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21 st Century College English: Book 2 Unit 7 : Part A Thinking: A Neglected Art
Unit 7: Part A • Pre-reading Activities • Intensive Study • Exercises • Assignment
Pre-reading Activities • Warm-up Questions • Listening
Pre-reading Activities: Warm-up Questions 1. What do you think about thinking? 2. Do you like thinking? Why?
Pre-reading Activities: Listening 1. As you listen to Part One of the tape, try to figure out what the words blurk and blurking mean. • What does “blurk” mean? A) To do physical exercises B) To sing songs C) To spell words D) To beat one’s brains E) To do a crossword game Script
Pre-reading Activities: Listening Script — Part One Announcer [very enthusiastically]: Yes, you too can experience the excitement of this wonderful pastime! Blurking is for everyone — whether you’re young or old, professional or amateur, expert or a complete beginner — you too can blurk! And blurking is something you can do anytime, anywhere! You can blurk in your house, in your car, alone or with your friends. You can blurk in the dark, you can blurk on the run, you can even blurk in the bath! Blurking requires no special equipment, and there are no complicated instructions! Blurking takes up no space, it makes no noise, it’s friendly to the environment, and most of the time, blurking is perfectly safe and has very few side effects. We
Pre-reading Activities: Listening 2. Now listen to Part Two, and work out what porfing is. • What does “porfing” mean? A) Discovering B) Reading C) Inventing D) Amazing Script
Pre-reading Activities: Listening Script — Part Two Announcer [still very enthusiastically]: And as a special offer, you can also enjoy porfing — one of the most amazing activities ever discovered. Experience for yourself how porfing silently transfers information directly to your brain, at whatever speed you choose! We’re sure you'll find that porfing is a great companion activity to blurking, especially if you try them both at the same time. All you have to do to try out porfing for yourself is move your eyes across specially-marked pieces of paper. You’ll be amazed!
Pre-Reading Activities • Intensive Study • Difficult sentences • Key words, phrases & usages • Comprehension exercises
Intensive Study Thinking: A Neglected Art by Carolyn Kane 1 It is generally agreed that the American education system is in deep trouble. Everyone is aware of the horrible facts: school systems are running out of money, teachers can’t spell, students can’t read, high school graduates can’t even find China on the map.
Intensive Study 2 Most of us know, or think we know, who is to blame: liberal courts, spineless school boards, ridiculous government regulations. It’s easy to select a bad guy. 3 But possibly the problem lies not so much in our institutions as in our attitudes. It is sad that although most of us claim that we believe in education, we place no value on intellectual activity.
Intensive Study 4 We Americans are a charitable and humane people: We have institutions devoted to every good cause from rescuing homeless cats to preventing World War III. But what have we done to promote the art of thinking? Certainly we make no room for thought in our daily lives. Suppose a man were to say to his friends, “I’m not going to PTA tonight (or the baseball game, or whatever) because I need some time to myself, some time to think”? Such a man would be shunned by his neighbors; his family would be ashamed of him. What if a teen-ager were to say, “I’m not going to the dance tonight because I need some time to think”? His parents would immediately start looking in the Yellow Pages for a psychiatrist.
Intensive Study 5 Several years ago a college administrator told me that if he wanted to do any serious thinking, he had to get up at 5: 30 in the morning — I suppose because that was the only time when no one would interrupt him. More recently I heard a professor remark that when his friends catch him in the act of reading a book, they say, “My, it must be nice to have so much free time. ” And even though I am an English teacher ―a person who should know better ― I find myself feeling vaguely guilty whenever I sneak off to the library to read. It is a common belief that if a man is thinking or reading, he is doing nothing. Through our words and our actions, we express this attitude every day of our lives. Then we wonder why our children refuse to take their studies seriously and why they say to their teachers, “Why do I need to learn this stuff? It won’t do
Intensive Study 6 It’s easy to understand the reasons for this prejudice against thinking. One problem is that to most of us, thinking looks suspiciously like doing nothing. A human being in deep thought is an uninspiring sight. He leans back in his chair, props up his feet, puffs on his pipe and stares into space. He gives every appearance of wasting time. Besides, he’s leaving all the hard work for us! We wish he would get up and do something useful ― clean the house, maybe, or mow the lawn. Our resentment is natural.
