & Management | College

Changing the organisational Paradigm • • • Culture is deeply rooted & much is Changing the organisational Paradigm • • • Culture is deeply rooted & much is unobservable. How ‘joined-up’ is organisation? Valid reason for change – ‘burning platform’. Observing/measuring change. Wide number of stakeholders. – Some unknown. – Some acting as ‘blockers’. College of Management and Technology

Measuring culture • Purpose: – Assess distance between present culture & the required future Measuring culture • Purpose: – Assess distance between present culture & the required future culture. • Qualitative approaches: – Focus groups, interviews & documents. – Narrow, but deep, understanding. • Quantitative approaches: – Questionnaires, surveys & polls. – Wide, but shallow, understanding. College of Management and Technology

Stakeholder analysis Interest vs Influence High Interest Low Influence High Interest High Influence Low Stakeholder analysis Interest vs Influence High Interest Low Influence High Interest High Influence Low Interest Low Influence Low Interest High Influence Interest Low Influence College of Management and Technology High

Stakeholder analysis (2) Promoters & Opponents Well Known Promoters Awareness Opponents Potential Promoters Hidden Stakeholder analysis (2) Promoters & Opponents Well Known Promoters Awareness Opponents Potential Promoters Hidden Opponents Unknown Positive Acceptance College of Management and Technology Negative

Culture/Mental Programming ARTEFACTS Visible Water-level VALUES Invisible Iceburg ASSUMPTIONS College of Management and Technology Culture/Mental Programming ARTEFACTS Visible Water-level VALUES Invisible Iceburg ASSUMPTIONS College of Management and Technology

Changing culture - Activity Visible Invisible Manage issues Cost | Quality | Time Stakeholder Changing culture - Activity Visible Invisible Manage issues Cost | Quality | Time Stakeholder Analysis Manage values Manage power & & politics Assumptions College of Management and Technology Artefacts Values & Assumptions

Can a leader change culture? ARTEFACTS VALUES ASSUMPTIONS Increasingly difficult International Section | Centre Can a leader change culture? ARTEFACTS VALUES ASSUMPTIONS Increasingly difficult International Section | Centre for Defenceof Management and Technology College Leadership & Management | College

Burn’s & Bass Transactional/Transformational Leadership • Transactional leaders: BUY followers. • Transformational leaders: INSPIRE Burn’s & Bass Transactional/Transformational Leadership • Transactional leaders: BUY followers. • Transformational leaders: INSPIRE followers. College of Management and Technology

The ability to deliver Change • Ability to change depends on the depth of The ability to deliver Change • Ability to change depends on the depth of the changes: – – Artefacts are easy but have little impact. Values & Beliefs are more difficult. An Assumption is more difficult still. Several Assumptions is very difficult indeed. • The more change goes against the culture, the less likely to succeed. • The key is to identify what needs to be changed, what you need to keep & what you need to grow. College of Management and Technology

Growing New Cultures • Clear responsibility. • Real team-working at all levels. • Performance Growing New Cultures • Clear responsibility. • Real team-working at all levels. • Performance focussed: – Results not process. • Positive out look. – Looking for opportunities not obstacles. • Sense of community: – People belong, they trust each other. • Learn and improve as we go: – The ‘learning organisation’ College of Management and Technology

Changing military culture “The only thing harder than getting a new idea into the Changing military culture “The only thing harder than getting a new idea into the military mind is to get an old one out. " Liddell-Hart College of Management and Technology

Changing military culture • Changing operational requirements: – Responsive & flexible. – Achieved through Changing military culture • Changing operational requirements: – Responsive & flexible. – Achieved through conditioning & hierarchy. • To wider, organisational change: – Can be Resistant. College of Management and Technology

College of Management and Technology College of Management and Technology

KEY RECOMMENDATIONS • Smaller Defence Board to strengthen top level decision making. • Clarify KEY RECOMMENDATIONS • Smaller Defence Board to strengthen top level decision making. • Clarify responsibility and accountability. • Smaller and more strategic Head Office • Focus Chiefs of Staff on running their Services • Strengthen financial management • Create Joint Forces Command • Manage people better – longer tours. College of Management and Technology

LEVENE - PEOPLE AND BEHAVIOURS (Values and Assumptions) These recommendations are only the first LEVENE - PEOPLE AND BEHAVIOURS (Values and Assumptions) These recommendations are only the first step. It is the people in the organisation at all levels who will need to make it work. We therefore conclude with recommendations on implementation and behaviours. Implementation must be driven by Ministers and the senior leadership of the Department. They will need to lead by example by acting in the ways on which the success of the new model depends. Crucially, they must take the tough decisions needed to balance the books, without which this model, or any other, will fail. College of Management and Technology

The message Ineffective business leadership at all levels Defence second to sectional interests Be The message Ineffective business leadership at all levels Defence second to sectional interests Be a leader Think Defence Do it better Be Think Do Strong leadership at all levels Keep the big picture in mind Culture of efficiency Cultural DNA poorly adapted to current business environment College of Management and Technology

College of Management and Technology College of Management and Technology

College of Management and Technology College of Management and Technology




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