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2 D 1651 - Datorspelsdesign - 21 nov 2005 Daniel Pargman Massiva multispelarespel massively 2 D 1651 - Datorspelsdesign - 21 nov 2005 Daniel Pargman Massiva multispelarespel massively multiplayer online games MMOG

051121 - 2 D 1651 • Me • Svensk. MUD (moderately multiplayer online games) 051121 - 2 D 1651 • Me • Svensk. MUD (moderately multiplayer online games) • MMOG multiplayer online games) • Money & economy • Roundup (massively

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Daniel Pargman University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics, Media/Computer game development • Daniel Pargman University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics, Media/Computer game development • Senior Lecturer 2005 - Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), School of Computer Science and Communication, Media Technology • Senior Lecturer 2002 - HCI consultant • CR&T Department of Communication studies, Linköping university • Ph. D. thesis: ”Code begets community: On social and technical aspects of managing a virtual community (2000)” Computer and systems sciences, Uppsala university

My interests Computer sciences Human-Computer CMC Interaction Design Systems Social sciences CSCW Communities development My interests Computer sciences Human-Computer CMC Interaction Design Systems Social sciences CSCW Communities development Onlinespel Sociology Anthropology Psychology. . . Technology Society

Aarseth, “Playing research” http: //hypertext. rmit. edu. au/dac/papers/Aarseth. pdf Three dimensions characterize every computer Aarseth, “Playing research” http: //hypertext. rmit. edu. au/dac/papers/Aarseth. pdf Three dimensions characterize every computer game: • Gameplay (players, playing, motives) • Game structure (game rules) • Game world (content, design, artwork) Leads to three research perspectives: • Gameplay (psychology, ethnology, sociology. . . ) • Game rules (computer game design - CS/AI. . . ) • Game world (art, aesthetics, history, cultural studies, media studies)

Svensk. Mud Svensk. Mud

Perspectives on Svensk. Mud (Swedish. Mud) is: • A game (adventure mud) • A Perspectives on Svensk. Mud (Swedish. Mud) is: • A game (adventure mud) • A computer program (systems development project) • A hobby

Svensk. Mud as a game/computer program • Takes place in a Tolkien-inspired fantasy world Svensk. Mud as a game/computer program • Takes place in a Tolkien-inspired fantasy world and in a Sweden of the 19 th century • Contains 6000 distinct spaces (“rooms”) full of monsters, treasures etc. • Access limited to 100 simultaneous users at peak hours • Is officially a project at Lysator - the academic computer club at Linköping University • Developed for 13 years by 100+ persons • Consists of ~ 3 million lines of “code” • Developed as an open source project

Svensk. Mud Svensk. Mud

TDZK • • Browser-based MMORPG Persistent online world 4000 -5000 registered players Space adventure TDZK • • Browser-based MMORPG Persistent online world 4000 -5000 registered players Space adventure game – Gather resources, trading goods, upgrading your ship, fighting your enemies Semi-synchronous “Symbolic” interface Very complicated, knowledge intensive game Played in 4 -month rounds

Vad är detta? Vad är detta?

Svensk. Mud Svensk. Mud

A window into a virtual world. . . A window into a virtual world. . .

MMOG MMOG

From MUDs to MMOG • Graphical interface = more accessible • Three of four From MUDs to MMOG • Graphical interface = more accessible • Three of four magnitudes larger = larger breadth of player base – Lineage, World of Warcraft • Commercial enterprises = big business (≠ hobby any more) But - same social interaction and same social phenomena

Massively Multiplayer Online Games (MMOG) • Persistent worlds (PW) • Thousands of simultaneos players Massively Multiplayer Online Games (MMOG) • Persistent worlds (PW) • Thousands of simultaneos players – Lineage 4. 000 players in Asia (Korea, Taiwan) – Everquest 500. 000 players in USA and Europe • Complex social interaction/sociala phenomena • Can be very captivating • Subscription model (10 -15$ / month for unlimited online access)

Star Wars Galaxies • Sony Online Entertainment • Released in the US in June Star Wars Galaxies • Sony Online Entertainment • Released in the US in June 2003 and in Europa in November • 125. 000 subscribers the first week, 300. 000 after the summer • > 3. 000 posted messages on the official discussion forum on the web (spring 2004)! • Costs 15$ / month • Suffer from the same problems as other games (released too early = many bugs = bad press)

Exempel Exempel

Money and economy Money and economy

Master’s thesis on MMOG & money • Nine Master’s students at KTH, Stockholm • Master’s thesis on MMOG & money • Nine Master’s students at KTH, Stockholm • All looking at “money and economy in and around online games” – In Star Wars Galaxies, Eve Online, Dark Age of Camelot, Ultima Online, Ragnarök Online. . . • Master’s thesis = 20 weeks of full-time work – 10 weeks reading, preparation, analysis, writing – 10 weeks full-time study • Results will be published (on the web) during 2005 – Five finished this far

Perspectives on MMOG & money Money and economy in online games 1. The real-world/game Perspectives on MMOG & money Money and economy in online games 1. The real-world/game industry economy 2. The in-game economy 3. The interface (E-bay) between ingame and real-world economies

MMOG economy (perspective 1) (Mulligan & Patrovsky 2003) • Costs (USD) for running a MMOG economy (perspective 1) (Mulligan & Patrovsky 2003) • Costs (USD) for running a popular MMOG for three months. (100 -150. 000 subscribers, 30. 000 simultaneous players. ) · · · Server clusters 80. 000 * 10 Player relations 4. 000 * 12 Community relations 4. 000 * 3 Live development team 6. 000 * 12 Management 8. 000 * 4 Account mgm + billing 4. 000 * 5 Office space, furniture, PCs etc. 250. 000 Bandwidth 20% of previous costs Network operations personnel 5. 000 * 5 Overhead costs 80. 000 Total > 2. 000 USD