Intensive Study 7 But thinking is far different from laziness. Thinking is one of the most productive activities a human being can undertake. Every beautiful and useful thing we have created exists because somebody took the time and effort to think of it. 8 And thinking does require time and effort. It’s a common misconception that if a person is “gifted” or “bright” or “talented, ” wonderful ideas will flash spontaneously into his mind. Unfortunately, the intellect doesn’t work this way. Even Einstein had to study and think for months before he could formulate his theory of relativity. Those of us who are less intelligent find it a struggle to conceive even a moderately good idea, let
Intensive Study 9 Another reason why we distrust thinking is that it seems unnatural. Human beings are a social species, but thinking is an activity that people do best when they’re alone. Consequently, we worry about people who like to think. It disturbs us to meet a person who deliberately chooses to sit alone and think instead of going to a party or a soccer match. We suspect that such a person needs counseling. In addition, such people can sometimes appear unfriendly ― and that makes us deeply uneasy.
Intensive Study 10 Our concern is misplaced. Intelligence is just as much a part of human nature as friendliness. It would certainly be unnatural for someone to totally isolate themselves. But it would be equally unnatural for a person to allow his mind to die of neglect. 11 If Americans ever became convinced of the importance of thought, we would probably find ways to solve the problems of our schools, problems that now seem impossible to overcome. But how can we revive interest in the art of thinking? The best place to start would be in the home. Family members should practice saying such things as, “ I’ll wash the dishes tonight because I know you want to catch up on your thinking. ”
Intensive Study 12 This may sound crazy. But if we are to survive as a free people, we will have to take some such course of action as soon as possible, because regardless of what some advertisers have led us to believe, this country does not run on oil. It runs on ideas.
neglect v. — to pay little or no attention to e. g. Cf. forget v. v. overlook • His secretary had neglected filing all the documents of project. — thefail tobehind or consider; to ignore deliberately to leave notice unintentionally; to be unable to e. g. remember e. g. • When she decided to rent the house, she overlooked • Don’t feel upset becausepublic transportation the fact that there’s no she forgot your name. around.
(be) in trouble — having difficulties or problems e. g. • If they know we are in trouble, they will certainly come to our help. Translate 许多 dot 公司陷入资金问题。 Key Many dot companies are in trouble with funds.
run out (of sth. ) — have no further supply of; lack (sth. ); be out of Cf. e. g. run into down run after the world use for power when it has run out of on • What will — to meet or find by chance —oil? knockor to chase means of (sth. ); go by; work by to pursue; work by move down e. g. ran into her boss in the supermarket during work • She Three yesterday. • He is never tired ofrun downafter fame. The toy car runs onrunning by the speeding truck. hours people were battery. — to amount to e. g. • His salary has run into six figures.
(be) to blame — to hold responsible e. g. • A snow storm was to blame for the power failure. Note He is to be blamed for the damage. He is to blame for the damage.
liberal a. — 1) open to new ideas; favoring reform 2) not strict; loose or approximate Cf. e. g. literal • The government adopt some liberal policies to lift the — word for word restriction for import. e. g. • The officialis a liberal translation. • This book documents must be translated in a literal way.
guy n. — 1) [informal] a man, fellow 2) [pl. ] [informal] persons of either sex e. g. • George is a nice guy to work with. • Let’s do a good job, guys!
Translate into Chinese: But possibly the problem lies not so much in our institutions as in our attitudes. 但或许问题更多的不是存在于我们的制度，而是存在于我们 的态度之中。
intellectual a. — having the ability to learn and reason Synonym e. g. smart brilliant bright intelligent has been carried out to study the intellectual • A project — havingof quickness and ease in mental ready capability showing unusually impressive often a acuteness and the ability to cope and learning aspect quick intelligence, with various situations apes. e. g. for taking care of one’s own interests new problems e. g. • Tom washad a brilliant mind. came up with great ideas. e. g. Einstein a bright boy and often • He is too smart to go againsthaveboss. more careful. • An intelligent person would his been
promote v. — 1) to raise in rank, position or importance 2) to attempt to sell or popularize by advertising or publicity e. g. Translate • The organization aims to promote the concern for the 新的税收政策将促进高科技产业的快速发展。 homeless people. Key The new will come to the city to the rapid • The authortax policy will promote his new book. development of the high-tech industries.
make (no) room for — have (no) space or time for e. g. • He is busy with his work all the time and makes no room for social life. Practice Make a sentence with “make no room for”.
suppose v. — 1) [imperative] to consider as possible; if e. g. • Suppose you have a second chance, what will you do? Translate 要是给你这份 作，你接受吗？ Key Suppose you are offered the job, will you accept it? More to learn
suppose v. — 2) to think; to expect; to imagine e. g. • George supposed his role as cultural translator was important to the joint venture. Translate 我想亚洲的经济形势已经开始好转。 Key I suppose that Asia’s economic situation has started to improve.
Text-related information PTA (Parent-Teacher Association) PTA is an organization of local groups of teachers and the parents of their pupils that works for the improvement of the schools and the benefit of the pupils. The stated purposes of the PTA are to bring the home and school into closer relationship so that parents and teachers may cooperate intelligently in the training of the child, and to develop between educators and the general public such united efforts as will secure for every child the highest advantages in mental, social, and physical education.
what if — what would occur if; suppose that Cf. e. g. what though computer is affected by the virus? • What if our — it doesn't matter if e. g. • What though the data in our computer is destroyed by the virus; we have backup. More to do
Exercises • Structure VIII. Look at the sample sentences from the text and make use of what if to complete the following sentences by translating the Chinese into English. 《读写教程 II》: Ex. VIII, p. 166 1. You seem to be quite certain that I will accept your offer. ( 如果我不接受呢? ) § What if I say no? 2. If they know we are in trouble, they will certainly come to our help. (但是如果他们不知道呢? ) § But what if they don’t know?
Exercises • Structure VIII. Look at the sample sentences from the text and make use of what if to complete the following sentences by translating the Chinese into English. 3. The deadline for this job is the end of the month. (要是我们 不能按时完成怎么办? ) § What if we can’t get it done on time? 4. When asked why they helped the flood victims so generously, they just answered: (“假 如 这 事 发 生 在 你 我 身 上 呢? ”) § “What if this happens to us (someday)? ”
Exercises • Structure VIII. Look at the sample sentences from the text and make use of what if to complete the following sentences by translating the Chinese into English. 5. The newcomer seems to be far different from what he has professed to be. (要是他对我们说了谎那该怎么办? ) § What if he has lied to us? 6. When the news came, Tom simply ignored it, thinking it couldn’t be true. (但如果那是真的又怎么办呢? ) § But what if it was true?
Text-related information Yellow Pages A classified telephone directory or section of a directory, listing subscribers by the type of business or service they offer, usually printed on yellow paper and with classified advertising.
suppose v. — 1) [imperative] to consider as possible; if e. g. • Suppose you have a second chance, what will you do. Translate 要是给你这份 作，你接受吗？ Key Suppose you are offered the job, will you accept it? More to learn
suppose v. — 2) to think; to expect; to imagine e. g. • George supposed his role as cultural translator was important to the joint venture. Translate 我想亚洲的经济形势已经开始好转。 Key I suppose that Asia’s economic situation has started to improve.
sneak off (to) — leave quietly e. g. • Jane sneaked off in the middle of the party to her room.
stuff n. — [informal] substance; unspecified material e. g. • There’s sticky stuff all over the desk. • We’ve known all of this stuff; can you tell us anything new?
Translate into Chinese: He leans back in his chair, props up his feet, puffs on his pipe and stares into space. He gives every appearance of wasting time. 他仰坐在椅上，架起双腿，抽着烟斗，漠然注视着前方。不 管怎么看，他都是一副消磨时光的样子。
let alone — [idiom] not to mention; much less e. g. • She has never drunk beer, let alone wine or liquor. Translate 我不会说英语，更别提法语或德语了。 Key I can’t speak English, let alone French or German.
Translate into Chinese: Intelligence is just as much a part of human nature as friendliness. 智慧如同友善一样也是人性的一部分。
catch up on — (make special efforts to) do sth. which has been left undone or neglected e. g. Cf. • She is with up late at the office to catch up on the catch up staying report. — to come up from behind e. g. • China is making great efforts to catch up with the advanced countries in information technologies.
regardless of — in spite of e. g. • The company will promote its new product regardless of expenses. Translate Priscilla held onto her dream to get college education regardless of all the hardships. Key 普里西拉不顾千辛万苦，从不放弃上大学的愿望。
run on — (cause to) move or work by means of (sth. such as power); go by; work by e. g. • The taxicabs in this city are required to run on natural gas. Practice Make a sentence with “run on”.