MMOG balance sheet (2002) • Development costs: 7 (average) and 10 -12 (typical) million MMOG balance sheet (2002) • Development costs: 7 (average) and 10 -12 (typical) million USD for AAA title • Launch costs - 3 -5 million USD (and rising) + Can bring in millions of dollars for 5 -10 years - 40 -60% of revenue spent on running the game + A major hit (200. 000+ subscribers in 6 months) can pay for development/launch costs in < 1 year

Game market players • Hard-core market (10%) Will do anything to play games. 15 Game market players • Hard-core market (10%) Will do anything to play games. 15 million worldwide (2002) • Moderate market (20%) Money (equipment, fees) & time concerns • Mass market (70%) Play short, easy-to-learn games. 140 -200 million worldwide (2002) Xbox 360

In-game economy (perspective 2) • Economic systems emerge spontaneously – Resources are limited – In-game economy (perspective 2) • Economic systems emerge spontaneously – Resources are limited – Nothing is free ∑ People need to barter/trade with each other in the game (e. g. the emergence of markets) • Faucet - drain – Tax vs service · Virtual inflation, cartels, rares, crafting/trade vs battle

In-game vs real-world economy (perspective 3) · Norrath (in Everquest) is the 77 th In-game vs real-world economy (perspective 3) · Norrath (in Everquest) is the 77 th richest country in the world! (Castronova 2001) · GNP per capita = 2226 USD, hourly wage = 3, 42 USD (319 PP). · Hourly wage < 3, 42 USD in China, India (Mexico? ) · Black Snow Interactive set up a sweatshop in Tijuana to capitalize on trade between Mexico, USA and Norrath. · How can this be? . . . because of E-bay · Norrath has production, labor supply, income, inflation, foreign trade and currency exchange (1 platinium piece ≈ 1 cent)

In-game vs real-world economy II · To whom does the fruits of the labor In-game vs real-world economy II · To whom does the fruits of the labor belong when someone develops virtual resources (“works”? ) within a game? · The company that produce the game/owns the server? · The player (who produces the economy)? · Mythic entertainment vs Black Snow Interactive · Infringement on intellectual property rights · Unfair business practices · The online game “There” hired an economist to work full-time on in-game fiscal policy

Dark Age of Camelot commerce on E-bay · Data from mid-Nov to mid-Dec 2004 Dark Age of Camelot commerce on E-bay · Data from mid-Nov to mid-Dec 2004 (4 weeks) · Info through Hammertap’s Deep analysis · 2350 sales - US$ 210. 000 changed hands · Virtual currency (67%) · Accounts (31%) · Virtual objects (2%) · DAo. C costs US$ 15/month - 30 servers (* 3 “realms”) · Trade in virtual currencey - three actors account for 85% of all commerce · Large scale advantages accept all major credit cards, trust, customer service, E-bay “powersellers” · Homework: Volume of E-bay trade in relation to the total subscription fee?

Example of an E-bay ad “Blade Of The Righteous - $210. Well it’s really Example of an E-bay ad “Blade Of The Righteous - $210. Well it’s really the best weapon. . . Makes HUGE DAMAGE. . . So it’s a Super Slayer”

In-game vs real-world economy III 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. In-game market place E-bay In-game vs real-world economy III 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. In-game market place E-bay Trader Employer (small scale) Black Snow Company ”IGE is the world's leading provider of value-added services to the players and publishers of multiplayer online games”

Exempel Exempel

Roundup Roundup

A short reading list about MMOGs and money • Thomson (2005), ”Game theories” http: A short reading list about MMOGs and money • Thomson (2005), ”Game theories” http: //www. walrusmagazine. com/article. pl? sid=04/05/06/19292 05&tid=1 • Hunter & Lastowka (2003), ”Virtual property” http: //www. nyls. edu/pdfs/hunter_lastowka. pdf • Burke (2001), ”Rubicite breastplate priced to move, cheap” http: //www. swarthmore. edu/Soc. Sci/tburke 1/Rubicite%20 Breastp late. pdf • Castronova (2001), ”Virtual worlds: A first-hand account of market and society on the cybrarian frontier” http: //ssrn. com/abstract=294828

Next thesis subject Groups and guilds in online games Gemeinschaft/Gesellschaft - Tönnies 1887 • Next thesis subject Groups and guilds in online games Gemeinschaft/Gesellschaft - Tönnies 1887 • Small (The village), rural, slowness, tradition • Friends and enemies • Group (projects), belonging, commitment • Natural, unplanned organism • Relationships as mutual, significant, long-term, informal, personal • Big (The city), urban, speed, variation, fashion, fance • Strangers and competitors • Individual (projects), alienation, convenience • Constructed, artficial mechanism • Relationships as instrumental, convenient, transient, anonymous

Onlinespel, spelcommunities och reklamspel, 5 p Onlinespel, spelcommunities och reklamspel, 5 p

www. dsv. su. se/utbildning/su/sp 5. html 23 jan - 24 feb 2006 www. dsv. su. se/utbildning/su/sp 5. html 23 jan - 24 feb 2006

Contact: Daniel Pargman pargman@kth. se +46 8 790 82 80 KTH/Media Technology 100 44 Contact: Daniel Pargman [email protected] se +46 8 790 82 80 KTH/Media Technology 100 44 Stockholm www. nada. kth. se/~pargman/thesis