Exercises • Comprehension • Vocabulary • Listening
Comprehension Answer the following questions: 1. How does the author illustrate her statement that the 《读写教程 II》: deep trouble? American education system is in. Ex. II, p. 163 Key: She cites “horrible facts”: school systems are running out of money, teachers can’t spell, students can’t read, high school graduates can’t even find China on the map.
Comprehension Answer the following questions: 2. What support does she offer for her argument that “we place no value on intellectual activity? ” How much of her evidence is factual? Key: The support she offers is (a) the suggestion that we have no institutions devoted to thinking; (b) the idea that we make on room for thought in our daily lives; and (c) that we would be shocked by and/or ashamed of a person who avoided socializing in favor of thinking. None of the evidence is factual.
Comprehension Answer the following questions: 3. What two causes of “prejudice against thinking”does the author present? Key: The two causes she mentions are that thinking (a) looks as if the person is wasting time, and (b) seems unnatural, since humans are sociable by nature.
Comprehension Answer the following questions: 4. What is her main argument against the first cause of “prejudice against thinking”? How does she illustrate her argument? Key: She argues that thinking is a highly productive activity that requires time and effort. Her main illustration is that Einstein “had to study and think for months”to formulate theory of relativity.
Comprehension Answer the following questions: 5. What is her main argument against the second cause of “prejudice against thinking”? Key: She argues that intelligence is just as much a part of human nature as friendliness and that it would be unnatural for a person to neglect his or her mind.
Comprehension Answer the following questions: 6. What relationship does the author see between “prejudice against thinking” and the problems of the education system? Key: She says that our prejudice against thinking underlies the problems with the education system.
Comprehension Answer the following questions: 7. What recommendation(s) does she have for solving the problems she sees? Key: She recommends starting in the home, for example, by offering our family members time to catch up on their thinking.
Comprehension Answer the following questions: 8. Why does she say “this may sound crazy” (para. 12)? Key: Because she expects readers to reject or laugh at her recommendation; she apparently believes that no one ever gives anyone time to think, and/or that no one can think and wash the dishes (for example) at the same time.
Vocabulary Ø Ex. III Ø Ex. IV Ø Ex. V Word Building Ø Ex. VII
Vocabulary III. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. suspicious counsel administration flash moderate 《读写教程 II》: Ex. III, p. 163 shun sneak formulate promote isolate 1. Part of a psychiatrist’s work is to provide _____ to help students with personal problems. counseling 2. When I’m very angry, I find it best to _____ myself from other people for a little while. isolate
Vocabulary III. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. suspicious administration flash moderate promote counsel shun sneak formulate isolate 3. It’s very sad that many AIDS victims find themselves _____ by friends and neighbors who can’t overcome their fears and prejudices. shunned 4. The government official comments on the present economic situation with ____ satisfaction, saying that it is showing signs for the better. moderate
Vocabulary III. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. suspicious administration flash moderate promote counsel shun sneak formulate isolate 5. Mary _____ off to Paris last weekend all by herself without letting anyone know. She said she just suddenly felt like going away for a few days, and went. sneaked 6. Many educators feel our schools do too little to _____ creativity and critical thinking. promote
Vocabulary III. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. suspicious administration flash moderate promote counsel shun sneak formulate isolate 7. If our institutions do not have good _____, money will be lost and nothing can be achieved. administration 8. On her way to the airport, it _____ into Catherine’s mind that she’d forgotten her passport. flashed
Vocabulary III. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. suspicious administration flash moderate promote counsel shun sneak formulate isolate 9. A genius is someone who not only has ideas, but also knows how to _____ them in words and communicate them to others. formulate 10. Mr. Smith kept himself indoors for a whole week without even opening the windows and his _____ neighbors reported this to the police. suspicious
Vocabulary IV. phrases or expressions from the text that best keep the original meaning. 《读写教程 II》: Ex. IV, p. 164 1. How can you expect anyone to have trust in you when you are so careless in everything you do? believe in 2. I’m so sorry, but I really can’t go out tonight — I have to do the homework I’ve been neglecting. catch up on my homework
Vocabulary IV. phrases or expressions from the text that best keep the original meaning. 3. When we’ve used all our oil supplies, it’ll be too late to look for other sources of energy. run out of 4. In spite of what most scientists seem to think, measurements and calculations are not the only way to discover. Regardless of truth.
Vocabulary IV. phrases or expressions from the text that best keep the original meaning. 5. With the rapid development of this area, all these old buildings will soon be torn down to clear the space for new ones. make room 6. I can’t even afford a bicycle, not to mention a car! let alone
Vocabulary IV. phrases or expressions from the text that best keep the original meaning. 7. If a friend is having difficulties, don’t just ask if there’s anything you can do. Think up something appropriate and do it. in trouble
Vocabulary V. Rewrite each sentence so that it includes both the words given in parentheses. Be sure to make any other necessary changes as well. 《读写教程 II 》: Ex. V, p. 164 1. The author says the problem arises from our attitudes toward thinking, not from government regulations that make no sense. (lie, ridiculous) The author says the problem lies in our attitudes toward thinking, not in ridiculous government regulations.
Vocabulary V. Rewrite each sentence so that it includes both the words given in parentheses. Be sure to make any other necessary changes as well. 2. The manager seemed in every way to be a very dedicated employee, so no one felt distrust when money started disappearing from the company account. (appearance, suspicious) The manager gave every appearance of being a very dedicated employee, so no one felt suspicious when money started disappearing from the company account.
Vocabulary V. Rewrite each sentence so that it includes both the words given in parentheses. Be sure to make any other necessary changes as well. 3. Giant pandas are a very interesting type of animal; in a way, they look like bears but are in fact related to squirrels. (species, vaguely) Giant pandas are a very interesting species; they look vaguely like bears but are in fact related to squirrels.
Vocabulary V. Rewrite each sentence so that it includes both the words given in parentheses. Be sure to make any other necessary changes as well. 4. Einstein always said that he came up with his theory of space, time and motion in a dream. (conceive, relativity) Einstein always said that he conceived his theory of relativity in a dream.
Vocabulary V. Rewrite each sentence so that it includes both the words given in parentheses. Be sure to make any other necessary changes as well. 5. It’s only after I graduated that I began to realize the value of all the things I’d been forced to study at school. (convinced, stuff) It’s only after I graduated that I became convinced of the value of all the stuff I’d been forced to study at school.
Exercises • Word Building 《读写教程 II》: Ex. VI, p. 165
Exercises • Word Building Suffix -ity to be added to: adjectives to mean: either the state or quality of being (adj. ) to mean: sth. which is (adj. )
Exercises • Word Building VI. A. Give the noun forms of the adjectives below. similarity diverse diversity popularity locality mature maturity probable probability specialty curious publicity necessary necessity curiosity
Exercises • Word Building VI. B. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with some of the nouns you have formed. 1. Please forgive my _____, but where did you get that funny hat? v curiosity 2. People living in this ______ complain of traffic noises disturbing them at night. v locality
Exercises • Word Building VI. B. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with some of the nouns you have formed. 3. Animals that die before they reach _______ do not produce offspring. v maturity 4. She’s an excellent translator, but her ______ is ancient Greek poetry. v specialty
Exercises • Word Building VI. B. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with some of the nouns you have formed. 5. The heavy traffic in large cities greatly increases the _____ of having an accident. v probability 6. There’s a great _______ between the young author’s writing style and Hemingway’s. v similarity
Exercises • Word Building VI. B. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with some of the nouns you have formed. 7. The immense _______ of her novels in America has made her very rich. v popularity 8. I don’t know why film stars’ marriages always get so much _____; there are surely more important things for the mass media to discuss. v publicity
Exercises • Word Building VI. B. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with some of the nouns you have formed. 9. Having a computer is quickly becoming a _____ of life, not a luxury. v necessity 10. To provide the students with a broader education, the university has decided to introduce more _____ into the basic curriculum. v diversity
Exercises • Word Building 《读写教程 II》: Ex. VII, p. 165
Exercises • Word Building Prefix un- to be added to: adjectives and to be added to: verbs to mean: not (adj. ) to mean: the opposite of [verb]
Exercises • Word Building Add un- to the following verbs and adjectives to form new words. certain uncertain comfortable uncomfortable friendly unfriendly pleasant conscious unconscious do undo dress unfold unpleasant
Exercises • Word Building Now use some of the words you’ve just formed to complete the sentences below. 1. It will take years to _____ the damage caused by the flood. v undo 2. A falling rock hit him on the head and knocked him _____. v unconscious
Exercises • Word Building Now use some of the words you’ve just formed to complete the sentences below. 3. The doctor will see you in a minute; meanwhile, please ____ and lie down over here. v undress 4. The committee discussed the problem for hours, but they’re still _____ about what to do. v uncertain
Exercises • Word Building Now use some of the words you’ve just formed to complete the sentences below. 5. It took the old man several minutes to _______ the map and spread it on the table. v unfold
Exercises • Word Building Suffix -able to be added to: verbs to mean: which is or can be (verb)ed.
Exercises • Word Building Add -able to the following verbs to form adjectives. advise advisable appreciate appreciable favorable honorable note notable practice practicable preferable apply applicable
Exercises • Word Building Now use some of the words you’ve just formed to complete the sentences below. 1. The discount is ______ only to children under 12, and only when they’re accompanied by adults. v applicable 2. Traditionally, a dark suit is _____ to a light one for evening wear. v preferable
Exercises • Word Building Now use some of the words you’ve just formed to complete the sentences below. 3. We’ve heard nothing but _____ accounts of your work and look forward to seeing it for ourselves. v favorable 4. Unfortunately, the new equipment brought about no _____ increase in production. v appreciable (also possible, notable)
Exercises • Word Building Now use some of the words you’ve just formed to complete the sentences below. 5. It isn’t ______ to go swimming alone here; we recommend that you always go in pars. v advisable
Exercises • Listening The conversation you’re about to hear is slightly different from the text printed below. As you listen the first time, underline the places where what you hear differs from what’s printed in your book. 《听说教程 II》: Part 3. 3, p. 100 Answer Questions
Exercises • Listening Answer Questions 1. What language does Xiao Li think in? Shee doesn’t think in language at all (and she doesn’t say what language she “talks to herself” in). 2. What examples does Xiao Li give of thinking that’s “just talking to (her)self”? Making a shopping list and memorizing something.
Exercises • Listening Answer Questions 3. How does real thinking start, in Xiao Li’s opinion? In concepts without words. 4. What do too many people think, in her opinion? Many people think that thinking has to be in words.
Exercises • Listening Answer Questions 5. What does she mean when she says “we’re all geniuses sometimes”? Shee means that we all have flashes of genius, although few of us believe in them. Script
Exercises • Listening K: Hi, XL. Are you busy? XL: Well, sooner or later you can put your concepts into XL: words, but that isn’t how real thinking starts. And I Just thinking … K: wish more mind if Iknew that. few questions? I have a So do you people ask you a Too many people think that thinking has to bebilingualism, and since you paper to write about in words, so they don’t pay any attention to all the great ideas they’re having all speak Chinese and English, I was hoping you could the time without words. help me. K: You mean … We’re all having brilliant ideas without XL: Sure, I’ll try. noticing them? ! K: Great, thanks. geniuses question is: What some XL: Yeah! We’re all. So my firstsometimes, but for language reason think in? do you our definition of genius is that it’s somebody XL: else, not me. But I think we all have flashes all. genius Actually, I don’t think I think in language at of I — we just don’t believe inthings in words, or imagine mean, sometimes I recall them. K: Wait a minute. You can’t mean we’re literally all words ― for instance when I’m making a shopping geniuses, like Einstein or Hawking! that’s not really list or memorizing something. But XL: Why not? that’s just talking to myself. was nonstop thinking, Do you really think Einstein Real thinking brilliant? And I bet words at all. It’s just … concepts, I isn’t formulated in Stephen Hawking thinks plenty of silly, dumb things every day. think. K: Just like me? K: Just like you. mean? How can you think without any XL: What do you words? What good is an idea that isn’t in language? !
Assignment 1. Ex. X, p. 167 2. Ex. XI, p. 167 3. Preview Text B